Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

prejudicial attitudes or preconceptions that act as filters to the way one perceives, interprets, and reacts to the world
cultural awareness
the state of examining and exploring one’s cultural background, beliefs, and biases and consciously avoiding these biases when interacting with clients from other cultures
cultural competemility
the combination of cultural competence and cultural humility in a synergistic process that infuses cultural humility into the five components of the Campinha-Bacote process of cultural competence model, encouraging health care professionals to be culturally humble in the delivery of health care services (Campinha-Bacote, 2018)
cultural competence
the attitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary for providing quality care to diverse populations (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008)
cultural desire
in the Campinha-Bacote process of cultural competence model, the motivation to engage in the process of becoming culturally competent and the commitment to providing culturally responsive care
cultural encounters
in the Campinha-Bacote process of cultural competence model, deliberate interactions with clients from different cultural backgrounds intended to modify or refine one’s existing beliefs about one’s own culture and help prevent stereotyping
cultural humility
acknowledging, respecting, and valuing cultural differences by taking responsibility for one’s own perceptions and ideas; cultivating a deep respect for all cultures represented; and striving to learn more about and understand different people’s perspectives
cultural identity
the unique combination of beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviors, customs, practices, experiences, and language that make up an individual’s sense of belonging to a particular group or culture
cultural knowledge
in the Campinha-Bacote process of cultural competence model, the foundation for understanding the diversity of cultural groups
cultural skill
in the Campinha-Bacote process of cultural competence model, the ability to collect relevant cultural data in a culturally appropriate manner, perform culturally sensitive assessments, and understand how biological and physiologic variations can influence the accuracy of the data
culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS)
services that emphasize the importance of tailoring health care to an individual’s cultural and language preferences, respecting and responding to the health needs and preferences of all individuals to achieve health equity, and ensuring that everyone has access to high-quality care
culturally congruent care
care that is meaningful to, and aligns with, a client’s or population’s health beliefs and behaviors (Leininger, 1991, 1999)
culturally responsive care
the process of providing care to individuals or populations while fully considering their cultural backgrounds, values, and preferences; involves actively making sure that all aspects of health care are tailored to the needs and beliefs of the specific population
explicit bias
overt prejudicial attitudes or preconceptions that exist at a conscious, intentional level and are often expressed verbally
high-context culture
a communication style that relies more on nonverbal cues, context, and relationships between people than on verbal language, meaning that words alone may not convey the full meaning of a message
implicit bias
a type of prejudice that unconsciously affects a person’s behavior, decisions, and attitudes, even if it contradicts their expressed beliefs and values
a process that occurs during oral communication in which the words spoken in one language are rendered into another spoken language in real time
Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals Revised (IAPCC-R)
a tool used to assess the cultural competence of health care professionals according to the five constructs of Campinha-Bacote’s model
linguistic competence
the knowledge, attitudes, and skills that enable nurses to care and advocate for clients who communicate in a language other than the one most commonly spoken or understood in the service setting
low literacy
the inability to read, write, and comprehend basic information
low-context culture
a direct communication style that uses clear and explicit language
the process of excluding, marginalizing, or differentiating individuals or groups based on their perceived differences from the dominant group in a society
a process that involves understanding one’s own values and beliefs, how they are influenced by one’s cultural background, and how they influence one’s perceptions and behaviors
the act of ascribing certain characteristics or behaviors to a person based on their membership in a particular group
Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool (TSET)
a scale consisting of 83 items in the cognitive, practical, and affective categories that is designed to measure the confidence of nurses and nursing students in providing transcultural nursing care (Jeffreys & Dogan, 2010)
a process in which written text in one language is converted to written text in another language

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Apr 26, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.