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Review Questions

b. Homeostasis involves maintaining the body’s internal temperature despite a rise in the environmental temperature.
a. Hyperosmolality occurs when there is a high concentration of solutes in a solution, such as occurs with dehydration.
d. Transcellular fluid is the fluid contained within the pleural cavity, separated from the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments and characterized by limited communication with the rest of the body.
d. Chloride and phosphorus are major anions in the extracellular fluid volume. When the client loses extracellular fluid through diarrhea, chloride is lost. The other options listed are cations in the extracellular fluid.
b. The intravascular compartment contains plasma and blood.
b. Positive feedback in labor involves the release of oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions.
b. The sodium–potassium ATPase pump moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell, using energy from ATP activity. This process is necessary for maintaining the normal concentration of electrolytes inside and outside the cell and for normal cellular function.
d. Negative feedback helps the body maintain its internal balance. Examples include thermoregulation and regulation of blood glucose levels.
a. Approximately 40% of the body’s fluid is distributed within the cells (ICF), and the remaining 20% is distributed in the ECF.
b. Osmotic equilibrium is the state in which the concentration of solutes is equal on both sides of a semipermeable membrane and there is no net movement of water across the membrane.

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