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Physics

Short Answer

PhysicsShort Answer
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Short Answer

12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium

47.

What does green energy development entail?

  1. Green energy involves finding new ways to harness clean and renewable alternative energy sources.
  2. Green energy involves finding new ways to conserve alternative energy sources.
  3. Green energy involves decreasing the efficiency of nonrenewable energy resources.
  4. Green energy involves finding new ways to harness nonrenewable energy resources.
48.

Why are the sun and Earth not in thermal equilibrium?

  1. The mass of the sun is much greater than the mass of Earth.
  2. There is a vast amount of empty space between the sun and Earth.
  3. The diameter of the sun is much greater than the diameter of Earth.
  4. The sun is in thermal contact with Earth.

12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work

49.

If a fixed quantity of an ideal gas is held at a constant volume, which variable relates to pressure, and what is that relation?

  1. Temperature; inverse proportionality ( P  1 T ) ( P  1 T )
  2. Temperature, direct proportionality to square root ( P  T ) ( P  T )
  3. Temperature; direct proportionality ( P  T ) ( P  T )
  4. Temperature; direct proportionality to square ( P T 2 ) ( P T 2 )
50.
When is volume directly proportional to temperature?
  1. when the pressure of the gas is variable
  2. when the pressure of the gas is constant
  3. when the mass of the gas is variable
  4. when the mass of the gas is constant
51.
For fluids, what can work be defined as?
  1. pressure acting over the change in depth
  2. pressure acting over the change in temperature
  3. temperature acting over the change in volume
  4. pressure acting over the change in volume
52.
In the equation Δ U = Q P Δ V , what does P Δ V indicate?
  1. the work done on the system
  2. the work done by the system
  3. the heat into the system
  4. the heat out of the system
53.

By convention, if Q is positive, what is the direction in which heat transfers energy with regard to the system?

  1. The direction of the heat transfer of energy depends on the changes in W, regardless of the sign of Q.
  2. The direction of Q cannot be determined from just the sign of Q.
  3. The direction of net heat transfer of energy will be out of the system.
  4. The direction of net heat transfer of energy will be into the system.
54.
What is net transfer of energy by heat?
  1. It is the sum of all energy transfers by heat into the system.
  2. It is the product of all energy transfers by heat into the system.
  3. It is the sum of all energy transfers by heat into and out of the system.
  4. It is the product of all energy transfers by heat into and out of the system.
55.
Three hundred ten joules of heat enter a system, after which the system does 120 J of work. What is the change in its internal energy? Would this amount change if the energy transferred by heat were added after the work was done instead of before?
  1. 190 J ; this would change if heat added energy after the work was done
  2. 190 J ; this would change if heat added energy after the work was done
  3. 190 J ; this would not change even if heat added energy after the work was done
  4. 190 J ; this would not change even if heat added energy after the work was done
56.
Ten joules are transferred by heat into a system, followed by another 20 J . What is the change in the system’s internal energy? What would be the difference in this change if 30 J of energy were added by heat to the system at once?
  1. 10 J ; the change in internal energy would be same even if the heat added the energy at once
  2. 30 J ; the change in internal energy would be same even if the heat added the energy at once
  3. 10 J ; the change in internal energy would be more if the heat added the energy at once
  4. 30 J ; the change in internal energy would be more if the heat added the energy at once

12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy

57.
How does the entropy of a system depend on how the system reaches a given state?
  1. Entropy depends on the change of phase of a system, but not on any other state conditions.
  2. Entropy does not depend on how the final state is reached from the initial state.
  3. Entropy is least when the path between the initial state and the final state is the shortest.
  4. Entropy is least when the path between the initial state and the final state is the longest.
58.

Which sort of thermal energy do molecules in a solid possess?

  1. electric potential energy
  2. gravitational potential energy
  3. translational kinetic energy
  4. vibrational kinetic energy
59.
A cold object in contact with a hot one never spontaneously transfers energy by heat to the hot object. Which law describes this phenomenon?
  1. the first law of thermodynamics
  2. the second law of thermodynamics
  3. the third law of thermodynamics
  4. the zeroth law of thermodynamics
60.
How is it possible for us to transfer energy by heat from cold objects to hot ones?
  1. by doing work on the system
  2. by having work done by the system
  3. by increasing the specific heat of the cold body
  4. by increasing the specific heat of the hot body
61.

What is the change in entropy caused by melting 5.00 kg of ice at 0 °C ?

  1. 0 J/K
  2. 6.11×103 J/K
  3. 6.11×104 J/K
  4. ∞J/K
62.
What is the amount of heat required to cause a change of 35 J/K in the entropy of a system at 400 K ?
  1. 1.1 × 10 1 J
  2. 1.1 × 10 2 J
  3. 1.4 × 10 3 J
  4. 1.4 × 10 4 J

12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators

63.
In a refrigerator, what is the function of an evaporator?
  1. The evaporator converts gaseous refrigerant into liquid.
  2. The evaporator converts solid refrigerant into liquid.
  3. The evaporator converts solid refrigerant into gas.
  4. The evaporator converts liquid refrigerant into gas.
64.

Which component of an air conditioner converts gas into liquid?

  1. the condenser
  2. the compressor
  3. the evaporator
  4. the thermostat
65.

What is one example for which calculating thermal efficiency is of interest?

  1. A wind turbine
  2. An electric pump
  3. A bicycle
  4. A car engine
66.

How is the efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump expressed?

  1. Eff= W Q c Eff= W Q c
  2. Eff= W Q c Eff= W Q c
  3. Eff= Q c ×W Eff= Q c ×W
  4. Eff= Q c W Eff= Q c W
67.
How can you mathematically express thermal efficiency in terms of Q h and Q c ?
  1. E f f = Q h Q h Q c
  2. E f f = Q h Q c
  3. E f f = Q c Q h
  4. E f f = Q h Q c Q h
68.
How can you calculate percentage efficiency?
  1. percentage efficiency = ( E f f + 100 ) %
  2. percentage efficiency = E f f 100 %
  3. percentage efficiency = ( E f f 100 ) %
  4. percentage efficiency = E f f × 100 %
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