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Unfolding Case Study

1.
d. The RDA for sodium is 2300 mg. The client’s diet consists of highly processed foods, all of which are high in sodium.
2.
c. Fruits and vegetables contain high amounts of vitamins A and C.
3.
d. Fruit and vegetable smoothies provide a nutrient-dense alternative to a processed food (macaroni and cheese and toaster pastries) without resorting to a supplement (gummy vitamin).
4.
a. Vitamins C and E have direct influence on creating a robust immune system.

Review Questions

1.
a. Vitamin A is the only fat-soluble vitamin listed and is stored in the tissue. It can result in toxicity.
2.
a. Chromium may facilitate the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins by increasing the effectiveness of insulin. The precise mechanism for this activity has yet to be identified.
3.
d. Supplement labels are limited in the health claims they can make. They cannot mention a specific health condition.
4.
c. Vitamin D deficiency is related to rickets in young children.
5.
d. Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine; they are not stored in fatty tissue or the liver.
6.
c. To reduce the risk for fetal neural tube defects in early pregnancy, clients of childbearing age and clients who are pregnant should consume adequate amounts of folate.
7.
c. Calcium and phosphorus contribute to the structure of healthy bones and teeth.
8.
b. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter. Iodine is required to produce thyroid hormone, without which the thyroid overworks and increases in size.
9.
a. For the best retention of a vitamin, use less water, cook for a shorter time, and lower the temperature.
10.
d. The client with chronic alcohol exposure is likely to have a thiamine deficiency.
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