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anticholinergic effects
common effects such as dry mouth, dry eyes, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation, and cognitive dysfunction resulting from the blockade of cholinergic receptors
medications used to treat and manage diarrhea
medications that prevent or treat nausea and vomiting
chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
an area of neural receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain within the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata that communicates with the vomiting center for emesis
extrapyramidal symptoms
dysfunctional involuntary movements such as akathisia (restlessness and/or tapping or jiggling of fingers or legs), dystonia (painful involuntary muscle contractions), Parkinsonism (symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease such as tremors, difficulty thinking and/or speaking, or stiff facial muscles), and tardive dyskinesia (involuntary facial movements such as eye blinking, sticking out tongue, and/or chewing or sucking motion)
medications used to treat constipation
a group of medications with antagonistic dopamine used as an antipsychotic or antiemetic
stool softeners
medications used to soften stools and ease defecation
vomiting center
an area in the central medulla of the brain innervating the vagus nerve and spinal motor neurons in conjunction with the CTZ to cause vomiting

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