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18.1 Theories and Models to Guide Program Planning

Theories and models of health promotion, disease prevention, and behavior change are used in the development of community health programs. Common theories include the community action model, PRECEDE-PROCEED model, PATCH model, and intervention mapping. Logic models are created as a visual representation of a community program. SDOH and population learning needs are also considered. Health promotion and disease prevention approaches, such as the HBM, transtheoretical model, and SCT, are applied to motivate and promote program participant behavior change.

18.2 Partnerships and Coalitions in Program Planning

A participatory approach plays a key role in the success of community health programs. The nurse engages members of the target population, organizations, and other interested parties by creating partnerships and coalitions. The nurse uses various strategies to identify and recruit partners, such as social networking, community mapping, and partner analysis. Established program partners develop a shared vision, values, and capacity for the community health program. The team also considers ethical standards and potential ethical issues throughout program planning, implementation, and evaluation.

18.3 Developing Program Goals and Measurable Objectives to Demonstrate Outcomes

The final steps of program planning involve the creation of program goals, objectives, outcomes, and an action plan. Goals explain the program’s overarching purpose, and objectives describe specific actions that will lead to the achievement of program goals. Well-written objectives are SMART, include both process and outcomes, and have short-term, intermediate, and long-term time frames for achievement. The action plan is a step-by-step strategy for the implementation of evidence-based intervention. Healthy People 2030 can be used to search for relevant, current, and evidence-based interventions.

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