12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
What does green energy development entail?
- Green energy involves finding new ways to harness clean and renewable alternative energy sources.
- Green energy involves finding new ways to conserve alternative energy sources.
- Green energy involves decreasing the efficiency of nonrenewable energy resources.
- Green energy involves finding new ways to harness nonrenewable energy resources.
Why are the sun and Earth not in thermal equilibrium?
- The mass of the sun is much greater than the mass of Earth.
- There is a vast amount of empty space between the sun and Earth.
- The diameter of the sun is much greater than the diameter of Earth.
- The sun is in thermal contact with Earth.
12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
If a fixed quantity of an ideal gas is held at a constant volume, which variable relates to pressure, and what is that relation?
- Temperature; inverse proportionality
- Temperature, direct proportionality to square root
- Temperature; direct proportionality
- Temperature; direct proportionality to square
By convention, if Q is positive, what is the direction in which heat transfers energy with regard to the system?
- The direction of the heat transfer of energy depends on the changes in W, regardless of the sign of Q.
- The direction of Q cannot be determined from just the sign of Q.
- The direction of net heat transfer of energy will be out of the system.
- The direction of net heat transfer of energy will be into the system.
12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
Which sort of thermal energy do molecules in a solid possess?
- electric potential energy
- gravitational potential energy
- translational kinetic energy
- vibrational kinetic energy
What is the change in entropy caused by melting 5.00 kg of ice at 0 °C ?
- 0 J/K
- 6.11×103 J/K
- 6.11×104 J/K
12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
Which component of an air conditioner converts gas into liquid?
- the condenser
- the compressor
- the evaporator
- the thermostat
What is one example for which calculating thermal efficiency is of interest?
- A wind turbine
- An electric pump
- A bicycle
- A car engine
How is the efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump expressed?