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cognitive-behavioral theories
theories at the intrapersonal and interpersonal level that share three common concepts: behavior is mediated by cognition, knowledge is necessary for behavior change, and perceptions, motivations, skill, and the social environment influence behavior
Diffusion of Innovations Theory
a model for behavior change that addresses how new ideas, products, and social practices spread within an organization, community, or society or from one society to another
disease prevention
specific interventions geared toward decreasing the burden of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their associated risk factors
enabling factors
internal and external conditions that help individuals or populations adopt and maintain healthy or unhealthy behaviors or lifestyle, or embrace or reject particular environmental conditions
health promotion
the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health
health promotion setting
the place or social context in which people engage in daily activities, in which environmental, organizational, and personal factors interact to affect health and well-being
high-risk approach
an approach to prevention that targets prevention only to those who are identified to be at high risk for disease
an overabundance of information, including misinformation, that surges during a health emergency
involving several sectors of society, such as health, education, housing, any level of government, and nongovernmental organizations
natural history of disease
the progression of a disease process in an individual over time
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
provided a common, socio-ecologic definition of health promotion in 1986
population approach
an approach to prevention that implements strategies across an entire population, regardless of individuals' risk levels
predisposing factor
intellectual and emotional “givens” that tend to make individuals or populations more or less likely to adopt a healthy or risky behavior or lifestyle or to approve of or accept particular environmental conditions
preventive care
routine health care including screenings, check-ups, and counseling to prevent illness, disease, or health-related problems
primary prevention
actions aimed at avoiding the effects of disease
primordial prevention
actions aimed at preventing the development of risk factors for disease
reinforcing factors
the people and community attitudes that support adopting healthy behaviors or fostering healthy environmental conditions
secondary prevention
actions that emphasize early disease detection and target healthy-appearing individuals with subclinical forms of disease
social cognitive theory
an interpersonal model for behavior change that describes the influence of experiences, actions of others, and environmental factors on the health behaviors of an individual
social listening
the process of gathering information about people’s questions and concerns and circulating narratives and misinformation about health from online and offline data sources
tertiary prevention
targets both the clinical and outcomes stages of disease; actions are implemented in symptomatic individuals with the aim to reduce the severity of disease and any associated sequelae

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