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Physics

Critical Thinking Items

PhysicsCritical Thinking Items
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Critical Thinking Items

15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

8.

Standing in front of a fire, we can sense both its heat and its light. How are the light and heat radiated by the fire the same, and how are they different?

  1. Both travel as waves, but only light waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation.
  2. Heat and light are both forms of electromagnetic radiation, but light waves have higher frequencies.
  3. Heat and light are both forms of electromagnetic radiation, but heat waves have higher frequencies.
  4. Heat and light are both forms of electromagnetic radiation, but light waves have higher wavelengths.
9.

Light shines on a picture of the subtractive color wheel. The light is a mixture of red, blue, and green light.
Part A—Which part of the color wheel will look blue? Explain in terms of absorbed and reflected light.
Part B—Which part of the color wheel will look yellow? Explain in terms of absorbed and reflected light.

    1. The yellow section of the wheel will look blue because it will reflect blue light and absorb red and green.
    2. The blue section of the wheel will look yellow because it will reflect red and green light and absorb blue.
    1. The blue section of the wheel will look blue because it will absorb blue light and reflect red and green.
    2. The yellow section of the wheel will look yellow because it will absorb red and green light and reflect blue.
    1. The yellow section of the wheel will look blue because it will absorb blue light and reflect red and green.
    2. The blue section of the wheel will look yellow because it will absorb red and green light and reflect blue.
    1. The blue section of the wheel will look blue because it will reflect blue light and absorb red and green.
    2. The yellow section of the wheel will look yellow because it will reflect red and green light and absorb blue.
10.

Part A. When you stand in front of an open fire, you can sense light waves with your eyes. You sense another type of electromagnetic radiation as heat. What is this other type of radiation?
Part B. How is this other type of radiation different front light waves?

    1. X-rays
    2. The X-rays have higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths than the light waves.
    1. X-rays
    2. The X-rays have lower frequencies and longer wavelengths than the light waves.
    1. infrared rays
    2. The infrared rays have higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths than the light waves.
    1. infrared rays
    2. The infrared rays have lower frequencies and longer wavelengths than the light waves.
11.

Overexposure to this range of EM radiation is dangerous, and yet it is used by doctors to diagnose medical problems.
Part A—Identify the type of radiation.
Part B—Locate the position of this radiation on the EM spectrum by comparing its frequency and wavelength to visible light.
Part C—Explain why this radiation is both dangerous and therapeutic in terms of its energy, based on your answer to Part B.

  1. A. X-rays
    B. X-rays have shorter wavelengths (1 × 10–8 – 5 × 10–12 m) and higher frequencies (3 × 1016 – 6 × 1019 Hz) than visible light (7.5 × 10–7 – 4.0 × 10–7 m; 4.0 × 1014 – 7.5 × 1014 Hz).
    C. X-rays have low energies because of their high frequencies, and so can penetrate matter to greater depths.
  2. A. X-rays
    B. X-rays have shorter wavelengths (1 × 10–8 – 5 × 10–12 m) and higher frequencies (3 × 1010 – 6 × 1013 Hz) than visible light (7.5 × 10–7 – 4.0 × 10–7 m; 4.0 × 1014 – 7.5 × 1014 Hz).
    C. X-rays have low energies because of their low frequencies, and so can penetrate matter to greater depths.
  3. A. X-rays B. X-rays have longer wavelengths (1 × 10–6 – 5 × 10–7 m) and higher frequencies (3 × 1015 – 6 × 1015 Hz) than visible light (7.5 × 10–7 – 4.0 × 10–7 m; 4.0 × 1014 – 7.5 × 1014 Hz).
    C. X-rays have high energies because of their high frequencies, and therefore can penetrate matter to greater depths.
  4. A. X-rays
    B. X-rays have shorter wavelengths (1 × 10–8 – 5 × 10–12 m) and higher frequencies (3 × 1016 – 6 × 1019 Hz) than visible light (7.5 × 10–7 – 4.0 × 10–7 m; 4.0 × 1014 – 7.5 × 1014 Hz).
    C. X-rays have high energies because of their high frequencies, and so can penetrate matter to greater depths.

15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation

12.

Explain how thin-film interference occurs. Discuss in terms of the meaning of interference and the pathways of light waves.

  1. For a particular thickness of film, light of a given wavelength that reflects from the outer and inner film surfaces is completely in phase, and so undergoes constructive interference.
  2. For a particular thickness of film, light of a given wavelength that reflects from the outer and inner surfaces is completely in phase, and so undergoes destructive interference.
  3. For a particular thickness of film, light of a given wavelength that reflects from the outer and inner film surfaces is completely out of phase, and so undergoes constructive interference.
  4. For a particular thickness of film, light of a given wavelength that reflects from the outer and inner film surfaces is completely out of phase, and so undergoes no interference.
13.

When you move a rope up and down, waves are created. If the waves pass through a slot, they will be affected differently, depending on the orientation of the slot. Using the rope waves and the slot as a model, explain how polarizing glasses affect light waves.

  1. If the wave—electric field—is vertical and slit—polarizing molecules in the glass—is horizontal, the wave will pass.
  2. If the wave—electric field— is vertical and slit—polarizing molecules in the glass—is vertical, the wave will not pass.
  3. If the wave—electric field—is horizontal and slit—polarizing molecules in the glass—is horizontal, the wave will pass.
  4. If the wave—electric field—is horizontal and slit—polarizing molecules in the glass—is horizontal, the wave will not pass.
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