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Physics

Short Answer

PhysicsShort Answer
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Short Answer

4.1 Force

39.

True or False—An external force is defined as a force generated outside the system of interest that acts on an object inside the system.

  1. True
  2. False
40.
By convention, which sign is assigned to an object moving downward?
  1. A positive sign ( + )
  2. A negative sign ( )
  3. Either a positive or negative sign ( ± )
  4. No sign is assigned
41.

A body is pushed downward by a force of 5 units and upward by a force of 2 units. How would you draw a free-body diagram to represent this?

  1. Two force vectors acting at a point, both pointing up with lengths of 5 units and 2 units
  2. Two force vectors acting at a point, both pointing down with lengths of 5 units and 2 units
  3. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing up with a length of 5 units and the other pointing down with a length of 2 units
  4. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing down with a length of 5 units and the other pointing up with a length of 2 units
42.

A body is pushed eastward by a force of four units and southward by a force of three units. How would you draw a free-body diagram to represent this?

  1. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing left with a length of 4 units and the other pointing down with a length of 3 units
  2. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing left with a length of 4 units and the other pointing up with a length of 3 units
  3. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing right with a length of 4 units and the other pointing down with a length of 3 units
  4. Two force vectors acting at a point, one pointing right with a length of 4 units and the other pointing up with a length of 3 units

4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia

43.

A body with mass m is pushed along a horizontal surface by a force F and is opposed by a frictional force f. How would you draw a free-body diagram to represent this situation?

  1. A dot with an arrow pointing right, labeled F, and an arrow pointing left, labeled f, that is of equal length or shorter than F
  2. A dot with an arrow pointing right, labeled F, and an arrow pointing right, labeled f, that is of equal length or shorter than F
  3. A dot with an arrow pointing right, labeled F, and a smaller arrow pointing up, labeled f, that is of equal length or longer than F
  4. A dot with an arrow pointing right, labeled F, and a smaller arrow pointing down, labeled f, that is of equal length or longer than F
44.
Two objects rest on a uniform surface. A person pushes both with equal force. If the first object starts to move faster than the second, what can be said about their masses?
  1. The mass of the first object is less than that of the second object.
  2. The mass of the first object is equal to the mass of the second object.
  3. The mass of the first object is greater than that of the second object.
  4. No inference can be made because mass and force are not related to each other.
45.

Two similar boxes rest on a table. One is empty and the other is filled with pebbles. Without opening or lifting either, how can you tell which box is full? Why?

  1. By applying an internal force; whichever box accelerates faster is lighter and so must be empty
  2. By applying an internal force; whichever box accelerates faster is heavier and so the other box must be empty
  3. By applying an external force; whichever box accelerates faster is lighter and so must be empty
  4. By applying an external force; whichever box accelerates faster is heavier and so the other box must be empty
46.

True or False—An external force is required to set a stationary object in motion in outer space away from all gravitational influences and atmospheric friction.

  1. True
  2. False

4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion

47.

A steadily rolling ball is pushed in the direction from east to west, which causes the ball to move faster in the same direction. What is the direction of the acceleration?

  1. North to south
  2. South to north
  3. East to west
  4. West to east
48.

A ball travels from north to south at 60 km/h. After being hit by a bat, it travels from west to east at 60 km/h. Is there a change in velocity?

  1. Yes, because velocity is a scalar.
  2. Yes, because velocity is a vector.
  3. No, because velocity is a scalar.
  4. No, because velocity is a vector
49.

What is the weight of a 5-kg object on Earth and on the moon?

  1. On Earth the weight is 1.67 N, and on the moon the weight is 1.67 N.
  2. On Earth the weight is 5 N, and on the moon the weight is 5 N.
  3. On Earth the weight is 49 N, and on the moon the weight is 8.35 N.
  4. On Earth the weight is 8.35 N, and on the moon the weight is 49 N.
50.

An object weighs 294 N on Earth. What is its weight on the moon?

  1. 50.1 N
  2. 30.0 N
  3. 249 N
  4. 1461 N

4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion

51.

A large truck with mass 30 m crashes into a small sedan with mass m. If the truck exerts a force F on the sedan, what force will the sedan exert on the truck?

  1. F 30 F 30
  2. F
  3. 2F
  4. 30F
52.

A fish pushes water backward with its fins. How does this propel the fish forward?

  1. The water exerts an internal force on the fish in the opposite direction, pushing the fish forward.
  2. The water exerts an external force on the fish in the opposite direction, pushing the fish forward.
  3. The water exerts an internal force on the fish in the same direction, pushing the fish forward.
  4. The water exerts an external force on the fish in the same direction, pushing the fish forward.
53.

True or False—Tension is the result of opposite forces in a connector, such as a string, rope, chain or cable, that pulls each point of the connector apart in the direction parallel to the length of the connector. At the ends of the connector, the tension pulls toward the center of the connector.

  1. True
  2. False
54.

True or False—Normal reaction is the force that opposes the force of gravity and acts in the direction of the force of gravity.

  1. True
  2. False
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