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Physics

Short Answer

PhysicsShort Answer
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Short Answer

23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces

47.

Why do people tend to be more aware of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces than the strong and weak nuclear forces?

  1. The gravitational and electromagnetic forces act at short ranges, while strong and weak nuclear forces act at comparatively long range.
  2. The strong and weak nuclear forces act at short ranges, while gravitational and electromagnetic forces act at comparatively long range.
  3. The strong and weak nuclear forces act between all objects, while gravitational and electromagnetic forces act between smaller objects.
  4. The strong and weak nuclear forces exist in outer space, while gravitational and electromagnetic forces exist everywhere.
48.

What fundamental force is responsible for the force of friction?

  1. the electromagnetic force
  2. the strong nuclear force
  3. the weak nuclear force
49.
How do carrier particles relate to the concept of a force field?
  1. Carrier particles carry mass from one location to another within a force field.
  2. Carrier particles carry force from one location to another within a force field.
  3. Carrier particles carry charge from one location to another within a force field.
  4. Carrier particles carry volume from one location to another within a force field.
50.

Which carrier particle is transmitted solely between nucleons?

  1. graviton
  2. photon
  3. pion
  4. W and Z bosons
51.

Two particles of the same mass are traveling at the same speed but in opposite directions when they collide head-on.
What is the final kinetic energy of this two-particle system?

  1. infinite
  2. the sum of the kinetic energies of the two particles
  3. zero
  4. the product of the kinetic energies of the two particles
52.
Why do colliding beams result in the location of smaller particles?
  1. Colliding beams create energy, allowing more energy to be used to separate the colliding particles.
  2. Colliding beams lower the energy of the system, so it requires less energy to separate the colliding particles.
  3. Colliding beams reduce energy loss, so less energy is required to separate colliding particles.
  4. Colliding beams reduce energy loss, allowing more energy to be used to separate the colliding particles.

23.2 Quarks

53.

What two features of quarks determine the structure of a particle?

  1. the color and charge of individual quarks
  2. the color and size of individual quarks
  3. the charge and size of individual quarks
  4. the charge and mass of individual quarks
54.

What fundamental force does quantum chromodynamics describe?

  1. the weak nuclear force
  2. the strong nuclear force
  3. the electromagnetic force
  4. the gravitational force
55.

Is it possible for a baryon to be constructed of two quarks and an antiquark?

  1. Yes, the color of the three particles would be able to sum to white.
  2. No, the color of the three particles would not be able to sum to white.
56.

Can baryons be more massive than mesons?

  1. no
  2. yes
57.
If antimatter exists, why is it so difficult to find?
  1. There is a smaller amount of antimatter than matter in the universe; antimatter is quickly annihilated by its matter analogue.
  2. There is a smaller amount of matter than antimatter in the universe; matter is annihilated by its antimatter analogue.
  3. There is a smaller amount of antimatter than matter in universe; antimatter and its matter analogue coexist.
  4. There is a smaller amount of matter than antimatter in the universe; matter and its antimatter analogue coexist.
58.

Does a neutron have an antimatter counterpart?

  1. No, the antineutron does not exist.
  2. Yes, the antineutron does exist.
59.
How are the four fundamental forces incorporated into the Standard Model of the atom?
  1. The four fundamental forces are represented by their carrier particles, the electrons.
  2. The four fundamental forces are represented by their carrier particles, the gauge bosons.
  3. The four fundamental forces are represented by their carrier particles, the leptons.
  4. The four fundamental forces are represented by their carrier particles, the quarks.
60.

Which particles in the Standard Model account for the majority of matter with which we are familiar?

  1. particles in fourth column of the Standard Model
  2. particles in third column of the Standard Model
  3. particles in the second column of the Standard Model
  4. particles in the first column of the Standard Model
61.
How can a particle gain mass by traveling through the Higgs field?
  1. The Higgs field slows down passing particles; the decrease in kinetic energy is transferred to the particle’s mass.
  2. The Higgs field accelerates passing particles; the decrease in kinetic energy is transferred to the particle’s mass.
  3. The Higgs field slows down passing particles; the increase in kinetic energy is transferred to the particle’s mass.
  4. The Higgs field accelerates passing particles; the increase in kinetic energy is transferred to the particle’s mass.
62.
How does mass-energy conservation relate to the Higgs field?
  1. The increase in a particle’s energy when traveling through the Higgs field is countered by its increase in mass.
  2. The decrease in a particle’s kinetic energy when traveling through the Higgs field is countered by its increase in mass.
  3. The decrease in a particle’s energy when traveling through the Higgs field is countered by its decrease in mass.
  4. The increase in a particle’s energy when traveling through the Higgs field is countered by its decrease in mass.

23.3 The Unification of Forces

63.
Why do scientists believe that the strong nuclear force and the electroweak force will combine under high energies?
  1. The electroweak force will have greater strength.
  2. The strong nuclear force and electroweak force will achieve the same strength.
  3. The strong nuclear force will have greater strength.
64.
At what energy will the strong nuclear force theoretically unite with the electroweak force?
  1. 10 12 eV
  2. 10 13 eV
  3. 10 14 eV
  4. 10 15 eV
65.
While we can demonstrate the unification of certain forces within the laboratory, for how long were the four forces naturally unified within the universe?
  1. 10 43 seconds
  2. 10 41 seconds
  3. 10 39 seconds
  4. 10 38 seconds
66.

How does the search for the Grand Unified Theory help test the standard cosmological model?

  1. Scientists are increasing energy in the lab that models the energy in earlier, denser stages of the universe.
  2. Scientists are increasing energy in the lab that models the energy in earlier, less dense stages of the universe.
  3. Scientists are decreasing energy in the lab that models the energy in earlier, denser stages of the universe.
  4. Scientists are decreasing energy in the lab that models the energy in earlier, less dense stages of the universe.
67.
Why does finding proof that protons do not decay not disprove all GUTs?
  1. Proton decay is not a premise of all GUTs, and current GUTs can be amended in response to new findings.
  2. Proton decay is a premise of all GUTs, but current GUTs can be amended in response to new findings.
68.

When accelerating elementary particles in a particle accelerator, they quickly achieve a speed approaching the speed of light. However, as time continues, the particles maintain this speed yet continue to increase their kinetic energy. How is this possible?

  1. The speed remains the same, but the masses of the particles increase.
  2. The speed remains the same, but the masses of the particles decrease.
  3. The speed remains the same, and the masses of the particles remain the same.
  4. The speed and masses will remain the same, but temperature will increase.
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