Physics

# Extended Response

PhysicsExtended Response

### Extended Response

#### 22.1The Structure of the Atom

26 .
Compare the standing wavelength of an $n = 2$ orbital to the standing wavelength of an $n = 4$ orbital.
1. The standing wavelength of an $n = 2$ orbital is greater than the standing wavelength of an $n = 4$ orbital.
2. The standing wavelength of an $n = 2$ orbital is less than the standing wavelength of an $n = 4$ orbital.
3. There is no relation between the standing wavelength of an $n = 2$ orbital and the standing wavelength of an $n = 4$ orbital.
4. The standing wavelength of an $n = 2$ orbital is the same as the standing wavelength of an$n = 4$ orbital.
27 .
Describe the shape of the electron cloud, based on total energy levels, for an atom with electrons in multiple orbital states.
1. There are multiple regions of high electron probability of various shapes surrounding the nucleus.
2. There is a single solid spherical region of high electron probability surrounding the nucleus.
3. There are multiple concentric shells of high electron probability surrounding the nucleus.
4. There is a single spherical shell of high electron probability surrounding the nucleus.

28 .
How did Becquerel’s observations of pitchblende imply the existence of radioactivity?
1. A chemical reaction occurred on the photographic plate without any external source of energy.
2. Bright spots appeared on the photographic plate due to an external source of energy.
3. Energy from the Sun was absorbed by the pitchblende and reflected onto the photographic plate.
4. Dark spots appeared on the photographic plate due to an external source of energy.

#### 22.4Nuclear Fission and Fusion

29 .
Describe the potential energy of two nuclei as they approach each other.
1. The potential energy will decrease as the nuclei are brought together and then rapidly increase once a minimum is reached.
2. The potential energy will decrease as the nuclei are brought together.
3. The potential energy will increase as the nuclei are brought together.
4. The potential energy will increase as the nuclei are brought together and then rapidly decrease once a maximum is reached.

30 .
Why do X-rays and gamma rays have equivalent RBE values if they provide different amounts of energy to the body?
1. The penetration distance, which depends on energy, is short for both X-rays and gamma rays.
2. The penetration distance, which depends on energy, is long for both X-rays and gamma rays.
3. The penetration distance, as determined by their high mass, is different for both X-rays and gamma rays.
4. The penetration distance, as determined by their low mass, is the same for both X-rays and gamma rays.
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