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A diagram of the renal system shows the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, as well as the main artery and vein connected to the kidneys.
Figure 33.1 The renal and urinary system filters out excess fluid and eliminates urea from the body, helping body chemicals stay in balance. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The renal system, consisting of the kidneys, ureters, and urethra, has several essential functions (Ogobuiro & Tuma, 2022). In addition to filtering and removing waste products from the body, it also regulates plasma osmolarity, acid-base balance, and blood pressure (BP). Accordingly, the renal system affects many cells and organs within the body. Acute kidney injury affects as many as 60% of all critically ill hospitalized clients (Pickkers et al., 2021). The ureters, bladder, and urethra are at risk from infection, obstruction, vascular compromise, and other conditions. Chronic renal disease, often associated with hypertension and diabetes, affects one in seven adults, and 90% of those affected are unaware of their condition (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021).


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