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Organizational Behavior

19.1 Overview of Entrepreneurship

Organizational Behavior19.1 Overview of Entrepreneurship
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Management and Organizational Behavior
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Nature of Work
    3. 1.2 The Changing Workplace
    4. 1.3 The Nature of Management
    5. 1.4 A Model of Organizational Behavior and Management
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Case
  3. 2 Individual and Cultural Differences
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Individual and Cultural Factors in Employee Performance
    3. 2.2 Employee Abilities and Skills
    4. 2.3 Personality: An Introduction
    5. 2.4 Personality and Work Behavior
    6. 2.5 Personality and Organization: A Basic Conflict?
    7. 2.6 Personal Values and Ethics
    8. 2.7 Cultural Differences
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  4. 3 Perception and Job Attitudes
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 The Perceptual Process
    3. 3.2 Barriers to Accurate Social Perception
    4. 3.3 Attributions: Interpreting the Causes of Behavior
    5. 3.4 Attitudes and Behavior
    6. 3.5 Work-Related Attitudes
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  5. 4 Learning and Reinforcement
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Basic Models of Learning
    3. 4.2 Reinforcement and Behavioral Change
    4. 4.3 Behavior Modification in Organizations
    5. 4.4 Behavioral Self-Management
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  6. 5 Diversity in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 An Introduction to Workplace Diversity
    3. 5.2 Diversity and the Workforce
    4. 5.3 Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
    5. 5.4 Challenges of Diversity
    6. 5.5 Key Diversity Theories
    7. 5.6 Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
    8. 5.7 Recommendations for Managing Diversity
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  7. 6 Perception and Managerial Decision Making
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Overview of Managerial Decision-Making
    3. 6.2 How the Brain Processes Information to Make Decisions: Reflective and Reactive Systems
    4. 6.3 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions
    5. 6.4 Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
    6. 6.5 Improving the Quality of Decision-Making
    7. 6.6 Group Decision-Making
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  8. 7 Work Motivation for Performance
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Motivation: Direction and Intensity
    3. 7.2 Content Theories of Motivation
    4. 7.3 Process Theories of Motivation
    5. 7.4 Recent Research on Motivation Theories
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  9. 8 Performance Appraisal and Rewards
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Performance Appraisal Systems
    3. 8.2 Techniques of Performance Appraisal
    4. 8.3 Feedback
    5. 8.4 Reward Systems in Organizations
    6. 8.5 Individual and Group Incentive Plans
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  10. 9 Group and Intergroup Relations
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work Groups: Basic Considerations
    3. 9.2 Work Group Structure
    4. 9.3 Managing Effective Work Groups
    5. 9.4 Intergroup Behavior and Performance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  11. 10 Understanding and Managing Work Teams
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Teamwork in the Workplace
    3. 10.2 Team Development Over Time
    4. 10.3 Things to Consider When Managing Teams
    5. 10.4 Opportunities and Challenges to Team Building
    6. 10.5 Team Diversity
    7. 10.6 Multicultural Teams
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  12. 11 Communication
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Process of Managerial Communication
    3. 11.2 Types of Communications in Organizations
    4. 11.3 Factors Affecting Communications and the Roles of Managers
    5. 11.4 Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation
    6. 11.5 The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  13. 12 Leadership
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 The Nature of Leadership
    3. 12.2 The Leadership Process
    4. 12.3 Leader Emergence
    5. 12.4 The Trait Approach to Leadership
    6. 12.5 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
    7. 12.6 Situational (Contingency) Approaches to Leadership
    8. 12.7 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
    9. 12.8 Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership
    10. 12.9 Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    13. Chapter Review Questions
    14. Management Skills Application Exercises
    15. Managerial Decision Exercises
    16. Critical Thinking Case
  14. 13 Organizational Power and Politics
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Power in Interpersonal Relations
    3. 13.2 Uses of Power
    4. 13.3 Political Behavior in Organizations
    5. 13.4 Limiting the Influence of Political Behavior
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  15. 14 Conflict and Negotiations
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Conflict in Organizations: Basic Considerations
    3. 14.2 Causes of Conflict in Organizations
    4. 14.3 Resolving Conflict in Organizations
    5. 14.4 Negotiation Behavior
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  16. 15 External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Organization's External Environment
    3. 15.2 External Environments and Industries
    4. 15.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
    5. 15.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
    6. 15.5 Corporate Cultures
    7. 15.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  17. 16 Organizational Structure and Change
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Organizational Structures and Design
    3. 16.2 Organizational Change
    4. 16.3 Managing Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  18. 17 Human Resource Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
    3. 17.2 Human Resource Management and Compliance
    4. 17.3 Performance Management
    5. 17.4 Influencing Employee Performance and Motivation
    6. 17.5 Building an Organization for the Future
    7. 17.6 Talent Development and Succession Planning
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  19. 18 Stress and Well Being
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Problems of Work Adjustment
    3. 18.2 Organizational Influences on Stress
    4. 18.3 Buffering Effects of Work related Stress
    5. 18.4 Coping with Work related Stress
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  20. 19 Entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Overview of Entrepreneurship
    3. 19.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
    4. 19.3 Business Model Canvas
    5. 19.4 New Venture Financing
    6. 19.5 Design Thinking
    7. 19.6 Optimal Support for Entrepreneurship
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  21. A | Scientific Method in Organizational Research
  22. B | Scoring Keys for Self-Assessment Exercises
  23. References
  24. Index
  1. What are some different types of entrepreneurship?

Entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon, with individuals all over the world at various stages of the process. While there are many definitions of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, we consider the scholarly field as defined by Shane and Venkataraman1 that seeks to understand how opportunities are discovered, created, and exploited; by whom; and with what consequences. When most people think of entrepreneurship, they may think of individuals such as Maria Rose Belding, as well as Jeff Bezos (Amazon) and Elon Musk (Tesla and SpaceX). However, there are many other types of entrepreneurship that we will explore in this chapter. MEANS Database is an example of social entrepreneurship—that is, creating innovative solutions to immediate social and/or environment problems and mobilizing resources to achieve social transformation. MEANS Database illustrates how social entrepreneurs often solve problems more effectively than the government. Entrepreneurs can also operate inside existing organizations: corporate entrepreneurship involves the creation of new products, processes, and ventures within large organizations. Another prevalent type is family entrepreneurship—that is, when a business is owned and managed by multiple family members, usually for more than one generation. Serial or habitual entrepreneurship refers to individuals who start several businesses, simultaneously or one after another. Entrepreneurship can also be classified according to the desired goals—for example, individuals who pursue lifestyle entrepreneurship typically create a venture to suit a personal lifestyle and not for the sole purpose of making profits. High-technology entrepreneurship involves ventures in the information, communication, and technology space, which typically have high expectations for revenue growth. Entrepreneurs can also be classified according to the stage of their venture development, as outlined in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research program in the next section.

Global Entrepreneurship Prevalence

Each year, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)2 study gathers data from 60+ countries to determine how many individuals are engaged in various phases of entrepreneurship. The first phase captures potential entrepreneurs who believe that they have the capacity and knowledge to start a venture and don’t fear failure. If you are reading this book and believe that you are developing the skills necessary to someday start your own company, and you believe that the risk-reward payoff is promising, then you fit this definition of a potential entrepreneur. The next GEM category is nascent entrepreneurs who have set up or are in the process of setting up a venture that they will own/co-own that is less than three months old and has not yet generated wages/salaries. New business owners operate a business for over three months but less than three years. And finally, established business owners actively run a business that is over three and a half years old. GEM researchers calculate a Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) rate, which is the percentage of the adult population (ages 18–64) who are either nascent entrepreneurs or owner-managers of a new business. Exhibit 19.2 provides an overview of the GEM model to measure entrepreneurial activity in a given economy. As shown, GEM data captures attributes of the individual entrepreneur, industry sector, and expected impact in terms of potential business growth, use of innovation, and share of international customers. Exhibit 19.3 shows the most recently available rates of entrepreneurial activities across geographic regions. These regions are classified by their development status, with factor-driven countries the least developed; these countries subsist primarily on agriculture and extraction businesses, and rely heavily on unskilled labor and natural resources. Efficiency-driven economies are more competitive and utilize more advanced and efficient production processes to provide better-quality products and services. Innovation-driven economies are the most developed, typically relying on knowledge-intensive industries and an expanded service sector. As shown, entrepreneurial activity rates range from nearly 20 percent of the adult population in Ecuador to lows of less than 5 percent in several countries such as Bulgaria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Japan. Entrepreneurship rates can be extremely high in factor-driven countries as there are fewer traditional businesses and entrepreneurship may be the only good opportunity in the labor market. Among innovation-driven economies, the U.S. has one of the highest TEA levels, perhaps due to the American culture of individualism and the many organizations that support entrepreneurship. Another key factor is societal value, which we review in the next section.

A diagram illustrates the model and measures of entrepreneurial activity.
Exhibit 19.2 Model and Measures of Entrepreneurial Activity Source: Adapted from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2017/2018 report, page 22 (Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)
A diagram illustrates the entrepreneurial activities between 2017 and 2018.
Exhibit 19.3 Entrepreneurial Activity in 2017/2018 Source: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2017/2018 report, pages 34-35 (Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Societal Value for Global Entrepreneurship

The GEM research project also examines societal values for entrepreneurship, which can help drive an abundance or lack of entrepreneurs. In the 2017/2018 report, across 52 economies, there was strong support for entrepreneurship as a good career choice. The lowest levels were reported in innovation-driven economies, perhaps because there are many good corporate career options. GEM researchers identified that almost 70 percent of the adult population believes that entrepreneurs enjoy high status within their societies. There are slight differences, with factor-driven countries reporting higher status levels as compared to innovation- and efficiency-driven countries. Moreover, across 52 economies, about 61 percent of adults believe that entrepreneurs garner substantial media attention, with the higher levels in increasingly developed economies. This data suggests that when entrepreneurs are portrayed favorably in the media, individuals will be more likely to consider entrepreneurship as a career.

A graphical representation plots the development group averages for societal values about entrepreneurship based on factor driven, efficiency driven, and innovation driven.
Exhibit 19.4 Development Group Averages for Societal Values about Entrepreneurship in 52 Economies Source: Adapted from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2017/2018 report, page 27 (Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Concept Check

  1. What are some different types of entrepreneurs?
  2. How does entrepreneurship differ across countries?
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