Management and Organizational Behavior
1. S. Terkel, Working (New York: Pantheon, 1974).
2. S. Freud, Lecture XXXIII, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (New York: Norton, 1933), p. 34.
3. Michael E. Porter and Jan V. Rivkin, The Looming Challenge to U.S. Competitiveness, Harvard Business Review, March 2012.
4. World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
5. “The Future of Computing,” The Economist, March 12, 2015, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2016/03/12/the-future-of-computing.
6. Bureau of labor Statistics, “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2016,” October 2017, https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm.
7. Elaine Pofeldt, “This Crime in the Workplace is Costing US Business $50 Billion a Year,” CNBC, September 12, 2017, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/12/workplace-crime-costs-us-businesses-50-billion-a-year.html; and “Shoplifting, other Fraud Cost US Retailers $44 Billion in 2014: Survey,” CNBC, June 24, 2015, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/06/24/shoplifting-other-fraud-cost-us-retailers-44-billion-in-2014-survey.html.
8. R. Katz, “Skills of an Effective Administrator,” Harvard Business Review, September-October 1974, pp. 34–56.
9. J. Lindzon, “Five Skills That You’ll Need to Lead the Company of the Future,” Fast Company, May 18, 2017, https://www.fastcompany.com/40420957/five-skills-youll-need-to-lead-the-company-of-the-future; A. Bennett, “Going Global: The Chief Executives in the Year 2000 Are Likely to Have Had Much Foreign Experience,” Wall Street Journal, February 27, 1989, p. A–4.
10. Jacob Morgan, “5 Qualities of the Modern Manager,” Forbes, July 23, 2013, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacobmorgan/2013/07/23/5-must-have-qualities-of-the-modern-manager/#644a2b6a3a0b.
11. D. Nadler and M. Tushman, “A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior,” Organizational Dynamics, 1980, p. 35.
Individual and Cultural Differences
1. V.H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964).
2. R.J. Ebert and T.R. Mitchell, Organization Decision Processes: Concepts and Analysis (New York: Crane, Russak, 1975), p. 81.
4. T.R. Mitchell, “Cognitive Complexity and Leadership Style,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 16, pp. 166–174.
5. H. M. Schroder, M. H. Driver, and S. Streufert, Human Information Processing (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967).
6. E. J. McCormick and J. Tiffin, Industrial Psychology (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976).
7. Dale Feuer & Chris Lee. 1988. The Kaizen Connection: How Companies Pick Tomorrow’s Workers. Training. May, 23–35.
8. S.R. Maddi, Personality Theories: A Comparative Analysis (Homewood, III.: Dorsey, 1980), p. 10.
9. C. Kluckhohn and H. Murray, Personality in Society and Nature, (New York: Knopf, 1953).
10. P.H. Mussen, The Psychological Development of the Child (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
12. J. C. Abegglen, “Personality Factors in Social Mobility: A Study of Occupationally Mobile Businessmen,” Genetic Psychology Monographs, August 1958, pp. 101–159.
13. G.W. Allport, Pattern and Growth in Personality (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961).
14. R. A. Ellis and M. S. Taylor, “Role of Self-Esteem within the Job Search Process,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1983, 68, pp. 632–640.
15. P. Spector, “Behavior in Organizations as a Function of Locus of Control,” Psychological Bulletin, May 1982, pp. 482–497; P. Nystrom, “Managers’ Salaries and Their Beliefs About Reinforcement Control,” Journal of Social Psychology, August 1983, pp. 291–292.
16. L. R. Morris, Extroversion and Introversion: An Interactional Perspective (New York: Hemisphere, 1979), p.8.
17. T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, and D. J. Levinson, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).
18. V. H. Vroom, Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960).
19. M. Rokeach, The Open and Closed Mind (New York: Basic Books, 1960).
20. R. N. Taylor and M. D. Dunnette, “Influence of Dogmatism, Risk-Taking Propensity, and Intelligence on Decision-Making Strategies for a Sample of Industrial Managers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, pp. 420–423.
21. R. Stogdill, “Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature,” Journal of Psychology, 1948, 25, pp. 35–71; F. L. Greer, Small Group Effectiveness (Philadelphia: Institute for Research on Human Relations, 1955).
22. C. Argyris, “Personality and Organization Theory Revisited,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1973, 18, pp. 141–167.
23. M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 5.
25. Paul R. Sackett, Laura R. Burris, and Christine Callahan. 1989. Integrity Testing for Personnel Selection. Personnel Psychology, 42, 491–529.
26. R. M. Steers, Y. K. Shin, and G. R. Ungson, The Chaebol: Korea’s New Industrial Might (New York: Harper & Row, 1989), p. 96.
27. L. Smith, “Cracks in the Japanese Work Ethic,” Fortune, May 14, 1984, pp. 162–168; K. Van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power (New York: Knopf, 1989).
28. G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequence, (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1980), p. 25.
30. A. Laurent, “The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of Management,” International Studies of Management and Organization, XII, 1–2, Spring-Summer 1983, pp. 75–96.
31. F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck, Variations in Value Orientations (Evanston, III.: Row, Peterson, 1961).
32. T. Cox, et al., “Effects of Ethnic Group Cultural Differences on Cooperative and Competitive Behavior on a Group Task,” Academy of Management J., 34, pp. 827–847; and S. Gruman, cited in N. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (Boston: PWS/Kent, 1986), pp. 13–14.
Perception and Job Attitudes
1. M. W. Levine and J. M. Shefner, Fundamentals of Selection and Perception (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1981).
2. D. Kretch, R. S. Crutchfield, and E. L. Ballachey, Individual in Society (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).
3. F. L. Ruch, Psychology and life (Glenview: Scott, Foresman, 1983).
4. J. S. Bruner and L. Postman, “On the Perception of Incongruity: A Paradigm,” Journal of Personality, 1949, 18, pp. 206–223.
5. S. T. Fiske and S. E. Taylor, Social Cognition (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1984).
6. D. J. Mason, “Judgements of Leadership Based on Physiognomic Cues,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957, 54, pp. 273–274.
7. P. F. Secord, “The Role of Facial Features in Interpersonal Perception,” in R. Tagiuri and L. Petrullo, eds., Person Perception and Interpersonal Behavior (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1958), pp. 300–315.
8. J. W. Thibaut and H. W. Riecker, “Authoritarianism, Status, and the Communication of Aggression,” Human Relations, 1955, 8, pp. 95–120.
9. D. C. Dearborn and H. A. Simon, “Selective Perception: A Note on Departmental Identification of Executives,” Sociometry, 1958, 21, p. 142.
10. R. Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961).
11. Levine and Shefner, op. cit.
13. K. J. Frauenfelder, “A Cognitive Determinant of Favorability of Impression,” Journal of Social Psychology, 1974, 94, pp. 71–81.
14. R. Jain, H. C. Triandis, and C. W. Weick, Managing Research, Development and Innovation: Managing the Unmanageable, 3rd Edition (New York: Wiley, 2010).
15. C. von Hippel, et al, “Age-based stereotype threat and work outcomes: Stress appraisals and ruminations as mediators,” Psychology and Aging, February 2019, pp. 68-84.
16. Dearborn and Simon, op. cit.
17. J. B. Miner, Organizational Behavior 2: Essentials Theories of Process and Structure (Routledge, 2015).
18. Levine and Shefner, op. cit.
19. M. Haire and W. Grunes, “Perceptual Defenses: Processes Protecting an Organized Perception of Another’s Personality,” Human Relations, 1950, 3, pp. 403–412.
21. H. H. Kelley, “The Process of Causal Attributions,” American Psychologist, February 1973, pp. 107–128; F. Forsterling, “Attributional Retraining: A Review,” Psychological Bulletin, November 1985, pp. 495–512; B. Weiner, Human Motivation (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980).
22. Kelley, op. cit., p. 193.
25. Based on G. W. Allport, “Attitudes,” in C. Murchison, ed., Handbook of Social Psychology (Worcester: Clark University Press, 1935).
26. Jain, Triandis, and Weick op. cit.
27. B. M. Staw and J. Ross, “Stability in the Midst of Change: A Dispositional Approach to Job Attitudes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1985, 70, pp. 469–480.
28. G. Salancik and J. Pfeffer, “A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 1978, 23, pp. 224–253.
29. L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1957).
30. T. Lodahl and M. Kejner, “The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, pp. 24–33.
31. R. T. Mowday, L. W. Porter, and R. M. Steers, Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Employee Commitment, Absenteeism and Turnover (New York: Academic Press, 1982).
32. E. A. Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction,” in M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976).
33. L. W. Porter and R. M. Steers, “Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism,” Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, pp. 151–176.
34. B. M. Staw, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Morristown, N. J.: General Learning Press, 1976).
Learning and Reinforcement
1. Rose E. Spielman, Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett, and Marion Perlmutter, Psychology (Houston: OpenStax, 2015).
2. J. M. Ivancevich, A. D. Szilagyi, and M. Wallace, Organizational Behavior and Performance (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1977), p. 80.
3. B. F. Skinner, “Operant Behavior,” American Psychologist, 1963, 18, pp. 503–515.
4. J. B. Watson, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1914).
5. E. L. Thorndike, Animal Intelligence (New York: Macmillan, 1911), p. 244.
6. F. Luthans, et. al., Organizational Behavior 13th Edition (Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2016).
7. A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977).
8. A. Filley, R. J. House, and S. Kerr, Managerial Process and Organizational Behavior (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1975).
9. E. J. McCormick and D. Illgen, Industrial Psychology 8th edition (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984).
10. B. M. Bass and J. Vaughn, Training in Industry: The Management of Learning (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth, 1966); G. Wexley and G. P. Latham, Developing and Training Human Resources in Organizations, Third Edition (Pearson: 2002); and G. P. Latham, “Human Resource Training and Development,” in M. Rosenzweig and L. W. Porter, eds., Annual Review of Psychology (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews, 1988), pp. 545–581.
11. B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953), p. 73.
12. W. C. Hamner, “Reinforcement Theory,” in H. L. Tosi and W. C. Hamner, eds., Organizational Behavior and Management: A Contingency Approach (Chicago: St. Clair, 1977), p. 98.
13. T. W. Costello and S. S. Zalkind, Psychology in Administration: A Research Orientation (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), p. 193.
14. Hamner, op. cit., p. 105.
15. David Kolb, Experiential Learning, 2nd Edition, (Pearson FT Press: New York, 2015) and Mel Silberman, Elaine Beich and Carol Auerbach, Active Training, (Wiley: New York, 2016).
16. B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Knopf, 1971).
17. F. Luthans and R. Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1985), pp. 150–159.
18. F. Luthans and R. Davis, “Behavioral Self-Management—The Missing Link in Managerial Effectiveness,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1979, p. 43; F. Luthans and R. Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond: An Operant and Social Learning Approach (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1985).
19. F. H. Kanfer and A. P. Goldstein, Helping People Change: A Textbook of Methods (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980).
20. C. C. Neck and C. P. Manz, Mastering Self Leadership 6th edition, (Pearson, 2013).
21. A. Bandura, “Self-Reinforcement: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations,” Behaviorism, Fall 1976, pp. 135–155; Luthans and Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond.
22. G. Latham and C. Fayne, “Self-Management Training for Increasing Job Attendance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1989, pp. 411–416.
Diversity in Organizations
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4. Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., Jr., & Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion. Journal of Management Studies, 36, 1013-1031.
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6. Harrison, D.A., Price, K.H., & Bell, M.P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96-107.
7. Lambert, J.R., & Bell, M.P. (2013). Diverse forms of difference. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work (pp. 13 – 31). New York: Oxford University Press.
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9. Philips, K.W., Rothbard, N.P., & Dumas, T.L. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose? Status distance and self-disclosure in diverse environments. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 710-732.
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Perception and Managerial Decision Making
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Work Motivation for Performance
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6. In fact, McClelland argued that the success of entire societies is dependent on its achievement needs.
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14. Note that Herzberg’s theory has often been labeled the “two-factor theory” because it focuses on two continua. This name, however, implies that only two factors are involved, which is not correct. Herzberg prefers not to use the term “two-factor theory” because his two sets of needs identify a much larger number of needs.
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20. R. W. Kempen & R. V. Hall. 1977. Reduction of industrial absenteeism: Results of a behavioral approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 20:1–21.
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26. R.C. Huseman., J.D. Hatfield, & E.W. Miles. 1987. A new perspective on equity theory: The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review 12:222–234; E.W. Miles, J.D. Hatfield, & R.C. Huseman. 1989. The equity sensitivity construct: Potential implications for worker performance. Journal of Management 15:581–588.
27. R.J. Bies. 1987. The predicament of justice: The management of moral outrage. In B.M. Staw & L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 289–319; J. Greenberg. 1987. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review 12:9–22.
28. E.L. Locke. 1978. The ubiquity of the technique of goal setting in theories of and approaches to employee motivation. Academy of Management Review 3:594–601; F.W. Taylor. 1911. The principles of scientific management. New York: Norton; K. Lewin. 1935. A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill; K. Lewin. 1938. The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; K. Lewin, T. Dembo, L. Festinger, & P.S. Sears. 1944. Level of aspiration. In J. McVicker Hunt (ed.), Personality and behavior disorders. New York: Ronald Press, 333–378; P. Drucker. 1954. The practice of management. New York: Wiley; D. McGregor. 1957. An uneasy look at performance appraisal. Harvard Business Review 35:89–94; E.A. Locke. 1968. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:157–189; E.A. Locke, K.N. Shaw, L.M. Saari, & G.P. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and task performance: 1969– 1980. Psychological Bulletin 90:125–152; G. P. Latham & E.A. Locke. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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35. M.L. Ambrose & C.T. Kulik. 1999. Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management 25: 231–292.
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Performance Appraisal and Rewards
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2. C. J. Fombrum and R. L. Laud, “Strategic Issues in Performance Appraisal Theory and Practice,” Personnel, 601 (6), pp. 23–31.
3. S. Maier, “5 unconscious factors impacting your performance appraisals,” The Business Journals, January 25, 2019, https://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/how-to/human-resources/2019/01/5-unconscious-factors-impacting-your-performance.html.
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6. L. Slavenski, “Matching People to Jobs,” Training and Development Journal, August 1986, pp. 54–57.
7. F. D. Frank, D. W. Bracken, and M. R. Smith, “Beyond Assessment Centers,” Training and Development Journal, March 1988, pp. 65–67.
8. M. S. Taylor, C. D. Fisher, and D. R. Ilgen, “Individuals’ Reactions to Performance Feedback in Organizations: A Control Theory Perspective,” in K. M. Rowland and G. R. Ferris, eds., Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 2, (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984), pp. 81–124.
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Group and Intergroup Relations
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3. B. Bass. Leadership, Psychology, and Organizational Behavior (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), p. 39.
4. G. Homans, Social Behavior (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1950).
5. B. Tuckman and M. Jensen, “Stages of Small Group Development Revisited,” Groups and Organizational Studies, 1977, 2, pp. 419–442.
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8. R. Bales and E. Borgatta, “Size of Group as a Factor in the Interaction Profile,” In A. Hare, E. Borgatta, and R. Bales, eds., Small Groups (New York: Knopf, 1956).
9. L. Cummings and C. Berger, “Organization Structure: How Does It Influence Attitudes and Performance?” Organizational Dynamics, 1976, 5, pp. 34–49.
10. S. Rhodes and R. Steers, Managing Employee Absenteeism (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990).
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Conflict and Negotiations
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15. Roger Fisher,William L. Ury and Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes, (New York: Penguin; 2012); Douglas D. Edwards, De Dicto, March 18, 2013, http://is.gd/ys8Hny.
External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
1. Panetta, Kasey, “Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2018”, Gartner, October 3, 2017. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-10-strategic-technology-trends-for-2018/
2. Mearian, Lucas, “What is blockchain? The most disruptive technology in decades”, Computerworld, May 31, 2018. https://www.computerworld.com/article/3191077/security/what-is-blockchain-the-most-disruptive-tech-in-decades.html; https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
3. Young Entrepreneurship Council, “23 Trends That Will Shake the Business World in 2018”, Forbes, January 10, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
4. This is a broad definition which has been used in different forms. The source here is “What is an External Environment in Business” Chapter 5, study.com, Accessed October 15, 2018. https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-an-external-environment-in-business-definition-types-factors.html
5. Jamrisko, Michelle, “China’s Economy to Overtake Euro Zone This Year”, Bloomberg, March 6, 2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-06/china-s-economy-is-set-to-overtake-combined-euro-area-this-year
6. China Owns US Debt, but How Much? | Investopedia, April 6, 2018. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/080615/china-owns-us-debt-how-much.asp#ixzz5DcHG4d7k
7. Rawlinson, Paul, “A prediction for globalization in 2018”, World Economic Forum, January 22, 2018. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/prediction-globalization-2018/
8. Cilluffo, Anthony and Cohen, D’Vera, “10 demographic trends shaping the U. S. and the World in 2017”, Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/10-demographic-trends-shaping-the-u-s-and-the-world-in-2017/
9. Graf, Nikki, Sexual Harassment at work in the Era of #MeToo”, Pew Research Center, April 4, 2018. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/04/04/sexual-harassment-at-work-in-the-era-of-metoo/
10. The Global Risks Report 2018 13th Edition. (2018). The World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 6. Also see http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2018/global-risks-landscape-2018/
11. Fry, Richard, “It’s becoming more common for young adults to live at home for longer stretches”, Pew Research Center, May 5, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/05/its-becoming-more-common-for-young-adults-to-live-at-home-and-for-longer-stretches/
12. DeSilver, Drew, “Women scarce at the top of U.S. business- and in the job that lead there”, Pew Research Center, April 30, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/30/women-scarce-at-top-of-u-s-business-and-in-the-jobs-that-lead-there/
13. Hunt, Vivian et al, “Delivering Through Diversity”, McKinsey, January 2018. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Organization/Our%20Insights/Delivering%20through%20diversity/Delivering-through-diversity_full-report.ashx
14. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf
15. Rice, Doyle, “Thousands of low-lying islands may become 'uninhabitable' within decades as seas rise”, USA Today, April 25, 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/04/25/thousands-low-lying-islands-may-become-uninhabitable-within-decades-seas-rise/550659002/
16. Felice De Toni, A. and G. De Zan. (2016), The complexity dilemma, Three tips for dealing with complexity in organizations, Practitioner, Dec. 31, https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-complexity-dilemma/
17. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Sull, D. N. (2001). “Strategy as simple rules”, Harvard Business Review, 79(1): 106-119
19. Bersin, Josh, et al, “2017 Global Human Capital trends”, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
21. Burns, T. & Stalker, G. M. (1961), The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London; Mintzberg, H. 1979. The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Emery, Fred E. and Eric L. Trist, (1965), "The Causal Texture of Organizational Environments", pp 21-32 in Human Relations, February 1965
22. Anand, N. and R. Daft. (2007). What is the Right Organization Design? Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 329–344.
24. This section draws on a number of scholarly and practitioner sources, including the following: R. Daft. (2016). Organization Theory & Design, 12th ed. Cengage Learning, Boston, MA; https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/team-structure-diagrams; Burton and Obel. (2018). Journal of Organization Design Vol. 7, Issue 5, Devaney, Erik, “7 types of organizational Structure & Whom They’re Suited For [Diagrams], Hubspot, accessed November 18, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-018-0029-2; “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/; and Bersin, josh, “The organization of the Future: Arriving Now’, 2017 Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
25. Brent Durbin. Matrix organization, Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/matrix-organization
26. “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/
28. G. Satell. (June 8, 2015). What Makes an Organization “Networked”, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2015/06/what-makes-an-organization-networked
29. Satell, Greg, “The Story of Networks”, Digital Tonto, September 26, 2010. https://www.digitaltonto.com/2010/the-story-of-networks/; and “Networked Organizations”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/ http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/networked-organization/
30. J. Bersin, T. McDowell, A. Rahnema, and Yves Van Durme. (February 28, 2017), “The organization of the future: Arriving now, 2017” Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
31. Lister, Jonathan, “The Disadvantages of Network-based organizational Structure”, Chron, accessed November 18, 2018. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-networkbased-organization-structure-35988.html
32. Sources in this section include the following: C. Handy. (May–June 1995). Trust and the Virtual Organization, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/1995/05/trust-and-the-virtual-organization; M. Ahuja and K. Carley. (1999), Network Structure in Virtual Organizations, Organization Science, Volume 10, Issue 6, June, pp. 741 – 757; http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/organization/what-is-virtual-organisation-definition-characteristics-and-types/35533
33. D. Onley. (Apr 29, 2015), Environment, https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/technology/Pages/How-Telecommuting-Helps-the-Environment.aspx
34. I. McCarthy, T. Lawrence, B. Wixted, and B. Gordon. (2010). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Environmental Velocity, Academy of Management Review 34, no. 4, pp. 604-626
35. Katz, D. & Kahn R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations, John Wiley, New York, N.Y.
36. Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory, George Braziller, publisher, New York.
37. Adapted from Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “CEO Attributes as Determinants of Organization Design: An integrated Model,” Organization Studies 15, no. 2 (1994): 183-212
38. J. Trevor and B. Varcoe. (2017). How Aligned Is Your Organization? Harvard Business Review, February, https://hbr.org/2017/02/how-aligned-is-your-organization
39. Dalavagas, Iason, “McDonald’s Corp: A Short SWOT Analysis, Value line, May 11, 2015. http://www.valueline.com/Stocks/Highlights/McDonalds_Corp___A_Short_SWOT_Analysis.aspx#.WyqOj1VKiig
40. “Amazon accounts for 43% of US online retail sales” Business Insider, February 3, 2017. http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-accounts-for-43-of-us-online-retail-sales-2017-2
41. Dudovskiy, John, “Amazon Organizational Structure”, Research Methodology, August 1, 2018 https://research-methodology.net/amazon-organizational-structure-2/
42. Meyer, Pauline, “Amazon.com Inc.’s Organizational Structure Characteristics (An Analysis)”, Panmore Institute, September 8, 2018 http://panmore.com/amazon-com-inc-organizational-structure-characteristics-analysis
44. Cohan, Peter, “3 Reasons Amazon Is the World’s Best Business”, Forbes, February 2, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2018/02/02/3-reasons-amazon-is-the-worlds-best- business/#563e86e63565
45. Hyken, Shep, “Drucker said Culture Eats Strategy for Breakfast”, Forbes, December 5, 2015. https://www.forbes.com/sites/shephyken/2015/12/05/drucker-said-culture-eats-strategy-for-breakfast-and-enterprise-rent-a-car-proves-it/#7a7572822749
46. Ed Schein. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; J.W. Weiss. (2014). An Introduction to Leadership, 2nd ed., Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
47. This discussion of the CVF is based on these sources: K. Cameron, R. Quinn, J. Degraff, and A. Thakor, (2014). Competing Values Leadership, 2nd ed., New Horizons in Management, Northampton, MA; K. Cameron and R. Quinn (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; and https://www.ocai-online.com/blog/2016/09/Organizational-culture-Create-Collaborate-Control-Compete
48. T. Yu and N. Wu. (2009). “A Review of Study on the Competing Values Framework”, International Journal of Business Management, Vol.4, No. 7, July, pp. 47-42.
49. Nocera, Joe, “Jeff Bezos and The Amazon way”, The New York Times, August 21, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/opinion/joe-nocera-jeff-bezos-and-the-amazon-way.html
50. Farber, Madeline, “Amazon Employee Attempts Suicide After Sending Email to Colleagues”, Fortune, November 29, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/11/29/amazon-employee-suicide-attempt/
51. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 8 and pp. 54-57.
52. Agarwal, Dimple, “Introduction: The Rise of the Social Enterprise”, Deloitte Insights, March 28, 2018.? https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2018/introduction.html
Organizational Structure and Change
1. For an in-depth exploration of the field of organizational development and change, see Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
2. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. L., The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1978; and Schein, Edgar, Organizational Psychology, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 1980.
3. Weber, Max, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1958.
4. Brown, K. and Eisenhardt, M., “The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-Paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1997, pp 1-34.
5. Kotter, J. and Schlesinger, L., “Choosing Strategies for Change”, Harvard Business Review, 57, 1979, pp. 106-114.
6. Setter, Craig Joseph and The Council for Six Sigma Certification, Six Sigma: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide, The Council for Six Sigma Certification, 2018.
7. Eisenbach, R., Watson, K., and Pillai, R., “Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12, 1999, pp. 80-89.
8. Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
9. Quinn, R. E. (2015). The Positive Organization: Breaking Free from Conventional Cultures, Constraints, and Beliefs (1 edition). Oakland: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
10. Lewin, K., Field Theory in Social Science, Harper & Row, 1951; and Kotter, J., Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, 2012.
11. Cooperrider, David L., The Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: For Leaders of Change, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2008.
12. Olson, Edwin E. and Eoyang, Glenda H., Facilitating Organizational Change: Lessons from Complexity Science, Pfeiffer, 2001.
13. Bright, D. S. (2009). Appreciative Inquiry and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Philosophy of Practice for Turbulent Times. OD Practitioner, 41(3), 2–7.
14. Whitney, D., & Trosten-Bloom, A. (2010). The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change (Second Edition). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
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Human Resource Management
1. Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, Younger, HR From the Outside In, 2012. SHRM.org
2. “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, October 2016).
3. Buckingham and Goodall, “Reinventing Performance Management”, Harvard Business Review, 2015.
4. Goler, Gale and Grant, “Let’s Not Kill Performance Evaluations Yet”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2016.
5. Capelli and Tavis, “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, 2016, p. 9-11.
6. Stephen Miller, “Study: Pay for Performance Pays Off”, Society for Human Resource Management, 2011.
7. 2015 World at Work “Compensation Programs and Practices Report”
8. Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, “Employee, Motivation: A Powerful New Model” Harvard Business Review, August 2008.
9. Fernandez-Araoz, Groysberg, Nohria, “The Definitive Guide to Recruiting in Good Times and Bad”, Harvard Business Review, 2009.
11. Effron and Ort, One Page Talent Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2010.
Stress and Well Being
1. S. Yolles, “Mental Health at Work,” in A. McLean, ed., To Work Is Human (New York: Macmillan, 1967); R. Poe, “Does Your Job Make You Sick?” Across the Board, January 1987, pp. 34–43.
2. W. S. Neff, Work and Human Behavior (New York: Atherton, 1968), p. 208.
3. R. Ruddock, Six Approaches to the Person (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972), p. 94.
4. J. McGrath, “Stress and Behavior in Organizations,” in M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976).
5. H. Selye, The Stress of Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956).
6. W. C. Hamner and D. Organ, Organizational Behavior (Dallas: BPI, 1978), p. 202.
7. S. Terkel, Working (New York: Avon, 1972), p. 275.
9. C. Cooper and R. Payne, Stress at Work (London: Wiley, 1978); K. Hall and L. Savery, “Tight Rein, More Stress,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986, pp. 160–162, 164.
10. L. Krantz, The Jobs Rated Almanac (New York: Pharos Books, 1988).
11. Stress in the Workplace, American Psychological Association, March, 2011.
12. D. Zauderer and J. Fox, “Resiliency in the Face of Stress,” Management Solutions, November 1987, pp. 32–33.
13. J. French and R. Caplan, “Organizational Stress and Individual Strain,” in A. Marrow, ed., The Failure of Success (New York: Amacom, 1972), p. 48.
16. Cooper and Payne, op. cit.
17. R. Kahn, D. Wolfe, R. Quinn, J. Snoek, and R. Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity (New York: Wiley, 1964), pp. 70–71.
18. J. Quick and J. Quick, Organizational Stress and Preventive Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984); R. Sutton and A. Rafaeli, “Characteristics of Work Stations as Potential Occupational Stressors,” Academy of Management Journal, June 1987, pp. 260–276.
19. French and Caplan, op. cit.
22. G. Gardell, Arbetsinnehall och Livskvalitet (Stockholm: Prisma, 1976).
23. French and Caplan, op. cit., p. 51.
24. R. Schuler and S. Jackson, “Managing Stress Through P/HRM Practices,” in K. Rowland and G. Ferris, eds., Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1986), pp. 183–224.
25. C. Carver and D. Glass, “Coronary Prone Behavior Pattern and Interpersonal Aggression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, pp. 361–366; M. Fusilier, D. Ganster, and B. Mayes, “The Social Support and Health Relationship: Is There a Gender Difference?” Journal of Occupational Psychology, June 1986, pp. 145–153.
26. M. Friedman and R. Rosenman, Type A Behavior and your Heart (New York: Knopf, 1974).
27. J. Howard, D. Cunningham, and P. Rechnitzer, “Health Patterns Associated with Type A Behavior: A Managerial Population,” Journal of Human Stress, 1976, pp. 24–31.
28. Friedman and Rosenman, op. cit.
29. C. Jenkins, “Psychologic Disease and Social Prevention of Coronary Disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, 1971, 284, pp. 244–255; T. Beehr and R. Bhagat, Human Stress and Cognition in Organizations: An Integrated Perspective (New York: Wiley, 1985).
30. Business Week, October 17, 1977, p. 137.
32. T. H. Holmes and R. H. Rahe, “The Social Readjustment Rating Scale,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, August 1967, pp. 213–218. See also O. Behling and A. Darrow, “Managing Work-Related Stress,” in J. Rosenzweig and F. Kast, eds., Modules in Management (Chicago: SRA, 1984).
33. S. Cohen and T. Wills, “Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypothesis,” Psychological Bulletin, September 1985, pp. 310–357.
34. S. Kobasa, S. Maddi, and S. Kahn, “Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, January 1982, pp. 168–177; J. Hull, R. VanTreuren, and S. Virnelli, “Hardiness and Health: A Critique and Alternative Approach,” Journal of Personality and social Psychology, September 1987, pp. 518–530.
35. Cooper and Payne, op. cit.
36. D. Glass, “Stress, Competition, and Heart Attacks,” Psychology Today, July 1976, pp. 55–57.
37. S. Cobb and S. Kasl, “Blood Pressure Changes in Men Undergoing Job Loss: A Preliminary Report,” Psychosomatic Medicine, January-February 1970.
38. A. Slote, Termination: The Closing of Baker Plant (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1977).
39. A. Kornhauser, Mental Health and the Industrial Worker (New York: Wiley, 1965).
41. D. Allen and P. Bryant, Managing Employee Turnover: Dispelling Myths and Fostering Evidence-Based Retention Strategies, (Chicago: Business Expert Press, 2013); W. Mobley, Managing Employee Turnover (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1982); S. Rhodes and R. Steers, Managing Employee Absenteeism (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990).
42. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Work in America, 1973. p. 85.
43. T. Rosen, “Identification of Substance Abuse in the Workplace,” Public Personnel Management, Fall 1987, pp. 197–207; S. Flax, “The Executive Addict,” Fortune, June 24, 1985, pp. 24–31.
44. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, op. cit.
45. S. Jackson, R. Schwab, and R. Schuler, “Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Phenomenon,” Journal of Applied Psychology, November 1986, pp. 630–640.
46. B. Dumaine, “Cool Cures for Burnout,” Fortune, June 20, 1988, pp. 78–84.
47. Cited in U. S. News & World Report, March 13, 1978, p. 81.
48. C. Smith, “Labor: Working on a Change,” Far Eastern Economic Review, April 14, 1988, pp. 62–63.
49. I. Sarason, J. Johnson, J. Berberich, and J. Siegel, Helping Police Officers Cope with Stress: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, Technical Report, University of Washington, February 1978.
50. R. M. Steers, “Individual Differences in Participative Decision Making,” Human Relations, 1977, 30, pp. 837–847.
51. M. Matteson and J. Ivancevich, “Health Promotion at Work,” in C. Cooper and I. Robertson, eds., International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (London: Wiley, pp. 279–306).
52. M. Roberts and T. Harris, “Wellness at Work,” Psychology Today, May 1989, pp. 54–58.
53. D. L. Nelson; B. L. Simmons. P. L. Perrewé; D. C. Ganster, eds. Eustress: An Elusive Construct an Engaging Pursuit, 1st edition (Oxford, UK: Elsevier Jai., 2004); and Lazarus, R. S. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1966).
1. Scott Shane, and Sankara Venkataraman, S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
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3. Martha Irvine, "More 20-Somethings Are Blazing Own Paths in Business," San Diego Union-Tribune, November 22, 2004, p. C6.
4. Keith McFarland, "What Makes Them Tick," Inc. 500, October 19, 2005, http://www.inc.com.
6. Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries. 2010. Business model generation. Wiley.
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