Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo
Organic Chemistry

Additional Problems

Organic ChemistryAdditional Problems

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

26 • Additional Problems

26 • Additional Problems

Visualizing Chemistry

Problem 26-19
Identify the following amino acids:
A ball-and-stick model of a five-carbon amino acid,  with a carboxylate anion , an amine at  C 1, and a methyl group at C 2.
A ball-and-stick model of a substituted imidazole  connected to a three-carbon chain carboxylic acid containing an amine group at C 1
A ball-and-stick model of a five-carbon chain with an amide group at C 1, an amine and a  carboxylic acid anion at C 3.
Problem 26-20

Give the sequence of the following tetrapeptide (yellow = S):

A ball-and-stick model of a tripeptide. Black, gray, blue, red, and yellow spheres indicate carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur atoms, respectively.
Problem 26-21

Isoleucine and threonine are the only two amino acids with two chirality centers. Assign R or S configuration to the methyl-bearing carbon atom of isoleucine.

A ball-and-stick model of isoleucine, a five-carbon chain with a carboxylate anion at  C 1, amine at C 2, and a methyl group at C 3 position.
Problem 26-22

Is the following structure a D amino acid or an L amino acid? Identify it.

A ball-and-stick model of a four-carbon amino acid with a carboxylate anion at C 1, an amine at  C 1, and a methyl group at  C 3.
Problem 26-23

Give the sequence of the following tetrapeptide:

A ball-and-stick model of a tetrapeptide. Black, gray, blue, and red spheres indicate carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, respectively.

Mechanism Problems

Problem 26-24
The reaction of ninhydrin with an α-amino acid occurs in several steps.
The first step is formation of an imine by reaction of the amino acid with ninhydrin. Show its structure and the mechanism of its formation.
The second step is a decarboxylation. Show the structure of the product and the mechanism of the decarboxylation reaction.
The third step is hydrolysis of an imine to yield an amine and an aldehyde. Show the structures of both products and the mechanism of the hydrolysis reaction.

The final step is formation of the purple anion. Show the mechanism of the reaction.

Two molecules of ninhydrin react with an amino acid to form a large compound with multiple ring structures. The other byproducts are aldehyde and carbon dioxide.
Problem 26-25

The chloromethylated polystyrene resin originally used for Merrifield solid-phase peptide synthesis was prepared by treatment of polystyrene with chloromethyl methyl ether and a Lewis acid catalyst. Propose a mechanism for the reaction.

A polystyrene resin reacts with chloro(methoxy)methane and tin (IV) chloride to form  a polystyrene linked benzyl chloride resin for use in Merrifield solid-phase peptide synthesis.
Problem 26-26

An Fmoc protecting group can be removed from an amino acid by treatment with the amine base piperidine. Propose a mechanism.

An F m o c-protected amino acid reacts with a base to form the free amino acid, carbon dioxide, and the dibenzofulvene (DBF) intermediate.
Problem 26-27

Proteins can be cleaved specifically at the amide bond on the carboxyl side of methionine residues by reaction with cyanogen bromide, BrC≡N.

The reaction occurs in several steps:


The first step is a nucleophilic substitution reaction of the sulfur on the methionine side chain with BrCN to give a cyanosulfonium ion, [R2SCN]+. Show the structure of the product, and propose a mechanism for the reaction.


The second step is an internal SN2 reaction, with the carbonyl oxygen of the methionine residue displacing the positively charged sulfur leaving group and forming a five-membered ring product. Show the structure of the product and the mechanism of its formation.


The third step is a hydrolysis reaction to split the peptide chain. The carboxyl group of the former methionine residue is now part of a lactone (cyclic ester) ring. Show the structure of the lactone product and the mechanism of its formation.


The final step is a hydrolysis of the lactone to give the product shown. Show the mechanism of the reaction.

Problem 26-28

A clever recent method of peptide synthesis involves formation of an amide bond by reaction of an α-keto acid with an N-alkylhydroxylamine:

An alpha-keto acid reacts with hydroxylamine in the presence of N, N-dimethylformamide to form an amide, with carbon dioxide and water as the products.

The reaction is thought to occur by nucleophilic addition of the N-alkylhydroxylamine to the keto acid as if forming an oxime (Section 19.8), followed by decarboxylation and elimination of water. Show the mechanism.

Amino Acid Structures and Chirality

Problem 26-29
Except for cysteine, only S amino acids occur in proteins. Several R amino acids are also found in nature, however. (R)-Serine is found in earthworms, and (R)-alanine is found in insect larvae. Draw Fischer projections of (R)-serine and (R)-alanine. Are these D or L amino acids?
Problem 26-30
Cysteine is the only amino acid that has L stereochemistry but an R configuration. Make up a structure for another L amino acid of your own creation that also has an R configuration.
Problem 26-31
Draw a Fischer projection of (S)-proline.
Problem 26-32
Show the structures of the following amino acids in their zwitterionic forms:
Problem 26-33
Proline has pKa1 = 1.99 and pKa2 = 10.60. Use the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation to calculate the ratio of protonated and neutral forms at pH = 2.50. Calculate the ratio of neutral and deprotonated forms at pH = 9.70.
Problem 26-34
Using both three- and one-letter codes for amino acids, write the structures of all possible peptides that contain the following amino acids:
Val, Ser, Leu
Ser, Leu2, Pro
Problem 26-35
Look at the side chains of the 20 amino acids in Table 26.1, and then think about what is not present. None of the 20 contain either an aldehyde or a ketone carbonyl group, for instance. Is this just one of nature’s oversights, or is there a likely chemical reason? What complications might an aldehyde or ketone carbonyl group cause?

Amino Acid Synthesis and Reactions

Problem 26-36
Show how you could use the acetamidomalonate method to prepare the following amino acids:
Problem 26-37
Show how you could prepare the following amino acids using a reductive amination:
Problem 26-38
Show how you could prepare the following amino acids enantioselectively:
Problem 26-39
Serine can be synthesized by a simple variation of the amidomalonate method using formaldehyde rather than an alkyl halide. How might this be done?
Problem 26-40
Predict the product of the reaction of valine with the following reagents:
CH3CH2OH, acid
Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate
CH3COCl, pyridine; then H2O
Problem 26-41
Draw resonance forms for the purple anion obtained by reaction of ninhydrin with an α-amino acid (see Problem 26-24).

Peptides and Enzymes

Problem 26-42
Write full structures for the following peptides:
Problem 26-43
Propose two structures for a tripeptide that gives Leu, Ala, and Phe on hydrolysis but does not react with phenyl isothiocyanate.
Problem 26-44
Show the steps involved in a synthesis of Phe-Ala-Val using the Merrifield procedure.
Problem 26-45
Draw the structure of the PTH derivative product you would obtain by Edman degradation of the following peptides:
Problem 26-46

Which amide bonds in the following polypeptide are cleaved by trypsin? By chymotrypsin?


Problem 26-47
What kinds of reactions do the following classes of enzymes catalyze?
Problem 26-48
Which of the following amino acids are more likely to be found on the exterior of a globular protein, and which on the interior? Explain.
Aspartic acid
Problem 26-49

Leuprolide is a synthetic nonapeptide used to treat both endometriosis in women and prostate cancer in men.

The wedge-dash structure of leuprolide.
Both C-terminal and N-terminal amino acids in leuprolide have been structurally modified. Identify the modifications.
One of the nine amino acids in leuprolide has D stereochemistry rather than the usual L. Which one?
Write the structure of leuprolide using both one- and three-letter abbreviations.
What charge would you expect leuprolide to have at neutral pH?

General Problems

Problem 26-50
The α-helical parts of myoglobin and other proteins stop whenever a proline residue is encountered in the chain. Why is proline never present in a protein α helix?
Problem 26-51

Arginine, the most basic of the 20 common amino acids, contains a guanidino functional group in its side chain. Explain, using resonance structures to show how the protonated guanidino group is stabilized.

The structure of L- arginine in which the guanidino group is labeled. It comprises wedged bonded  C1 amine cation and carboxylate ion.
Problem 26-52
Cytochrome c is an enzyme found in the cells of all aerobic organisms. Elemental analysis of cytochrome c shows that it contains 0.43% iron. What is the minimum molecular weight of this enzyme?
Problem 26-53

Evidence for restricted rotation around amide O C N bonds comes from NMR studies. At room temperature, the 1H NMR spectrum of N,N-dimethylformamide shows three peaks: 2.9 δ (singlet, 3 H), 3.0 δ (singlet, 3 H), and 8.0 δ (singlet, 1 H). As the temperature is raised, however, the two singlets at 2.9 δ and 3.0 δ slowly merge. At 180 °C, the 1H NMR spectrum shows only two peaks: 2.95 δ (singlet, 6 H) and 8.0 δ (singlet, 1 H). Explain this temperature-dependent behavior.

The structure of N,N-dimethylformamide, an aldehyde group linked to a nitrogen atom to two methyl groups.
Problem 26-54

Propose a structure for an octapeptide that shows the composition Asp, Gly2, Leu, Phe, Pro2, Val on amino acid analysis. Edman analysis shows a glycine N-terminal group, and leucine is the C-terminal group. Acidic hydrolysis gives the following fragments:

Val-Pro-Leu, Gly, Gly-Asp-Phe-Pro, Phe-Pro-Val

Problem 26-55

Look at the structure of human insulin, and indicate where in each chain the molecule is cleaved by trypsin and chymotrypsin.

The structure of insulin is made up of A and B chains, shown in terms of the three-letter amino acid abbreviations in sequence. Cysteine disulfide bonds are also shown.

Problem 26-56

What is the structure of a nonapeptide that gives the following fragments when cleaved?

Trypsin cleavage: Val-Val-Pro-Tyr-Leu-Arg, Ser-Ile-Arg

Chymotrypsin cleavage: Leu-Arg, Ser-Ile-Arg-Val-Val-Pro-Tyr

Problem 26-57

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, functions by stimulating uterine contraction and lactation during childbirth. Its sequence was determined from the following evidence:

1. Oxytocin is a cyclic compound containing a disulfide bridge between two cysteine residues.

2. When the disulfide bridge is reduced, oxytocin has the constitution Asn, Cys2, Gln, Gly, Ile, Leu, Pro, Tyr.

3. Partial hydrolysis of reduced oxytocin yields seven fragments: Asp-Cys, Ile-Glu, Cys-Tyr, Leu-Gly, Tyr-Ile-Glu, Glu-Asp-Cys, and Cys-Pro-Leu.

4. Gly is the C-terminal group.

5. Both Glu and Asp are present as their side-chain amides (Gln and Asn) rather than as free side-chain acids.

What is the amino acid sequence of reduced oxytocin? What is the structure of oxytocin itself?

Problem 26-58
Aspartame, a nonnutritive sweetener marketed under such trade names as Equal, NutraSweet, and Canderel, is the methyl ester of a simple dipeptide, Asp-Phe-OCH3.
Draw the structure of aspartame.
The isoelectric point of aspartame is 5.9. Draw the principal structure present in aqueous solution at this pH.
Draw the principal form of aspartame present at physiological pH = 7.3.
Problem 26-59
Refer to Figure 26.5 and propose a mechanism for the final step in Edman degradation—the acid-catalyzed rearrangement of the ATZ derivative to the PTH derivative.
Problem 26-60
Amino acids are metabolized by a transamination reaction in which the −NH2 group of the amino acid changes places with the keto group of an α-keto acid. The products are a new amino acid and a new α-keto acid. Show the product from transamination of isoleucine.
Problem 26-61

The first step in the biological degradation of histidine is formation of a 4-methylidene-5-imidazolone (MIO) by cyclization of a segment of the peptide chain in the histidine ammonia lyase enzyme. Propose a mechanism.

A segment of the peptide chain in the histidine ammonia lyase enzyme undergoes cyclization to form 4-methylidene-5-imidazolone (M I O).
Problem 26-62

The first step in the biological degradation of lysine is reductive amination with α-ketoglutarate to give saccharopine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a relative of NADH, is the reducing agent. Show the mechanism.

L-Lysine reacts with alpha-ketoglutarate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen to form saccharopine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cation.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Sep 25, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.