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pertaining to fat; fatty
body mass index (BMI)
an index for estimating obesity obtained by dividing the weight in pounds/kilograms by height in inches/meters squared, following a formula
the presence or formation of gallstones
circadian rhythm
diverse yet predictable changes in physiological variables, including sleep, appetite, temperature, and hormone secretion, over a 24-hour period
clean eating
eating foods that are in their natural state with no chemical additives or preservatives
food desert
an area where the population/community has extremely limited access to healthy, affordable food
a polypeptide secreted by the stomach that increases appetite, participates in energy homeostasis, and regulates body weight
a polypeptide hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose (gluconeogenesis); glucagon opposes the action of insulin and can be administered as an injection to reverse hypoglycemia
glycemic index (GI)
a value between 0 and 100 that measures how a specific food increases the blood level of glucose. A score at the low end of the scale (less than 55) indicates a low glycemic index food that has a slow or minimal effect on the blood glucose level; this provides consistency in blood glucose levels.
an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in an organ or tissue with no evidence of cancer
an increase in the size of an organ, structure, or cellular component of the body
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas; a drug principally used to control diabetes mellitus
insulin resistance
a missing or lack of response of the muscle, fat, or liver cells to insulin that results in impaired glucose metabolism; also known as insulin sensitivity
a helical peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue that acts on cells in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and increase metabolism in response to increases in body fat storage; also involved in the onset of puberty and pancreatic insulin secretion
leptin resistance
a decrease in the ability of leptin to suppress appetite or increase the body’s energy use
an enzyme that breaks down ingested fat into fatty acids in the GI tract
lipase inhibitor
substances used to reduce the activity of lipases found in the GI tract
Mediterranean diet
a well-tolerated, palatable diet modeled on the traditional cuisines of Italy, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean Sea that includes fish/seafood, wine, whole vegetables, nuts, seeds, and olive oil, deriving 25%–35% of calories from fat
metabolic syndrome
the presence of three or more interrelated atherosclerotic risk factors: insulin resistance, elevated fasting blood glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoproteins, abdominal obesity, or increased waist circumference
nutrient-dense foods
foods rich in vitamins and minerals vital for health without saturated fats, sugars, and sodium
a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher; an unhealthy accumulation of body fat
obesity hypoventilation syndrome
a respiratory consequence of obesity that is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation during sleep and wakefulness.
a body mass index between 26 and 29 kg/m2; having a weight higher than what is expected for a person’s age, sex, height, and build
serotonin deficiency
a lack of serotonin, a neurotransmitter and vasoconstrictor with a vital role in cellular processes of sleep–wake cycles, intestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and eating; deficiency may play a role in increasing depression, anxiety, mania, and other health conditions, including weight gain
sleep apnea
the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
fatty degeneration
the production of heat by the mitochondria within the cells that burn calories and adipose tissue
thermogenic foods
foods that if eaten cause a rise in the production of body heat (burns calories and adipose tissue)
weight bias
negative attitudes, beliefs, judgements, stereotypes, and discriminatory acts aimed at individuals because of their weight
weight stigma
the negative stereotyping of people with overweight or obesity as lacking self-discipline, being lazy or sloppy, and lacking intelligence

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