### Short Answer

## 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

What is *absolute zero* on the Fahrenheit scale?

- 0 °F
- 32 °F
- -273.15 °F
- -459.67 °F

What is *absolute zero* on the Celsius scale?

- 0 °C
- 273.15 °C
- -459.67 °C
- -273.15 °C

What is the difference between the freezing point and boiling point of water on the Reaumur scale?

- The boiling point of water is 80° on the Reaumur scale.
- Reaumur scale is less than 120°.
- 100°
- 80°

## 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer

In the specific heat equation what does *c* stand for?

- Total heat
- Specific heat
- Specific temperature
- Specific mass

Specific heat may be measured in J/kg · K, J/kg · °C. What other units can it be measured in?

- kg/kcal · °C
- kcal · °C/kg
- kg · °C/kcal
- kcal/kg · °C

Give an example of convection found in nature.

- heat transfer through metallic rod
- heat transfer from the sun to Earth
- heat transfer through ocean currents
- heat emitted by a light bulb into its environment

Calculate the temperature change in a substance with specific heat 735 J/kg · °C when 14 kJ of heat is given to a 3.0-kg sample of that substance.

- 57 °C
- 63 °C
- 1.8×10
^{-2}°C - 6.3 °C

Aluminum has a specific heat of 900 J/kg·ºC. How much energy would it take to change the temperature of 2 kg aluminum by 3 ºC?

- 1.3 kJ
- 0.60 kJ
- 54 kJ
- 5.4 kJ

## 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

Upon what does the required amount of heat removed to freeze a sample of a substance depend?

- The mass of the substance and its latent heat of vaporization
- The mass of the substance and its latent heat of fusion
- The mass of the substance and its latent heat of sublimation
- The mass of the substance only

What do latent heats, L_{f} and L_{v}, depend on?

- L
_{f}and L_{v}depend on the forces between the particles in the substance. - L
_{f}and L_{v}depend on the mass of the substance. - L
_{f}and L_{v}depend on the volume of the substance. - L
_{f}and L_{v}depend on the temperature of the substance.

How much energy is required to melt 7.00 kg a block of aluminum that is at its melting point? (Latent heat of fusion of aluminum is 380 kJ/kg.)

- 54.3 kJ
- 2.66 kJ
- 0.0184 kJ
- 2.66×10
^{3}kJ

A 3.00 kg sample of a substance is at its boiling point. If 5,360 kJ of energy are enough to boil away the entire substance, what is its latent heat of vaporization?

- 2,685 kJ/kg
- 3,580 kJ/kg
- 895 kJ/kg
- 1,790 kJ/kg