Management and Organizational Behavior
1. S. Terkel, Working (New York: Pantheon, 1974).
2. S. Freud, Lecture XXXIII, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (New York: Norton, 1933), p. 34.
3. Michael E. Porter and Jan V. Rivkin, The Looming Challenge to U.S. Competitiveness, Harvard Business Review, March 2012.
4. World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
5. “The Future of Computing,” The Economist, March 12, 2015, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2016/03/12/the-future-of-computing.
6. Bureau of labor Statistics, “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2016,” October 2017, https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm.
7. Elaine Pofeldt, “This Crime in the Workplace is Costing US Business $50 Billion a Year,” CNBC, September 12, 2017, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/12/workplace-crime-costs-us-businesses-50-billion-a-year.html; and “Shoplifting, other Fraud Cost US Retailers $44 Billion in 2014: Survey,” CNBC, June 24, 2015, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/06/24/shoplifting-other-fraud-cost-us-retailers-44-billion-in-2014-survey.html.
8. R. Katz, “Skills of an Effective Administrator,” Harvard Business Review, September-October 1974, pp. 34–56.
9. J. Lindzon, “Five Skills That You’ll Need to Lead the Company of the Future,” Fast Company, May 18, 2017, https://www.fastcompany.com/40420957/five-skills-youll-need-to-lead-the-company-of-the-future; A. Bennett, “Going Global: The Chief Executives in the Year 2000 Are Likely to Have Had Much Foreign Experience,” Wall Street Journal, February 27, 1989, p. A–4.
10. Jacob Morgan, “5 Qualities of the Modern Manager,” Forbes, July 23, 2013, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacobmorgan/2013/07/23/5-must-have-qualities-of-the-modern-manager/#644a2b6a3a0b.
11. D. Nadler and M. Tushman, “A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior,” Organizational Dynamics, 1980, p. 35.
Individual and Cultural Differences
1. V.H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964).
2. R.J. Ebert and T.R. Mitchell, Organization Decision Processes: Concepts and Analysis (New York: Crane, Russak, 1975), p. 81.
4. T.R. Mitchell, “Cognitive Complexity and Leadership Style,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 16, pp. 166–174.
5. H. M. Schroder, M. H. Driver, and S. Streufert, Human Information Processing (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967).
6. E. J. McCormick and J. Tiffin, Industrial Psychology (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976).
7. Dale Feuer & Chris Lee. 1988. The Kaizen Connection: How Companies Pick Tomorrow’s Workers. Training. May, 23–35.
8. S.R. Maddi, Personality Theories: A Comparative Analysis (Homewood, III.: Dorsey, 1980), p. 10.
9. C. Kluckhohn and H. Murray, Personality in Society and Nature, (New York: Knopf, 1953).
10. P.H. Mussen, The Psychological Development of the Child (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
12. J. C. Abegglen, “Personality Factors in Social Mobility: A Study of Occupationally Mobile Businessmen,” Genetic Psychology Monographs, August 1958, pp. 101–159.
13. G.W. Allport, Pattern and Growth in Personality (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961).
14. R. A. Ellis and M. S. Taylor, “Role of Self-Esteem within the Job Search Process,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1983, 68, pp. 632–640.
15. P. Spector, “Behavior in Organizations as a Function of Locus of Control,” Psychological Bulletin, May 1982, pp. 482–497; P. Nystrom, “Managers’ Salaries and Their Beliefs About Reinforcement Control,” Journal of Social Psychology, August 1983, pp. 291–292.
16. L. R. Morris, Extroversion and Introversion: An Interactional Perspective (New York: Hemisphere, 1979), p.8.
17. T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, and D. J. Levinson, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).
18. V. H. Vroom, Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960).
19. M. Rokeach, The Open and Closed Mind (New York: Basic Books, 1960).
20. R. N. Taylor and M. D. Dunnette, “Influence of Dogmatism, Risk-Taking Propensity, and Intelligence on Decision-Making Strategies for a Sample of Industrial Managers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, pp. 420–423.
21. R. Stogdill, “Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature,” Journal of Psychology, 1948, 25, pp. 35–71; F. L. Greer, Small Group Effectiveness (Philadelphia: Institute for Research on Human Relations, 1955).
22. C. Argyris, “Personality and Organization Theory Revisited,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1973, 18, pp. 141–167.
23. M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 5.
25. Paul R. Sackett, Laura R. Burris, and Christine Callahan. 1989. Integrity Testing for Personnel Selection. Personnel Psychology, 42, 491–529.
26. R. M. Steers, Y. K. Shin, and G. R. Ungson, The Chaebol: Korea’s New Industrial Might (New York: Harper & Row, 1989), p. 96.
27. L. Smith, “Cracks in the Japanese Work Ethic,” Fortune, May 14, 1984, pp. 162–168; K. Van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power (New York: Knopf, 1989).
28. G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequence, (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1980), p. 25.
30. A. Laurent, “The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of Management,” International Studies of Management and Organization, XII, 1–2, Spring-Summer 1983, pp. 75–96.
31. F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck, Variations in Value Orientations (Evanston, III.: Row, Peterson, 1961).
32. T. Cox, et al., “Effects of Ethnic Group Cultural Differences on Cooperative and Competitive Behavior on a Group Task,” Academy of Management J., 34, pp. 827–847; and S. Gruman, cited in N. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (Boston: PWS/Kent, 1986), pp. 13–14.
Perception and Job Attitudes
1. M. W. Levine and J. M. Shefner, Fundamentals of Selection and Perception (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1981).
2. D. Kretch, R. S. Crutchfield, and E. L. Ballachey, Individual in Society (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).
3. F. L. Ruch, Psychology and life (Glenview: Scott, Foresman, 1983).
4. J. S. Bruner and L. Postman, “On the Perception of Incongruity: A Paradigm,” Journal of Personality, 1949, 18, pp. 206–223.
5. S. T. Fiske and S. E. Taylor, Social Cognition (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1984).
6. D. J. Mason, “Judgements of Leadership Based on Physiognomic Cues,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957, 54, pp. 273–274.
7. P. F. Secord, “The Role of Facial Features in Interpersonal Perception,” in R. Tagiuri and L. Petrullo, eds., Person Perception and Interpersonal Behavior (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1958), pp. 300–315.
8. J. W. Thibaut and H. W. Riecker, “Authoritarianism, Status, and the Communication of Aggression,” Human Relations, 1955, 8, pp. 95–120.
9. D. C. Dearborn and H. A. Simon, “Selective Perception: A Note on Departmental Identification of Executives,” Sociometry, 1958, 21, p. 142.
10. R. Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961).
11. Levine and Shefner, op. cit.
13. K. J. Frauenfelder, “A Cognitive Determinant of Favorability of Impression,” Journal of Social Psychology, 1974, 94, pp. 71–81.
14. R. Jain, H. C. Triandis, and C. W. Weick, Managing Research, Development and Innovation: Managing the Unmanageable, 3rd Edition (New York: Wiley, 2010).
15. C. von Hippel, et al, “Age-based stereotype threat and work outcomes: Stress appraisals and ruminations as mediators,” Psychology and Aging, February 2019, pp. 68-84.
16. Dearborn and Simon, op. cit.
17. J. B. Miner, Organizational Behavior 2: Essentials Theories of Process and Structure (Routledge, 2015).
18. Levine and Shefner, op. cit.
19. M. Haire and W. Grunes, “Perceptual Defenses: Processes Protecting an Organized Perception of Another’s Personality,” Human Relations, 1950, 3, pp. 403–412.
21. H. H. Kelley, “The Process of Causal Attributions,” American Psychologist, February 1973, pp. 107–128; F. Forsterling, “Attributional Retraining: A Review,” Psychological Bulletin, November 1985, pp. 495–512; B. Weiner, Human Motivation (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980).
22. Kelley, op. cit., p. 193.
25. Based on G. W. Allport, “Attitudes,” in C. Murchison, ed., Handbook of Social Psychology (Worcester: Clark University Press, 1935).
26. Jain, Triandis, and Weick op. cit.
27. B. M. Staw and J. Ross, “Stability in the Midst of Change: A Dispositional Approach to Job Attitudes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1985, 70, pp. 469–480.
28. G. Salancik and J. Pfeffer, “A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1978, 23, pp. 224–253.
29. L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1957).
30. T. Lodahl and M. Kejner, “The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, pp. 24–33.
31. R. T. Mowday, L. W. Porter, and R. M. Steers, Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Employee Commitment, Absenteeism and Turnover (New York: Academic Press, 1982).
32. E. A. Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction,” in M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976).
33. L. W. Porter and R. M. Steers, “Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism,” Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, pp. 151–176.
34. B. M. Staw, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Morristown, N. J.: General Learning Press, 1976).
Learning and Reinforcement
1. Rose E. Spielman, Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett, and Marion Perlmutter, Psychology (Houston: OpenStax, 2015).
2. J. M. Ivancevich, A. D. Szilagyi, and M. Wallace, Organizational Behavior and Performance (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1977), p. 80.
3. B. F. Skinner, “Operant Behavior,” American Psychologist, 1963, 18, pp. 503–515.
4. J. B. Watson, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1914).
5. E. L. Thorndike, Animal Intelligence (New York: Macmillan, 1911), p. 244.
6. F. Luthans, et. al., Organizational Behavior 13th Edition (Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2016).
7. A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977).
8. A. Filley, R. J. House, and S. Kerr, Managerial Process and Organizational Behavior (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1975).
9. E. J. McCormick and D. Illgen, Industrial Psychology 8th edition (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984).
10. B. M. Bass and J. Vaughn, Training in Industry: The Management of Learning (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth, 1966); G. Wexley and G. P. Latham, Developing and Training Human Resources in Organizations, Third Edition (Pearson: 2002); and G. P. Latham, “Human Resource Training and Development,” in M. Rosenzweig and L. W. Porter, eds., Annual Review of Psychology (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews, 1988), pp. 545–581.
11. B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953), p. 73.
12. W. C. Hamner, “Reinforcement Theory,” in H. L. Tosi and W. C. Hamner, eds., Organizational Behavior and Management: A Contingency Approach (Chicago: St. Clair, 1977), p. 98.
13. T. W. Costello and S. S. Zalkind, Psychology in Administration: A Research Orientation (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), p. 193.
14. Hamner, op. cit., p. 105.
15. David Kolb, Experiential Learning, 2nd Edition, (Pearson FT Press: New York, 2015) and Mel Silberman, Elaine Beich and Carol Auerbach, Active Training, (Wiley: New York, 2016).
16. B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Knopf, 1971).
17. F. Luthans and R. Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1985), pp. 150–159.
18. F. Luthans and R. Davis, “Behavioral Self-Management—The Missing Link in Managerial Effectiveness,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1979, p. 43; F. Luthans and R. Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond: An Operant and Social Learning Approach (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1985).
19. F. H. Kanfer and A. P. Goldstein, Helping People Change: A Textbook of Methods (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980).
20. C. C. Neck and C. P. Manz, Mastering Self Leadership 6th edition, (Pearson, 2013).
21. A. Bandura, “Self-Reinforcement: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations,” Behaviorism, Fall 1976, pp. 135–155; Luthans and Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond.
22. G. Latham and C. Fayne, “Self-Management Training for Increasing Job Attendance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1989, pp. 411–416.
Diversity in Organizations
1. McGrath, J. E., Berdahl, J.L., & Arrow, H. (1995). Traits, expectations, culture, and clout: The dynamics of diversity in work groups. In S.E. Jackson & M.N. Ruderman (Eds.), Diversity in Work Teams, 17-45. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
2. Thomas, R. R. 1991. Beyond race and gender. New York, NY: AMACOM.
3. Cox, Taylor H., and Stacy Blake. "Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness." The Executive (1991): 45-56.
4. Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., Jr., & Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion. Journal of Management Studies, 36, 1013-1031.
5. Lambert, J.R., & Bell, M.P. (2013). Diverse forms of difference. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work (pp. 13 – 31). New York: Oxford University Press.
6. Harrison, D.A., Price, K.H., & Bell, M.P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96-107.
7. Lambert, J.R., & Bell, M.P. (2013). Diverse forms of difference. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work (pp. 13 – 31). New York: Oxford University Press.
8. Clair, J.A., Beatty, J.E., & Maclean, T.L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30 (1), 78-95.
9. Philips, K.W., Rothbard, N.P., & Dumas, T.L. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose? Status distance and self-disclosure in diverse environments. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 710-732.
10. Judy, R.W., D'Amico, C., & Geipel, G.L.(1997). Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, Ind: Hudson Institute.
11. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
12. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t01.htm; DeWolf, M. (Mar 1 2017). 12 stats about working women. Retrieved from https://blog.dol.gov/2017/03/01/12-stats-about-working-women
13. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
14. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
15. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 2: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1977 to date 11. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat02.pdf.
16. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
17. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 2: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1977 to date 11. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat02.pdf.
18. DeWolf, M. (2017). 12 stats about working women. U.S. Department of Labor Blog.
19. Eagly, A.H., & Karau, S.J.(2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109 (3): 573-598.
20. EEOC, “Facts About Sexual Harassment.” Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-sex.cfm
22. EEOC, “Sexual Harassment.” Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
23. Feldblum, C.R., & Lipnic, V.A. (2016).Report of the Co-Chairs of the EEOC Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/task_force/harassment/report.cfm
24. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
25. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
28. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. African-Americans in the American Workforce. Retrieved from https://www1.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/reports/american_experiences/african_americans.cfm?renderforprint=1
29. Quilian, L., Pager, D., Midtboen, A.H., & Hexel, O. (Oct 2017). Hiring discrimination against Black Americans hasn’t declined in 25 years. Harvard Business Review.
31. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 11: Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm#charemp.
33. Adams, S. (June 2014). White high school drop-outs are as likely to land jobs as black college students. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/27/white-high-school-drop-outs-are-as-likely-to-land-jobs-as-black-college-students/#51715c547b8f
34. Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology, 108 (5): 937-975.
35. Bertrand, M. & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94 (4): 991-1013
36. Robinson, C. L., Taylor, T., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Zimmer, C. & Irwin Jr., M.W. (2005). “Studying race or ethnic and sex segregation at the establishment level: Methodological issues and substantive opportunities using EEO-1 reports.” Work and Occupations 32(1): 5–38.
37. Kraiger, K., & Ford, J. K. (1985). A Meta-Analysis of Ratee Race Effects in Performance Ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(1), 56-65.
38. Mays, V. M., Coleman, L. M., & Jackson, J. S. (1996). Perceived Race-Based Discrimination, Employment Status, and Job Stress in a National Sample of Black Women: Implications for Health Outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(3), 319–329.
39. Lopez, G., Ruiz, N.G., & Patten, E. (2017). Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/; Flores, A. (Sep 18 2017). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/ft_17-09-18_hispanics_ushispanicpop/
40. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
41. Tafoya, S. (2004). Shades of belonging. Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/12/06/shades-of-belonging/
43. Hispanics in the U.S. fast facts. (Mar 31 2017). CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2013/09/20/us/hispanics-in-the-u-s-/index.html
45. Liu, E. (May 30 2014). Why are Hispanics identifying as white? CNN.
47. Tafoya, S. (2004). Shades of Belonging. Washington D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf.
48. Taylor, P., Lopex, M.H., Martinez, J., & Velasco. G. (2012). When labels don’t fit: Hispanics and their views of identity. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/04/when-labels-dont-fit-hispanics-and-their-views-of-identity/
49. Flores, A. (Sep 18 2017). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/ft_17-09-18_hispanics_ushispanicpop/
50. Avery, D.R., McKay, P.F., Wilson, D.C., Tonidandel, S. (2007). Unequal attendance: The relationships between race, organizational diversity cues, and absenteeism. Personnel Psychology, 60: 875-902.
51. Lopez, G., Ruiz, N.G., & Patten, E. (2017). Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/
54. Ono, K. A., & Pham, V. N. (2009). Asian Americans and the Media. Cambridge, England: Polity.; Paek, H.J., & Shah, H. (2003). Racial ideology, model minorities, and the ‘not so silent partner:” Stereotyping of Asian Americans in U.S. magazine advertising. Howard Journal of Communications, 14(4): 225-244.
55. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
57. Committee of 100: American attitudes toward Chinese Americans and Asian Americans. (2004, Summer). The Diversity Factor, 12(3): 38-44. Retrieved from http://www.committee100.org/publications/survey/C100survey.pdf
58. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
59. Committee of 100: American attitudes toward Chinese Americans and Asian Americans. (2004, Summer). The Diversity Factor, 12(3): 38-44. Retrieved from http://www.committee100.org/publications/survey/C100survey.pdf
60. Multiracial in America. (June 11 2015) Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/multiracial-in-america/
63. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
66. Philips, K.W., Rothbard, N.P., & Dumas, T.L. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose? Status distance and self-disclosure in diverse environments. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 710-732.
67. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
68. Alley, D., & Crimmins, E. 2007. The demography of aging and work. In K. S. Shultz & G. A. Adams (Eds.), Aging and work in the 21st century: 7-23. New York: Psychology Press.
69. Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering but dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3–26). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.; Cuddy, A. J. C., Norton, M. I., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). This old stereotype: The pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 267–285.
70. Desmette, D., & Gaillard, M. (2008). When a “worker” becomes an “older worker”: The effects of age-related social identity on attitudes towards retirement and work. Career Development International, 13, 168–185.
71. Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2008). The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 392–423.
72. Bell, M.P., Ozbilgin, M.F., Beauregard, T.A. and Surgevil, O. (2011), “Voice, silence, and diversity in 21st century organizations: strategies for inclusion of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender employees”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 131-146.
73. Human Rights Campaign. (2018). State maps of laws and policies. Retrieved from http://www.hrc.org/state-maps/employment
74. Ragins, B.R., Cornwell, J.M. and Miller, J.S. (2003), “Heterosexism in the workplace: do race and gender matter?”, Group & Organization Management, Vol. 28, pp. 45-74.
75. Button, S.B. (2001), “Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: a cross-level examination”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86 No. 1, pp. 17-28.
76. Human Rights Campaign Foundation (2018), “Corporate equality index 2018 ”, available at:https://assets2.hrc.org/files/assets/resources/CEI-2018-FullReport.pdf?_ga=2.120762824.1791108882.1521675202-2105331900.1521675202
77. GLAAD media reference guide (10th ed.). 2016. Los Angeles, CA: Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Retrieved from http://www.glaad.org/sites/default/files/GLAAD-Media-Reference-Guide-Tenth-Edition.pdf
78. Lamber, J. (2015). The impact of gay-friendly recruitment statements and due process employment on a firm’s attractiveness as an employer. Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion: An International Journal, 34 (6): 510-526.
79. Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. 2000. Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. Demography, 37(2): 139-154.
80. Ragins, B.R., Cornwell, J.M., & Miller, J.S. 2003. Heterosexism in the workplace: Do race and gender matter? Group & Organization Management, 28: 45-74.;Tilcsik, A. (2011), “Pride and prejudice: employment discrimination against openly gay men in the United States”, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 117 No. 2, pp. 586-626.
81. Clair, J.A., Beatty, J.E., & Maclean, T.L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30 (1), 78-95.
83. Barron, G.L. and Hebl, M. (2013), “The force of law: The effects of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation on interpersonal discrimination in employment”, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 191-205.
84. Button, S.B. (2001), “Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: a cross-level examination”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86 No. 1, pp. 17-28.
85. Trautwein, C. Apr 7 2017. H-1B Visa applications just hit their limit for the year in less than a week. Time. Retrieved 4/21/2017 from http://time.com/4731665/h1b-visa-application-cap/; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2017, Apr 7). USCIS reaches FY 2018 H-1B Cap. Retrieved on 4/21/2017 at https://www.uscis.gov/news/news-releases/uscis-reaches-fy-2018-h-1b-cap
86. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2013). Working in the U.S. Retrieved from http://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/working-us; U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. (2014). Directory of Visa Categories. Retrieved from http://travel.state.gov/content/visas/english/general/all-visa-categories.html#iv
87. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2016, May 19). Labor force characteristics of foreign-born workers summary. Economic News Release. Retrieved online at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/forbrn.nr0.htm
88. Kandel, W. A. (2011). The US foreign-born population: Trends and selected characteristics. Congressional Research Service Report. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41592.pdf
89. Bound, J., Demirci, M., Khanna, G., & Turner, S. (2014). Finishing degrees and finding jobs: U.S. higher education and the flow of foreign IT workers (NBER Working Paper No. 20505). Retrieved January 4, 2015, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w20505
90. Avery, D. R., Tonidandel, S., Volpone, S. D., & Raghuram, A. (2010). Overworked in America?: How work hours, immigrant status, and interpersonal justice affect perceived work overload. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(2), 133–147.; Bloomekatz, R. (2007). Rethinking immigration status discrimination and exploitation in the low-wage workplace. UCLA Law Review, 54, 1963-2010.
91. Lambert, J.R., Basuil, D.A., Bell, M.P., & Marquardt, D. (2017).Coming to America: Work Visas, International Diversity, and Organizational Attractiveness among Highly Skilled Asian Immigrants. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-27.
92. Jamieson, D. (2011). Student guest workers at Hershey plant allege exploitative conditions.Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/17/student-guestworkers-at-hershey-plant_n_930014.html.
93. Wigglesworth, V. (2013). Tech giant Infosys settles allegation of visa fraud in Plano office for $34 million. Dallas News. Retrieved from http://www.dallasnews.com/news/community-news/plano/headlines/20131030-tech-giant-infosys-settles-allegations-of-visa-fraud-in-plano-office-for-34-million.ece?nclick_check=1
94. U.S. Department of Labor. (2012). Key points on Disability and Occupational Projections Tables. Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/odep/pdf/20141022-KeyPoints.pdf
96. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Table 75. Self-Described Religious Identification of Adult Population: 1990, 2001 and 2008. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/2010/compendia/statab/130ed/tables/11s0075.pdf
97. Cox, T.H. & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive, 5(3): 45-56.
98. Williams, K., & O'Reilly, CA. 1998. Demography and diversity: A review of 40 years of research.In B. Staw and R. Sutton (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 20: 77-140. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
99. Tsui, A.S., Egan, T. D., & O’Reilly, C.A. 1992. Being different: relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 549-579.
100. Kim, S.S. & Gelfand, M. J. (2003).The influence of ethnic identity on perceptions of organizational recruitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63: 396- 416.
101. Perkins, L. A., Thomas, K. M., & Taylor, G. A. 2000. Advertising and recruitment: Marketing tominorities. Psychology and Marketing, 17: 235-255.; Thomas, K.M., & Wise, P.G. 1999. Organizational attractiveness and individual differences: Are diverse applicants attracted by different factors? Journal of Business and Psychology,13: 375-390.
102. Janis, I.L. (1972). Victims of groupthink: A psychological study of foreign policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
103. Richard, O.C., Barnett, T., Dwyer, S., Chadwick, K. (2004). Cultural diversity in management, firmperformance, and the moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions. Academy of Management Journal, 47 (2): 255-266.
104. McMahan, G.C., Bell, M.P., & Virick, M. (1998). Strategic human resource management: Employee involvement, diversity, and international issues. Human Resource Management Review, 8 (3): 193-214.
105. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99-120.
106. Kauflin, J. (Jan 23 2018). America’s best employers for diversity. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffkauflin/2018/01/23/americas-best-employers-for-diversity/#84f151c71647
107. Graduate Management Admission Council. (Oct 6 2016Where are women in graduate business school? Retrieved from https://www.gmac.com/market-intelligence-and-research/research-insights/application-trends/where-are-women-in-graduate-business-school.aspx
108. Cox, T. H., Lobel, S. A., & McLeod, P. L. (1991). Effects of ethnic group cultural differences on cooperative and competitive behavior on a group task. Academy of management journal, 34(4), 827-847.
109. Richard, O.C., Barnett, T., Dwyer, S., Chadwick, K. (2004). Cultural diversity in management, firm performance, and the moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions. Academy of Management Journal, 47 (2): 255-266.
110. Dezso, C.L., & Ross, D.G. (2012). Does female representation in top management improve firm performance? A panel data investigation. Strategic Management Journal, 33: 1072-1089.
111. Tsui, A.S., Egan, T. D., & O’Reilly, C.A. 1992. Being different: relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 549-579.
112. New York Times. (March 31, 1995). Reverse discrimination complaints rare, labor study reports. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/31/us/reverse-discrimination-complaints-rare-labor-study-reports.html
113. Mosbergen, D. (Oct 25 2017). Majority of White Americans believe White people face discrimination. Huff Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/white-americans-discrimination-poll-npr_us_59f03071e4b04917c594209a
114. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2018). About EEOC. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/
115. Discrimination by Type. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/index.cfm (Accessed February 15, 2018); Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/equalcompensation.cfm (Accessed February 15, 2018)
116. Institute for Women’s Policy Research. https://www.iwpr.org (Accessed February 22, 2018)
117. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. https://www.eeoc.gov (Accessed February 22, 2018)
118. Harassment. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/harassment.cfm (Accessed February 22, 2018)
119. Age Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/age.cfm(Accessed February 22, 2018)
120. ADA at 25. The Law. https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/ada25th/thelaw.cfm (Accessed November 26, 2017).
121. Disability Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/disability.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
122. National Origin Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/nationalorigin.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
123. Pregnancy Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/pregnancy.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
124. Race/Color Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/race_color.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
125. Religious Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/religion.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
126. Sex-Based Discrimination. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sex.cfm (Accessed February 27, 2018)
127. Bell, Myrtle P. Diversity in organizations. Cengage Learning, 2011.
128. King, Eden B., et al. "The stigma of obesity in customer service: A mechanism for remediation and bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination." Journal of Applied Psychology 91.3 (2006): 579.
129. Miller, C. C., Burke, L. M., & Glick,W. H. 1998. Cognitive diversity among upper-echelon executives: Implications for strategic decision processes. Strategic Management Journal, 19: 39-58.
130. Horwitz, S.K., & Horwitz, I.B. (2007). The effects of team diversity on team outcomes: A meta-analytic review of team demography. Journal of Management, 33 (6): 987-1015.
131. Watson, W.E., Kumar, K., & Michaelsen, L.K. (1993). Cultural diversity's impact on interaction process and performance: Comparing homogeneous and diverse task groups. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3): 590-602.
132. Tsui, A.S., Egan, T. D., & O’Reilly, C.A. 1992. Being different: relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 549-579.
133. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
134. Perkins, L. A., Thomas, K. M., & Taylor, G. A. 2000. Advertising and recruitment: Marketing to minorities. Psychology and Marketing, 17: 235-255.; Thomas, K.M., & Wise, P.G. 1999. Organizational attractiveness and individual differences: Are diverse applicants attracted by different factors? Journal of Business and Psychology, 13: 375-390.
135. Lambert, J. R. (2015). The impact of gay-friendly recruitment statements and due process employment on a firm’s attractiveness as an employer. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 34, 510–526.
136. Lambert, J.R., Basuil, D.A., Bell, M.P., & Marquardt, D. J. (2017). Coming to America: Work visas, international diversity, and organizational attractiveness among highly skilled Asian immigrants. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 0, 1-27.
137. Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. "Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination." The American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991-1013.
138. Tajfel, H. 1974. Social identity and intergroup behavior. Social Science Information, 15: 1010-118.; Tajfel H, Turner JC. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel, and W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (2nd ed., pp. 7–24). Chicago:Nelson-Hall.
139. Goldberg, Caren B. "Relational demography and similarity-attraction in interview assessments and subsequent offer decisions: are we missing something?." Group & Organization Management 30, no. 6 (2005): 597-624.
140. Fiske ST, Taylor SE. (1991). Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
141. Crandall, Christian S., and Amy Eshleman. "A justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice." Psychological bulletin 129.3 (2003): 414.
142. Ely, Robin J., and David A. Thomas. "Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes." Administrative science quarterly. 46.2 (2001): 229-273.
143. Ely, Robin J., and David A. Thomas. "Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes." Administrative science quarterly. 46.2 (2001): 229-273.
144. Ely, Robin J., and David A. Thomas. "Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes." Administrative science quarterly. 46.2 (2001): 229-273.
145. McCarthy, J.M, Van Iddekinge, C.H., & Campion, M.(2010). Are highly structured job interviews resistant to demographic similarity effects?: Personnel Psychology, 63: 325-359.
146. McCarthy, J.M, Van Iddekinge, C.H., & Campion, M.(2010). Are highly structured job interviews resistant to demographic similarity effects?: Personnel Psychology, 63: 325-359, p.333.; Campion M.A., Palmer D.K., Campion J.E. (1997). A review of structure in the selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 50, 655–702.
147. Young, Cheri A., Badiah Haffejee, and David L. Corsun. "Developing Cultural Intelligence and Empathy Through Diversified Mentoring Relationships." Journal of Management Education (2017): 1052562917710687.
148. Thoms, D.A., & Ely, R.J. (Sep 1996). Making differences matter: A new paradigm for managing diversity. Harvard Business Review.
Perception and Managerial Decision Making
1. Lynn Stout. 2012. The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations, and the Public. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
2. Peter A. Facione & Noreen C. Facione. 2007. Thinking and Reasoning in Human Decision Making: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis, Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.
3. Matthew D. Lieberman. 2003. “Reflexive and reflective judgment processes: A social cognitive neuroscience approach.” In (Eds.) Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, & William von Hippel’s: Social judgments: Implicit and explicit processes, 44-67. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
4. Adam L. Darlow & Steven A. Sloman. 2010. “Two systems of reasoning: Architecture and relation to emotion,” WIREs Cognitive Science, 1: 382-392.
5. Malcolm Gladwell. 2005. Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. New York: Back Bay Books.
6. Jennifer M. George. 2000. “Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence.” Human Relations, 53, 1027-1055.
7. Christopher L. Aberson, Michael Healy, & Victoria Romero. 2000. Ingroup Bias and Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4: 157-173.
8. Elizabeth Kolbert. 2017. Why Facts Don’t Change our Minds. The New Yorker, February 27, 2017.
9. Karen A. Jehn & Elizabeth A. Mannix. 2001. The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 238-251.
10. Linda K. Trevino & Michael E. Brown. 2004. Managing to be ethical: Debunking five business ethics myths. Academy of Management Executive, 18: 69-81.
11. James R. Rest. 1986. Moral development: Advances in research and theory. Praeger Publishers.
Work Motivation for Performance
1. J.E. Hunter & R.E. Hunter. 1984. Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin 96: 72–98.
2. Statistics on the prevalence of this choice are available. “Calling in Well: A Look at leave Time Tracking Trends,” actiTIME website, June 2016, https://www.actitime.com/human-resources/leave-time-tracking-trends.php.
3. H. A. Murray. 1938. Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
4. Murray also hypothesized that people would differ in the degree to which they felt these needs. His list of secondary needs became a basis for his theory of personality.
5. Representative references include J.W. Atkinson & D.C. McClelland. 1948. The projective expression of needs. II. The effect of different intensities of the hunger drive on thematic apperception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38:643–658; D.C. McClelland, J.W. Atkinson, R.A. Clark, & E.L. Lowell. 1953. The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; R.C. DeCharms. 1957. Affiliation motivation and productivity in small groups. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 55:222– 276; D.C. McClelland. 1961. The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand; and D.C. McClelland. 1975. Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington.
6. In fact, McClelland argued that the success of entire societies is dependent on its achievement needs.
7. D. C. McClelland. 1970. The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs 24:29–47.
8. A.H. Maslow. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Bulletin 50:370–396; A.H. Maslow. 1954. Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row; A. H. Maslow. 1965. Eupsychian management. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
9. D. McGregor. 1960. The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill; D. McGregor. 1967. The professional manager. New York: McGraw-Hill.
11. C.P. Alderfer. 1972. Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs in organizational settings. New York: Free Press.
12. D.T. Hall & K.E. Nougaim. 1968. An examination of Maslow’s need hierarchy in an organizational setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:12–35; E.E. Lawler, III & J.L. Suttle. 1972. A causal correlational test of the need hierarchy concept. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 7:265–287; M.A. Wahba & L.G. Bridwell. 1973. Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Proceedings of the thirty-third annual meeting of the Academy of Management, 514–520.
13. C.P. Alderfer. 1972. Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs and organizational settings. New York: Free Press.
14. Note that Herzberg’s theory has often been labeled the “two-factor theory” because it focuses on two continua. This name, however, implies that only two factors are involved, which is not correct. Herzberg prefers not to use the term “two-factor theory” because his two sets of needs identify a much larger number of needs.
15. F. Herzberg, B. Mausner, & B. Snyderman. 1959. The motivation to work. New York: Wiley; F. Herzberg. 1966. Work and the nature of man. New York: Crowell; F. Herzberg. 1968. One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review 46:54–62.
16. R.B. Dunham, J.L. Pierce, & J.W. Newstrom. 1983. Job context and job content: A conceptual perspective. Journal of Management 9:187–202.
17. R.M. Ryan & E.L. Deci. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist 55:68–78.
18. B.F. Skinner. 1953. Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press; B.F. Skinner. 1969. Contingencies of reinforcement. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century-Crofts; B.F. Skinner. 1971. Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Bantam Books.
20. R. W. Kempen & R. V. Hall. 1977. Reduction of industrial absenteeism: Results of a behavioral approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 20:1–21.
21. J.S. Adams. 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press; G.C. Homans. 1961. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
23. J. Kane & E.E. Lawler, III. 1979. Performance appraisal effectiveness. In B. Staw (ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1). Greenwood, CT: JAI Press.
24. E.E. Lawler, III. 1972. Secrecy and the need to know. In M. Dunnette, R. House, & H. Tosi (eds.), Readings in managerial motivation and compensation. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
25. I.R. Andrews. 1967. Wage inequity and job performance: An experimental study. Journal of Applied Psychology 51:39–45; J.S. Adams. 1963a. Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 67:422–436; J.S. Adams. 1963b. Wage inequities, productivity and work quality. Industrial Relations 3:9–16.
26. R.C. Huseman., J.D. Hatfield, & E.W. Miles. 1987. A new perspective on equity theory: The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review 12:222–234; E.W. Miles, J.D. Hatfield, & R.C. Huseman. 1989. The equity sensitivity construct: Potential implications for worker performance. Journal of Management 15:581–588.
27. R.J. Bies. 1987. The predicament of justice: The management of moral outrage. In B.M. Staw & L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 289–319; J. Greenberg. 1987. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review 12:9–22.
28. E.L. Locke. 1978. The ubiquity of the technique of goal setting in theories of and approaches to employee motivation. Academy of Management Review 3:594–601; F.W. Taylor. 1911. The principles of scientific management. New York: Norton; K. Lewin. 1935. A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill; K. Lewin. 1938. The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; K. Lewin, T. Dembo, L. Festinger, & P.S. Sears. 1944. Level of aspiration. In J. McVicker Hunt (ed.), Personality and behavior disorders. New York: Ronald Press, 333–378; P. Drucker. 1954. The practice of management. New York: Wiley; D. McGregor. 1957. An uneasy look at performance appraisal. Harvard Business Review 35:89–94; E.A. Locke. 1968. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:157–189; E.A. Locke, K.N. Shaw, L.M. Saari, & G.P. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and task performance: 1969– 1980. Psychological Bulletin 90:125–152; G. P. Latham & E.A. Locke. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
29. C.C. Pinder. 1984. Work motivation: Theory, issues, and applications. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
31. T.R. Mitchell & W.S. Silver. 1990. Individual and group goals when workers are interdependent: Effects on task strategies and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 75:185–193.
32. A. Bandura. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84:191–215; A. Bandura. 1986b. The explanatory and predictive scope of self- efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 4:359– 373; A. Bandura. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
33. D.G. Gardner & J.L. Pierce. 1998. Self-esteem and self-efficacy within the organizational context: An empirical comparison. Group and Organization Management 23:48–70.
35. M.L. Ambrose & C.T. Kulik. 1999. Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management 25: 231–292.
36. Chad H. Iddekinge, Herman Aguinis, Jeremy D. Mackey, Philip S. DeOrtentiis, “A Meta-Analysis of the Interactive, additive, and Relative Effects of Cognitive Ability and Motivation on Performance,” Journal of Management, Vol. 44, No. 1, January, 2018.
Performance Appraisal and Rewards
1. S. Johnson, “Tips on Evaluating your Boss,” Chron, July 1, 2018, https://work.chron.com/tips-evaluating-boss-7179.html.
2. C. J. Fombrum and R. L. Laud, “Strategic Issues in Performance Appraisal Theory and Practice,” Personnel, 601 (6), pp. 23–31.
3. S. Maier, “5 unconscious factors impacting your performance appraisals,” The Business Journals, January 25, 2019, https://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/how-to/human-resources/2019/01/5-unconscious-factors-impacting-your-performance.html.
4. R. L. Mathis, J. H. Jackson, and S. R. Valentine, Human Resource Management, 14th ed. (Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2014), p. 357.
5. J. Smither and M. London, Performance Management Putting Research Into Action, (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2008), pp. 187–328.
6. L. Slavenski, “Matching People to Jobs,” Training and Development Journal, August 1986, pp. 54–57.
7. F. D. Frank, D. W. Bracken, and M. R. Smith, “Beyond Assessment Centers,” Training and Development Journal, March 1988, pp. 65–67.
8. M. S. Taylor, C. D. Fisher, and D. R. Ilgen, “Individuals’ Reactions to Performance Feedback in Organizations: A Control Theory Perspective,” in K. M. Rowland and G. R. Ferris, eds., Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 2, (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984), pp. 81–124.
9. R. T. Mowday, L. W. Porter, and R. M. Steers, Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Employee Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover, (New York: Academic Press, 1982).
10. E. E. Lawler, “New Approaches to Pay Administration,” Personnel Vol. 5, 1976, pp. 11–23.
11. Cited in Eugene Register-Guard, July 15, 1980, p. B1.
12. Stephen J. Sauer, Matthew S. Rodgers, William J. Becker, “The Effects of Goals and Pay Structure on Managerial Reporting Dishonesty,” Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2018.
13. R. L. Opsahl and M. D. Dunnette, “The Role of Financial Compensation in Industrial Motivation,” Psychological Bulletin Vol. 66, 1966, pp. 94–96.
14. E. E. Lawler, Rewarding Excellence, (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2001).
15. L. W. Porter, G. Bigley, and R. M. Steers, Motivation and Work Behavior, 7th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003).
16. E. E. Lawler, Rewarding Excellence, op. cit.
18. Lawler, Rewarding Excellence, op. cit.
19. M. Wallace, cited in N. Perry, “Here Come Richer, Riskier Pay Plans,” Fortune, December 19, 1988, pp. 50–58.
21. E. E. Lawler, “The Design of Effective Reward Systems,” Technical Report, University of Southern California, April 1983.
Group and Intergroup Relations
1. J. Hackman and C. Morris, “Group Tasks, Group Interaction Process, and Group Performance Effectiveness,” in L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 8 (New York: Academic Press, 1975), p. 49.
2. J. McDavid and M. Harari, Social Psychology: Individuals, Groups, and Societies (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 237.
3. B. Bass. Leadership, Psychology, and Organizational Behavior (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), p. 39.
4. G. Homans, Social Behavior (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1950).
5. B. Tuckman and M. Jensen, “Stages of Small Group Development Revisited,” Groups and Organizational Studies, 1977, 2, pp. 419–442.
6. L. Hoffman, “Applying Experimental Research on Group Problem Solving to Organizations,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1979, 15, pp. 375–391.
7. A. Hare, “Group Size,” American Behavioral Scientist, 1981, 24, pp. 695–708.
8. R. Bales and E. Borgatta, “Size of Group as a Factor in the Interaction Profile,” In A. Hare, E. Borgatta, and R. Bales, eds., Small Groups (New York: Knopf, 1956).
9. L. Cummings and C. Berger, “Organization Structure: How Does It Influence Attitudes and Performance?” Organizational Dynamics, 1976, 5, pp. 34–49.
10. S. Rhodes and R. Steers, Managing Employee Absenteeism (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990).
11. L. Porter and R. Steers, “Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism,” Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, pp. 151–176.
12. Cummings and Berger, op. cit.
13. T. Mitchell, People in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978), p. 188.
14. B. Latane, K. Williams, and S. Harkins, “Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, June 1979, pp. 822–832; J. Jackson and S. Harkins, “Equity in Effort: An Explanation of the Social Loafing Effect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, November 1985, pp. 1199–1206.
15. J. Hackman, “Group Influences on Individuals,” in M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2nd Edition (Chicago: Nicholas Brealey Publishing , 1996).
16. D. Feldman, “The Development and Enforcement of Group Norms,” Academy of Management Review, January 1984, pp. 47–53.
17. S. Asch, “Studies of Independence and Conformity: A Minority of One Against a Unanimous Majority,” Psychological Monographs, 1955, 20, Whole No. 416.
18. H. Reitman and M. Shaw, “Group Membership, Sex Composition of the Group, and Conformity Behavior,” Journal of Social Psychology, 1964, 64, pp. 45–51.
19. S. Schachter, “Deviation, Rejection, and Communication,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,1951, 46, pp. 190–207.
20. I. Janis, Victims of Groupthink (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), p. 32.
21. R. L. Daft, Organization Theory & Design 12th edition (Boston, Ma.: Cengage Learning, 2016).
22. J. Dean, Blind Ambition (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976).
23. A. Fluker, “Orlando firm tests the boundaries of cool in office space,” Orlando Business Journal, February 28, 2019, https://www.bizjournals.com/orlando/news/2019/02/28/orlando-firm-tests-the-boundaries-of-cool-in.html.
24. M. Shaw, Group Dynamics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981), p. 197.
25. D. Cartwright and A. Zander, Group Dynamics: Research and Theory (New York: Harper & Row, 1968); M. Shaw, op. cit.
26. J. R. Hackman, “The Design of Work Teams,” in J. Lorsch, ed., Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 300–345.
27. J. M. George and G. R. Jones, Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior 6th edition, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Pearson, 2012).
28. J. Pfeffer, Organizations and Organization Theory (Boston: Pittman, 1982).
Understanding and Managing Work Teams
1. Katzenbach and Smith, “The Discipline of Teams”, Harvard Business Review, July 2005.
2. Gratton and Erickson, “Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2007.
3. Bruce Tuckman, “Development Sequence in Small Groups”, 1965.
4. J.J. Gabarro, The Dynamics of Taking Charge, Harvard Business School Press, 1987, pp. 85-87.
5. Linda A. Hill, “Managing Your Team”, Harvard Business Review, 1995.
6. Linda A. Hill, “Exercising Influence”, Harvard Business Review, 1994.
7. Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, 2002, p. 188.
8. Capobianco, Davis and Kraus, Managing Conflict Dynamics: A Practical Approach, (2005)
9. David Rock and Heidi Grant, “Why Diverse Teams are Smarter”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2016.
11. Lorenzo, Yoigt, Schetelig, Zawadzki, Welpe, Brosi, “The Mix that Matters: Innovation Through Diversity”, Boston Consulting Group, April 2017.
12. Brett, Behfar, Kern, “Managing Multicultural Teams”, Harvard Business Review, 2007.
13. Li and Liao, “Cultural Competence: Why it Matters and How You Can Acquire It”, IESE Insight, 2015.
14. Earley and Mosakowski, “Cultural Intelligence”, Harvard Business Review article 2004.
1. C. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, University of Illinois Press, 1948.
2. R. E. Quinn, S. R. Faerman, M. P. Thompson, M.R. McGrath, and D. S. Bright, Becoming a Master Manager, Sixth edition, Wiley, 2015, Page 48.
3. F. M. Jablin and Linda L. Putnam, The New Handbook of Organizational Communication, Sage, 2005.
4. D. L. Worthington and G. D. Bodie, The Sourcebook of Listening Research: Methodology and Measures, Wiley, 2018.
5. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row, p. 31.
8. McGregor, J. (2008). “Bezos: How Frugality Drives Innovation,” BusinessWeek, April 28, 2008, pp. 64–66.
9. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, pp. 166–167.
12. H. Mintzberg, Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations, Free Press, 2007.
13. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, pp. 166–167.
14. Drucker, P. F. (1954). The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row.
15. Eccles, R. G. & Noria, N. (1992). Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press, p. 205.
18. Ziegler, B. (1994). “Video Conference Calls Change Business,” Wall Street Journal, October 13, 1994, pp. B1, B12.
19. Rankin, P. T. (1952). The Measurement of the Ability to Understand Spoken Language. (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1926). Dissertation Abstracts 12, No. 6 (1952), pp. 847–848; Nichols, R. G. & Stevens, L. (1957). Are You Listening? New York: McGraw-Hill; and Wolvin, A. D. & Coakley, C. G. (1982). Listening. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown and Co.; and Werner, E. K. (1975). A Study of Communication Time. (M.S. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park)
20. Kotter, J. P. (1999). “What Effective General Managers Really Do,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1999, pp. 145–159
21. Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday; and Searle, J. R. (1967). The Construction of Social Reality. New York: The Free Press, 1995.
22. Larkin, T. J. & Larkin, S. (1994). Communicating Change: Winning Employee Support for New Business Goals. New York: McGraw-Hill.
1. Louise Axon, Elisa Friedman, and Kathy Jordan. 2015 (July). Leading Now: Critical Capabilities for a Complex World. Harvard Business Publishing, (Accessed July 25, 2017) http://www.harvardbusiness.org/leading-now-critical-capabilities-complex-world.
2. K. Labich. 1988 (Oct. 24). The seven keys to business leadership. Fortune, 58.
3. W. Bennis. 1989. Why leaders can’t lead. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
4. B.M. Bass. 1990. Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York: The Free Press.
5. W. Bennis. 1989. Why leaders can’t lead. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; W. Bennis, & B. Nanus. 1985. Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row.
6. T.B. Pickens, Jr. 1992 (Fall/Winter). Pickens on leadership. Hyatt Magazine, 21.
7. E.P. Hollander & J.W. Julian. 1969. Contemporary trends in the analysis of leadership process. Psychological Bulletin 7(5): 387–397.
8. E.P. Hollander. 1964. Emergent leadership and social influence. In E.P. Hollander (ed.), Leaders, groups, & influence. New York: Oxford University Press.
9. F.E. Fiedler. 1996. Research on leadership selection and training: One view of the future. Administrative Science Quarterly 41:241–250.
10. Hollander & Julian, 1969.
11. R.M. Stogdill. 1948. Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology 28: 35–71.
12. A.J. Murphy. 1941. A study of the leadership process. American Sociological Review 6:674–687.
14. R.J. House & T.R. Mitchell. 1974 (Autumn). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business 81–97.
15. G. Yukl. 1971. Toward a behavioral theory of leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 6:414–440.
16. D.G. Gardner & J.L. Pierce. 1998. Self-esteem and self-efficacy within the organizational context. Group & Organization Management 23(1):48–70.
17. P. Hersey & K.H. Blanchard. 1988. Management of organizational behavior utilizing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
18. C.N. Greene. 1975. The reciprocal nature of influence between leader and subordinate. Journal of Applied Psychology 60: 187–193.
19. Hollander & Julian, 1969.
20. B.B. Graen & M. Wakabayashi. 1994. Cross-cultural leadership-making: Bridging American and Japanese diversity for team advantage. In M. D. Dunnette (ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 4 (2nd ed.): 415–446. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
21. C.A. Schriesheim, S.L. Castro, & F.J. Yammarino. 2000. Investigating contingencies: An examination of the impact of span of supervision and upward controlling on leader-member exchange using traditional and multivariate within- and between-entities analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 85:659–677; A.S. Phillips & A.G. Bedeian. 1994. Leader-follower exchange quality: The role of personality and interpersonal attributes. Academy of Management Journal 37:990–1001.
22. J.A. Conger. 1993. The brave new world of leadership training. Organizational Dynamics 21(3):46–59.
24. G.R. Salancik & J. Pfeffer. 1977 (Winter). Who gets power and how they hold on to it: A strategic contingency model of power. Organizational Dynamics, 3–21.
25. A.J. Murphy. 1941. A study of the leadership process. American Sociological Review 6:674–687.
26. L. Smircich & G. Morgan. 1982. Leadership: The management of meaning. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 18(3): 257–273; Stogdill, 1948.
28. J. R. P. French, Jr. & B. Raven. 1959. The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (ed.), Studies in social power. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 150– 167.
29. A. Etzioni. 1961. A comparative analysis of complex organizations, on power, involvement, and their correlates. New York: Free Press of Glenco; H. C. Kelman. 1958. Compliance, identification, and internalization: Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51–61.
30. G. Yukl & J. B. Tracey. 1992. Consequences of influence tactics used with subordinates, peers, and the boss. Journal of Applied Psychology 77:525–535; T.R. Hinkin & CA. Schriesheim. 1990. Relationships between subordinate perceptions of supervisor influence tactics and attributed bases of supervisory power. Human Relations 43:221–237; P.M. Podsakoff & C.A. Schriesheim. 1985. Field studies of French and Raven’s bases of power: Critique, reanalysis, and suggestions for future research. Psychological Bulletin 97:398–411.
31. T.R. Hinkin & C.A. Schriesheim. 1990. Relationships between subordinate perceptions of supervisor influence tactics and attributed based of supervisory power. Human Relations 43:221–237.
33. L. Smircich & G. Morgan. 1982. Leadership: The management of meaning. Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences 18(3): 257–273.
34. R. Tannenbaum & W.H. Schmidt. 1958 (Mar.–Apr.). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review, 95–101; R. Tannenbaum & W.H. Schmidt. 1973 (May–June). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review, 162–175.
35. K. Davis & J.W. Newstrom. 1985. Human behavior at work: Organization behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
36. D. McGregor. 1957. The human side of enterprise, Management Review 46:22–28, 88–92; D. McGregor. 1960. The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
37. M. Haire, E.E. Ghiselli, & L.W. Porter. 1966. Managerial thinking: An international study. New York: Wiley.
38. R.E. Miles. 1975. Theories of management: Implications for organizational behavior and development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
39. J.P. Muczyk & B.C. Reimann. 1987. The case for directive leadership. The Academy of Management Executive 1:301–311.
40. W. A. Pasmore. 1988. Designing effective organizations: The sociotechnical systems perspective. New York: Wiley; T. J. Peters & R.H. Waterman, Jr. 1982. In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
41. F. A. Kramer. 1992 (Summer). Perspectives on leadership from Homer’s Odyssey. Business and the Contemporary World 168–173.
42. K. Labich. 1988 (Oct. 24). The seven keys to business leadership. Fortune, 58.
43. Stogdill, 1948; R. M. Stogdill. 1974. Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.
44. Ibid., 81. See also Stogdill, 1948.
45. S.A. Kirkpatrick & E.A. Locke. 1991. Leadership: Do traits matter? The Executive 5(2):48–60. E.A. Locke, S. Kirkpatrick, J.K. Wheeler, J. Schneider, K. Niles, H. Goldstein, K. Welsh, & D.-O. Chad. 1991. The essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington.
46. Kirkpatrick & Locke. 1991. The best managers: What it takes. 2000 (Jan. 10). Business Week, 158.
47. Locke et al., 1991; T.A. Stewart. 1999 (Oct. 11). Have you got what it takes? Fortune 140(7):318–322.
48. W. Mischel. 1973. Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review 80:252– 283.
49. R.J. House & R.N. Aditya. 1997. The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management 23:409– 473; T.J. Bouchard, Jr., D.T. Lykken, M. McGue, N.L. Segal, & A. Tellegen. 1990. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science 250:223–228.
50. S. Helgesen. 1990. The female advantage. New York: Doubleday/Currency; J. Fierman. 1990 (Dec. 17). Do women manage differently? Fortune 122:115–120; J.B. Rosener. 1990 (Nov.–Dec.). Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review 68(6): 119–125.
51. J.B. Chapman. 1975. Comparison of male and female leadership styles. Academy of Management Journal 18:645–650; E.A. Fagenson 1990. Perceived masculine and feminine attributes examined as a function of individual’s sex and level in the organizational power hierarchy: A test of four theoretical perspectives. Journal of Applied Psychology 75:204–211.
52. R.L. Kent & S.E. Moss. 1994. Effects of sex and gender role on leader emergence. Academy of Management Journal 37: 1335–1346.
54. A.H. Early & B.T. Johnson. 1990. Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 108:233–256.
55. G.H. Dobbins, W.S. Long, E. Dedrick, & T.C. Clemons. 1990. The role of self-monitoring and gender on leader emergence: A laboratory and field study. Journal of Management 16:609–618.
56. B.M. Staw & S.G. Barsade. 1993. Affect and managerial performance: A test of the sadder-but-wiser vs happier-and-smarter hypothesis. Administrative Science Quarterly 38:304–331.
57. J.M. George & K. Bellenhausen. 1990. Understanding prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: A group-level analysis in a service context. Journal of Applied Psychology 75:698–709.
58. Dobbins et al., 1990.
59. K. Labich, 1988, 58–66.
60. C. Williams. 2017 (June 23). Leadership: Coaching has a Role to Play in Business. Central Penn Business Journal. http://www.cpbj.com/article/20170623/CPBJ01/170629935/leadership-coaching-has-role-to-play-in-business
61. J. Anthony. 2017. This Much We Know. (Accessed August 4, 2017). https://thismuchweknow.net/2016/09/21/10-ideas-and-concepts-that-describe-me-really-well/
62. E.A. Fleishman. 1953. The description of supervisory behavior. Personnel Psychology 37:1–6; E.A. Fleishman & E.F. Harris. 1962. Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover. Personnel Psychology 15:43–56; A. W. Halpin & B. J. Winer. 1957. A factorial study of the leader behavior descriptions. In R.M. Stogdill & A.C. Coons (eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University; J.K. Hemphill & A.E. Coons. 1975. Development of the leader behavior description questionnaire. In R. M. Stogdill & A. E. Coons (eds.), Leader behavior; S. Kerr & C. Schriesheim. 1974. Consideration, initiating structure, and organizational criteria—an update of Korman’s 1966 review. Personnel Psychology 27:555–568.
63. D. Katz & R.L. Kahn. 1952. Some recent findings in human relations research. In E. Swanson, T. Newcomb, & E. Hartley (eds.), Readings in social psychology, New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston; D. Katz, N. Macoby, & N. Morse. 1950. Productivity, supervision, and morale in an office situation, Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research; F.C. Mann & J. Dent. 1954. The supervisor: Member of two organizational families. Harvard Business Review 32:103–112.
64. D. G. Bowers & S. C. Seashore. 1966. Pretesting organizational effectiveness with a four-factor theory of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly 11:238–262; Yukl, 1971; D.A. Nadler, G.D. Jenkins, Jr., C. Cammonn, and E.E. Lawler, III. 1975. The Michigan organizational assessment package progress report. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
65. Bowers & Seashore, 1966.
66. R.R. Blake & J.S. Mouton. 1964. The managerial grid. Houston: Gulf; R.R. Blake & J.S. Mouton. 1981. The versatile manager: A grid profile, Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin; R.R. Blake & J.S. Mouton. 1984. The new managerial grid III. Houston: Gulf.
67. R.R. Blake & J.S. Mouton. 1981. Management by grid® principles or situationalism: Which? Group and Organization Studies 6:439–455.
68. L. L. Larson, J. G. Hunt, & R. N. Osborn. 1976. The great hi-hi leader behavior myth: A lesson from Occam’s razor. Academy of Management Journal 19:628–641.
69. D. Tjosvold. 1984. Effects of warmth and directiveness on subordinate performance on a subsequent task. Journal of Applied Psychology 69:422–427; A.W. Halpin. 1957. The leader behavior and effectiveness of aircraft commanders. In R.M. Stogdill & A. E. Coons (eds.). Leader Behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research.; E.A. Fleishman & J. Simmons. 1970. Relationship between leadership patterns and effectiveness ratings among Israeli foremen. Personnel Psychology 23:169–172.
71. House & Aditya, 1997.
72. F.E. Fiedler & M.M. Chemers. 1974. Leadership and effective management. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
73. F.E. Fiedler. 1976. The leadership game: Matching the men to the situation. Organizational Dynamics, 4, 9.
74. Personal conversation between Robert J. House and Fred Fiedler in September 1996, as reported in House & Aditya, 1997.
75. F.E. Fiedler. Sept.–Oct. 1965. Engineering the job to fit the manager. Harvard Business Review, 115–122.
76. See, for example, the supporting results of M.M. Chemers & G.J. Skrzypek. 1972. Experimental test of the contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24:172–177; and the contradictory results of R.P. Vecchio. 1977. An empirical examination of the validity of Fiedler’s model of leadership effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 19:180–206.
77. R.B. Dunham. 1984. [Interview with Fred E. Fiedler.] Organizational behavior: People and processes in management. Homewood, IL: Irwin, 368; J. L. Kennedy, Jr. 1982. Middle LPC leaders and the contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 30:1–14.
78. Chemens & Skrzpek, 1972; Vecchio, 1977.
79. House & Aditya. 1997; L.H. Peters, D.D. Hartke, & J.T. Pohlman. 1985. Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership: An application of the meta-analysis procedure of Schmidt and Hunter. Psychological Bulletin 97:274–285.
80. R.J. House. 1971. A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 16:324.
81. R. Hoojiberg. 1996. A multidimensional approach toward leadership: An extension of the concept of behavioral complexity. Human Relations 49(7):917–946.
82. R.J. House & T.R. Mitchell. 1974 (Autumn). Path-goal theory of leadership, Journal of Contemporary Business, 86; R.J. House & G. Dessler. 1974. The path-goal theory of leadership: Some post hoc and a priori tests. In J. Hunt & L. Larson (eds.). Contingency approaches to leadership. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
83. House & Mitchell, 1974; House & Dessler, 1974; R.T. Keller. 1989. A test of the path-goal theory of leadership with need for clarity as a moderator in research and development organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology 74:208–212.
84. G. Bristol. 2016. Why Diversity in the Workplace is Imperrative. Entrepreneur, March 25. (Accessed august 4, 2017) https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/270110
85. J.R. Meindl, S.B. Ehrlich, & J.M. Dukerich. 1985. The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly 30:78–102.
86. C. Robert, T. M. Probst, J. J. Martocchion, F. Drasgow, & J. J. Lawler. 2000. Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism. Journal of Applied Psychology 85:643–658.
87. P.W. Dorfman & S. Roonen. 1991. The universality of leadership theories: Challenges and paradoxes. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meetings, Miami.
88. P.W. Dorfman, J.P. Howell, S. Hiblino, J.K. Lee, U. Tate, & A. Bautista. 1997. Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. Leadership Quarterly 8(3):233–274.
89. P.M. Podsakoff, B.P. Niehoff, S.B. MacKenzie, & M.L. Williams. 1993. Do substitutes for leadership really substitute for leadership: An empirical examination of Kerr and Jermier’s situational leadership model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54:1–44; S. Kerr. 1977. Substitutes for leadership: Some implications for organizational design. Organization and Administrative Sciences 8:135–146; S. Kerr & J.M. Jermier. 1978. Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22:375– 403; J. P. Howell & P. W. Dorfman. 1981. Substitutes for leadership: Test of a construct. Academy of Management Journal 24:714– 728; J.L. Pierce, R.B. Dunham, & L.L. Cummings. 1984. Sources of environmental structuring and participant responses. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 33:214–242.
90. D.G. Gardner, R.B. Dunham, L.L. Cummings, & J.L. Pierce. 1989. Focus of attention at work: Construct definition and empirical validation. Journal of Occupational Psychology 62:61–77.
91. D.G. Gardner, R.B. Dunham, L.L. Cummings, & J.L. Pierce. 1987. Focus of attention at work and leader-follower relationships. Journal of Occupational Behaviour 8:277–294.
92. G.A. Yukl. 1981. Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
93. B. Kellerman. 1984. Leadership: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; F. L. Landy. 1985. Psychology of work behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
94. J.M. Burns. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row; B. M. Bass. 1985. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
95. R.L. Daft. 2018. The Leadership Experience 7th edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
96. J. R. Baum, E. A. Locke, & S. A. Kirkpatrick. 1998. A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Applied Psychology 83:43–54; J.M. Howell & P.J. Frost. 1989. A laboratory study of charismatic leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 43:243–269.
98. T. A. Judge & J.E. Bono. 2000. Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology 85:751–765.
99. R. Pillai, C.A. Schriesheim, & E.S. Williams. 1999. Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: A two-sample study. Journal of Management 25:897–933.
100. C.C. Manz & H.P. Sims, Jr. 1987. Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managed work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly 32:106–129.
101. Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999.
103. S.N. Eisenstadt. 1968. Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 46.
104. J.A. Conger & R.N. Kanungo. 1987. Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12:637–647; Howell & Frost, 1989.
105. R.J. House & M.L. Baetz. 1979. Leadership: Some empirical generalizations and new research directions. Research in Organizational Behavior 1:341–423; Conger and Kanungo, 1987.
106. Howell & Frost, 1989.
107. R. J. House. 1977. A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (eds.). Leadership: The cutting edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
108. A. R. Willner. 1984. The spellbinders: Charismatic political leadership. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
111. House & Aditya, 1997.
Organizational Power and Politics
1. Cited in A. Henderson and T. Parsons, Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. (New York: The Free Press, 1947), p. 152.
2. R. Emerson, “Power Dependence Relations,” American Sociological Review, 1962, 27, p. 32.
3. H. Mintzberg, Power in and Around Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1983); R. J. House, “Power and Personality in Complex Organizations,” in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings, eds., Research in Organizational Behavior (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1988), pp. 307–357.
4. A. Grimes, “Authority, Power, Influence, and Social Control: A Theoretical Synthesis,” Academy of Management Review, October 1978, p. 726.
5. A. Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964).
6. J. French and B. Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” in D. Cartwright and A. Zander, eds., Group Dynamics (New York: Harper & Row, 1968); P. Podsakoff and C. Schriesheim, “Field Studies of French and Raven’s Bases of Power: Critique, Reanalysis, and Suggestions for Future Research,” Psychological Bulletin, May 1985, pp. 376–398.
7. D. Tjosvold, “Power and Social Context in the Superior-Subordinate Interaction,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, June 1985, pp. 281–293.
8. Y. Shetty, “Managerial Power and Organizational Effectiveness: A Contingency Analysis,” Journal of Management Studies, 1978, 15, pp. 178–181.
9. D. Kipnis, The Powerholders (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), p. 77.
11. T. R. Mitchell and J. Larson, People in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
12. J. Pfeffer, Power: Why Some People Have it and Others Don’t (New York: Harper Business, 2011).
14. R. Kanter, On the Frontiers of Management, (Boston: Harvard Business Review Books) 2004.
15. H. D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936).
16. Pfeffer, op. cit., p. 8.
18. J. Gandz and V. Murray, “The Experience of Workplace Politics,” Academy of Management Journal, 1980, 23, pp. 237–251.
19. R. Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1980); C. Leana, “Power Relinquishment versus Power Sharing: Theoretical Clarification and Empirical Comparison of Delegation and Participation,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1987, 72, pp. 228–233.
20. D. Madison, R. Allen, L. Porter, P. Renwick, and B. Mays, “Organizational Politics: An Exploration of Manager’s Perceptions,” Human Relations, February 1980, pp. 79–100.
21. J. Pfeffer and G. Salancik, The External Control of Organizations (New York: Harper & Row, 1978).
24. Miles, op. cit., p. 170.
26. D. Hickson, C. Hinings, C. Lee, R. Schneck, and J. Pennings, “A Strategic Contingencies Theory of Intraorganizational Power,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1971, 14, pp. 219–220.
28. D. Beeman and T. Sharkey, “The Uses and Abuses of Corporate Politics,” Business Horizons, March-April 1987, pp. 25–35.
Conflict and Negotiations
1. K. Thomas and W. Schmidt, “A Survey of Managerial Interests with Respect to Conflict,” Academy of Management Journal, 1976, pp. 315–318.
2. J. Graves, “Successful Management and Organizational Mugging,” in J. Paap ed., New Directions in Human Resource Management (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978); M. Rahim, “A Measure of Styles of Handling Interpersonal Conflict,” Academy of Management Journal, 1983, pp. 368–376.
3. Cited in the Register-Guard, October 31, 1981, p. 23.
4. L. Coser, The Functions of Social Conflict (New York: Free Press, 1956). p. 154.
5. R. Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1980).
6. K. Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” In M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976).
7. K. Thomas and L. Pondy, “Toward and Intent Model of Conflict Management Among Principal Parties,” Human Relations, 1967, 30, pp. 1089–1102.
9. J. Graham, “The Influence of Culture on Business Negotiations,” Journal of International Business Studies, Spring 1985, pp. 81–96.
11. Ibid.; R. J. Lewicki, B. Barry, and D. M. Saunders, Essentials of Negotiation, (New York, N.Y., McGraw Hill, 2016), M. Baserman, “Why Negotiations Go Wrong,” Psychology Today, June 1986, pp. 54–58; J. Graham and Y. Sano, Smart Bargaining (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).
12. E. Glenn, D. Witmeyer, and K. Stevenson, “Cultural Styles of Persuasion,” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Fall 1977, pp. 62–66.
13. Data supplied by John Graham, Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine. Cited in N. J. Adler and A. Gunderson, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior 5th edition (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008), p. 167.
14. J. Graham, “The Influence of Culture on Business Negotiations,” Journal of International Business Studies, Spring 1985, pp. 81–96.
15. Roger Fisher,William L. Ury and Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes, (New York: Penguin; 2012); Douglas D. Edwards, De Dicto, March 18, 2013, http://is.gd/ys8Hny.
External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
1. Panetta, Kasey, “Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2018”, Gartner, October 3, 2017. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-10-strategic-technology-trends-for-2018/
2. Mearian, Lucas, “What is blockchain? The most disruptive technology in decades”, Computerworld, May 31, 2018. https://www.computerworld.com/article/3191077/security/what-is-blockchain-the-most-disruptive-tech-in-decades.html; https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
3. Young Entrepreneurship Council, “23 Trends That Will Shake the Business World in 2018”, Forbes, January 10, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
4. This is a broad definition which has been used in different forms. The source here is “What is an External Environment in Business” Chapter 5, study.com, Accessed October 15, 2018. https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-an-external-environment-in-business-definition-types-factors.html
5. Jamrisko, Michelle, “China’s Economy to Overtake Euro Zone This Year”, Bloomberg, March 6, 2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-06/china-s-economy-is-set-to-overtake-combined-euro-area-this-year
6. China Owns US Debt, but How Much? | Investopedia, April 6, 2018. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/080615/china-owns-us-debt-how-much.asp#ixzz5DcHG4d7k
7. Rawlinson, Paul, “A prediction for globalization in 2018”, World Economic Forum, January 22, 2018. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/prediction-globalization-2018/
8. Bersin, Josh and Mazor, Art, “Culture Engagement and Beyond”, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/improving-the-employee-experience-culture-engagement.html?id=us:2ps:3gl:confidence:eng:cons:::na:LIxmKVLK:1079836504:244787795449:b:RLSA_Human_Capital_Trends::nb
9. Cilluffo, Anthony and Cohen, D’Vera, “10 demographic trends shaping the U. S. and the World in 2017”, Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/10-demographic-trends-shaping-the-u-s-and-the-world-in-2017/
10. Graf, Nikki, Sexual Harassment at work in the Era of #MeToo”, Pew Research Center, April 4, 2018. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/04/04/sexual-harassment-at-work-in-the-era-of-metoo/
11. The Global Risks Report 2018 13th Edition. (2018). The World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 6. Also see http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2018/global-risks-landscape-2018/
12. Fry, Richard, “It’s becoming more common for young adults to live at home for longer stretches”, Pew Research Center, May 5, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/05/its-becoming-more-common-for-young-adults-to-live-at-home-and-for-longer-stretches/
13. DeSilver, Drew, “Women scarce at the top of U.S. business- and in the job that lead there”, Pew Research Center, April 30, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/30/women-scarce-at-top-of-u-s-business-and-in-the-jobs-that-lead-there/
14. Hunt, Vivian et al, “Delivering Through Diversity”, McKinsey, January 2018. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Organization/Our%20Insights/Delivering%20through%20diversity/Delivering-through-diversity_full-report.ashx
15. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf
16. Rice, Doyle, “Thousands of low-lying islands may become 'uninhabitable' within decades as seas rise”, USA Today, April 25, 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/04/25/thousands-low-lying-islands-may-become-uninhabitable-within-decades-seas-rise/550659002/
17. Felice De Toni, A. and G. De Zan. (2016), The complexity dilemma, Three tips for dealing with complexity in organizations, Practitioner, Dec. 31, https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-complexity-dilemma/
18. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Sull, D. N. (2001). “Strategy as simple rules”, Harvard Business Review, 79(1): 106-119
20. Bersin, Josh, et al, “2017 Global Human Capital trends”, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
22. Burns, T. & Stalker, G. M. (1961), The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London; Mintzberg, H. 1979. The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Emery, Fred E. and Eric L. Trist, (1965), "The Causal Texture of Organizational Environments", pp 21-32 in Human Relations, February 1965
23. Anand, N. and R. Daft. (2007). What is the Right Organization Design? Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 329–344.
25. This section draws on a number of scholarly and practitioner sources, including the following: R. Daft. (2016). Organization Theory & Design, 12th ed. Cengage Learning, Boston, MA; https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/team-structure-diagrams; Burton and Obel. (2018). Journal of Organization Design Vol. 7, Issue 5, Devaney, Erik, “7 types of organizational Structure & Whom They’re Suited For [Diagrams], Hubspot, accessed November 18, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-018-0029-2; “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/; and Bersin, josh, “The organization of the Future: Arriving Now’, 2017 Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
26. Brent Durbin. Matrix organization, Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/matrix-organization
27. “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/
29. G. Satell. (June 8, 2015). What Makes an Organization “Networked”, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2015/06/what-makes-an-organization-networked
30. Satell, Greg, “The Story of Networks”, Digital Tonto, September 26, 2010. https://www.digitaltonto.com/2010/the-story-of-networks/; and “Networked Organizations”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/ http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/networked-organization/
31. J. Bersin, T. McDowell, A. Rahnema, and Yves Van Durme. (February 28, 2017), “The organization of the future: Arriving now, 2017” Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
32. Lister, Jonathan, “The Disadvantages of Network-based organizational Structure”, Chron, accessed November 18, 2018. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-networkbased-organization-structure-35988.html
33. Sources in this section include the following: C. Handy. (May–June 1995). Trust and the Virtual Organization, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/1995/05/trust-and-the-virtual-organization; M. Ahuja and K. Carley. (1999), Network Structure in Virtual Organizations, Organization Science, Volume 10, Issue 6, June, pp. 741 – 757; http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/organization/what-is-virtual-organisation-definition-characteristics-and-types/35533
34. D. Onley. (Apr 29, 2015), Environment, https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/technology/Pages/How-Telecommuting-Helps-the-Environment.aspx
35. I. McCarthy, T. Lawrence, B. Wixted, and B. Gordon. (2010). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Environmental Velocity, Academy of Management Review 34, no. 4, pp. 604-626
36. Katz, D. & Kahn R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations, John Wiley, New York, N.Y.
37. Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory, George Braziller, publisher, New York.
38. Adapted from Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “CEO Attributes as Determinants of Organization Design: An integrated Model,” Organization Studies 15, no. 2 (1994): 183-212
39. J. Trevor and B. Varcoe. (2017). How Aligned Is Your Organization? Harvard Business Review, February, https://hbr.org/2017/02/how-aligned-is-your-organization
40. Dalavagas, Iason, “McDonald’s Corp: A Short SWOT Analysis, Value line, May 11, 2015. http://www.valueline.com/Stocks/Highlights/McDonalds_Corp___A_Short_SWOT_Analysis.aspx#.WyqOj1VKiig
41. “Amazon accounts for 43% of US online retail sales” Business Insider, February 3, 2017. http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-accounts-for-43-of-us-online-retail-sales-2017-2
42. Dudovskiy, John, “Amazon Organizational Structure”, Research Methodology, August 1, 2018 https://research-methodology.net/amazon-organizational-structure-2/
43. Meyer, Pauline, “Amazon.com Inc.’s Organizational Structure Characteristics (An Analysis)”, Panmore Institute, September 8, 2018 http://panmore.com/amazon-com-inc-organizational-structure-characteristics-analysis
45. Cohan, Peter, “3 Reasons Amazon Is the World’s Best Business”, Forbes, February 2, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2018/02/02/3-reasons-amazon-is-the-worlds-best- business/#563e86e63565
46. Hyken, Shep, “Drucker said Culture Eats Strategy for Breakfast”, Forbes, December 5, 2015. https://www.forbes.com/sites/shephyken/2015/12/05/drucker-said-culture-eats-strategy-for-breakfast-and-enterprise-rent-a-car-proves-it/#7a7572822749
47. Ed Schein. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; J.W. Weiss. (2014). An Introduction to Leadership, 2nd ed., Bridgepoint Education, Inc.C
48. This discussion of the CVF is based on these sources: K. Cameron, R. Quinn, J. Degraff, and A. Thakor, (2014). Competing Values Leadership, 2nd ed., New Horizons in Management, Northampton, MA; K. Cameron and R. Quinn (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; and https://www.ocai-online.com/blog/2016/09/Organizational-culture-Create-Collaborate-Control-Compete
49. T. Yu and N. Wu. (2009). “A Review of Study on the Competing Values Framework”, International Journal of Business Management, Vol.4, No. 7, July, pp. 47-42.
50. Nocera, Joe, “Jeff Bezos and The Amazon way”, The New York Times, August 21, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/opinion/joe-nocera-jeff-bezos-and-the-amazon-way.html
51. Farber, Madeline, “Amazon Employee Attempts Suicide After Sending Email to Colleagues”, Fortune, November 29, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/11/29/amazon-employee-suicide-attempt/
52. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 8 and pp. 54-57.
53. Agarwal, Dimple, “Introduction: The Rise of the Social Enterprise”, Deloitte Insights, March 28, 2018.? https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2018/introduction.html
Organizational Structure and Change
1. For an in-depth exploration of the field of organizational development and change, see Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
2. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. L., The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1978; and Schein, Edgar, Organizational Psychology, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 1980.
3. Weber, Max, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1958.
4. Brown, K. and Eisenhardt, M., “The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-Paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1997, pp 1-34.
5. Kotter, J. and Schlesinger, L., “Choosing Strategies for Change”, Harvard Business Review, 57, 1979, pp. 106-114.
6. Setter, Craig Joseph and The Council for Six Sigma Certification, Six Sigma: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide, The Council for Six Sigma Certification, 2018.
7. Eisenbach, R., Watson, K., and Pillai, R., “Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12, 1999, pp. 80-89.
8. Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
9. Quinn, R. E. (2015). The Positive Organization: Breaking Free from Conventional Cultures, Constraints, and Beliefs (1 edition). Oakland: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
10. Lewin, K., Field Theory in Social Science, Harper & Row, 1951; and Kotter, J., Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, 2012.
11. Cooperrider, David L., The Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: For Leaders of Change, Berrett-Kohler, 2008.
12. Olson, Edwin E. and Eoyang, Glenda H., Facilitating Organizational Change: Lessons from Complexity Science, Pfeiffer, 2001.
13. Bright, D. S. (2009). Appreciative Inquiry and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Philosophy of Practice for Turbulent Times. OD Practitioner, 41(3), 2–7.
14. Whitney, D., & Trosten-Bloom, A. (2010). The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change (Second Edition). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
15. Burnes, B. (2005). Complexity theories and organizational change. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(2), 73–90.
16. Owen, H. (2008). Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide (Third Edition). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
17. Olson, E. E., & Eoyang, G. H. (2001). Facilitating Organization Change: Lessons From Complexity Science (1st ed.). Pfeiffer.
Human Resource Management
1. Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, Younger, HR From the Outside In, 2012. SHRM.org
2. “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, October 2016).
3. Buckingham and Goodall, “Reinventing Performance Management”, Harvard Business Review, 2015.
4. Goler, Gale and Grant, “Let’s Not Kill Performance Evaluations Yet”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2016.
5. Capelli and Tavis, “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, 2016, p. 9-11.
6. Stephen Miller, “Study: Pay for Performance Pays Off”, Society for Human Resource Management, 2011.
7. 2015 World at Work “Compensation Programs and Practices Report”
8. Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, “Employee, Motivation: A Powerful New Model” Harvard Business Review, August 2008.
9. Fernandez-Araoz, Groysberg, Nohria, “The Definitive Guide to Recruiting in Good Times and Bad”, Harvard Business Review, 2009.
11. Effron and Ort, One Page Talent Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2010.
Stress and Well Being
1. S. Yolles, “Mental Health at Work,” in A. McLean, ed., To Work Is Human (New York: Macmillan, 1967); R. Poe, “Does Your Job Make You Sick?” Across the Board, January 1987, pp. 34–43.
2. W. S. Neff, Work and Human Behavior (New York: Atherton, 1968), p. 208.
3. R. Ruddock, Six Approaches to the Person (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972), p. 94.
4. J. McGrath, “Stress and Behavior in Organizations,” in M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976).
5. H. Selye, The Stress of Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956).
6. W. C. Hamner and D. Organ, Organizational Behavior (Dallas: BPI, 1978), p. 202.
7. S. Terkel, Working (New York: Avon, 1972), p. 275.
9. C. Cooper and R. Payne, Stress at Work (London: Wiley, 1978); K. Hall and L. Savery, “Tight Rein, More Stress,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986, pp. 160–162, 164.
10. L. Krantz, The Jobs Rated Almanac (New York: Pharos Books, 1988).
11. Stress in the Workplace, American Psychological Association, March, 2011.
12. D. Zauderer and J. Fox, “Resiliency in the Face of Stress,” Management Solutions, November 1987, pp. 32–33.
13. J. French and R. Caplan, “Organizational Stress and Individual Strain,” in A. Marrow, ed., The Failure of Success (New York: Amacom, 1972), p. 48.
16. Cooper and Payne, op. cit.
17. R. Kahn, D. Wolfe, R. Quinn, J. Snoek, and R. Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity (New York: Wiley, 1964), pp. 70–71.
18. J. Quick and J. Quick, Organizational Stress and Preventive Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984); R. Sutton and A. Rafaeli, “Characteristics of Work Stations as Potential Occupational Stressors,” Academy of Management Journal, June 1987, pp. 260–276.
19. French and Caplan, op. cit.
22. G. Gardell, Arbetsinnehall och Livskvalitet (Stockholm: Prisma, 1976).
23. French and Caplan, op. cit., p. 51.
24. R. Schuler and S. Jackson, “Managing Stress Through P/HRM Practices,” in K. Rowland and G. Ferris, eds., Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1986), pp. 183–224.
25. C. Carver and D. Glass, “Coronary Prone Behavior Pattern and Interpersonal Aggression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, pp. 361–366; M. Fusilier, D. Ganster, and B. Mayes, “The Social Support and Health Relationship: Is There a Gender Difference?” Journal of Occupational Psychology, June 1986, pp. 145–153.
26. M. Friedman and R. Rosenman, Type A Behavior and your Heart (New York: Knopf, 1974).
27. J. Howard, D. Cunningham, and P. Rechnitzer, “Health Patterns Associated with Type A Behavior: A Managerial Population,” Journal of Human Stress, 1976, pp. 24–31.
28. Friedman and Rosenman, op. cit.
29. C. Jenkins, “Psychologic Disease and Social Prevention of Coronary Disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, 1971, 284, pp. 244–255; T. Beehr and R. Bhagat, Human Stress and Cognition in Organizations: An Integrated Perspective (New York: Wiley, 1985).
30. Business Week, October 17, 1977, p. 137.
32. T. H. Holmes and R. H. Rahe, “The Social Readjustment Rating Scale,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, August 1967, pp. 213–218. See also O. Behling and A. Darrow, “Managing Work-Related Stress,” in J. Rosenzweig and F. Kast, eds., Modules in Management (Chicago: SRA, 1984).
33. S. Cohen and T. Wills, “Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypothesis,” Psychological Bulletin, September 1985, pp. 310–357.
34. S. Kobasa, S. Maddi, and S. Kahn, “Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, January 1982, pp. 168–177; J. Hull, R. VanTreuren, and S. Virnelli, “Hardiness and Health: A Critique and Alternative Approach,” Journal of Personality and social Psychology, September 1987, pp. 518–530.
35. Cooper and Payne, op. cit.
36. D. Glass, “Stress, Competition, and Heart Attacks,” Psychology Today, July 1976, pp. 55–57.
37. S. Cobb and S. Kasl, “Blood Pressure Changes in Men Undergoing Job Loss: A Preliminary Report,” Psychosomatic Medicine, January-February 1970.
38. A. Slote, Termination: The Closing of Baker Plant (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1977).
39. A. Kornhauser, Mental Health and the Industrial Worker (New York: Wiley, 1965).
41. D. Allen and P. Bryant, Managing Employee Turnover: Dispelling Myths and Fostering Evidence-Based Retention Strategies, (Chicago: Business Expert Press, 2013); W. Mobley, Managing Employee Turnover (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1982); S. Rhodes and R. Steers, Managing Employee Absenteeism (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990).
42. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Work in America, 1973. p. 85.
43. T. Rosen, “Identification of Substance Abuse in the Workplace,” Public Personnel Management, Fall 1987, pp. 197–207; S. Flax, “The Executive Addict,” Fortune, June 24, 1985, pp. 24–31.
44. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, op. cit.
45. S. Jackson, R. Schwab, and R. Schuler, “Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Phenomenon,” Journal of Applied Psychology, November 1986, pp. 630–640.
46. B. Dumaine, “Cool Cures for Burnout,” Fortune, June 20, 1988, pp. 78–84.
47. Cited in U. S. News & World Report, March 13, 1978, p. 81.
48. C. Smith, “Labor: Working on a Change,” Far Eastern Economic Review, April 14, 1988, pp. 62–63.
49. I. Sarason, J. Johnson, J. Berberich, and J. Siegel, Helping Police Officers Cope with Stress: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, Technical Report, University of Washington, February 1978.
50. R. M. Steers, “Individual Differences in Participative Decision Making,” Human Relations, 1977, 30, pp. 837–847.
51. M. Matteson and J. Ivancevich, “Health Promotion at Work,” in C. Cooper and I. Robertson, eds., International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (London: Wiley, pp. 279–306).
52. M. Roberts and T. Harris, “Wellness at Work,” Psychology Today, May 1989, pp. 54–58.
53. D. L. Nelson; B. L. Simmons. P. L. Perrewé; D. C. Ganster, eds. Eustress: An Elusive Construct an Engaging Pursuit, 1st edition (Oxford, UK: Elsevier Jai., 2004); and Lazarus, R. S. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1966).
1. Scott Shane, and Sankara Venkataraman, S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
2. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2018. GEM 2017/2018 Global Report. https://gemconsortium.org/report/50012
3. Martha Irvine, "More 20-Somethings Are Blazing Own Paths in Business," San Diego Union-Tribune, November 22, 2004, p. C6.
4. Keith McFarland, "What Makes Them Tick," Inc. 500, October 19, 2005, http://www.inc.com.
6. Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries. 2010. Business model generation. Wiley.
7. Lieberman, M.B. and Montgomery, D.B., 1988. First-mover advantages. Strategic Management Journal, 9(S1), pp.41-58.
8. Kickstarter. 2019. Kickstart stats. https://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats
9. Statista. 2019. Crowdfunding worldwide. https://www.statista.com/outlook/335/100/crowdfunding/worldwide#market-users
10. Adam Thierer, Permissionless Innovation, 109-10.
11. Steve Kreft, and Russell Sobel, "Public Policy, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Freedom," Cato Journal 25:3 (2005).