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Unfolding Case Study

1.
b. The client grew up eating foods from their sources and cooking at home, and he participated in frequent exercise that provided him with a solid foundation in healthy lifestyle choices.
2.
a. The client grew up with the foundational knowledge of eating healthy food and exercising, so the nurse can use this information in the dietary education plan.
3.
a. Construction work, smoking, and selecting fast food are risk factors for chronic respiratory disease.
4.
b. Smoking cessation and eating better improves pulmonary health.
5.
c. The client’s note from last year indicates altered respiratory function and a low-quality diet, and since nutritional counseling was not addressed during that visit, the nurse should instruct the client during this visit.
6.
d. Pneumonia is a potential complication as the mucosal lining thickens and cough pressure declines in clients with COPD.

Review Questions

1.
c. Pregnant women should consume a balanced diet that includes protein to support the physiological changes of the mother and the growth of the fetus.
2.
d. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential to the development and function of the pulmonary system during infancy.
3.
c. Cognitive and behavioral defects may occur in the fetus whose mother is malnourished.
4.
b. Foods containing caffeine, like coffee, can potentiate the effects of the bronchodilator leading to tremors, nervousness, anxiety, and heart palpitation.
5.
a. A pregnant client needs protein, vitamins A, D, E, and omega-3 fatty acids for proper lung function and development of the fetus.
6.
d. Nutrition plays a role in supporting the immune system, which prevents and treats infections while also repairing lung tissue.
7.
c. Consuming fruits and vegetable is linked to a decreased risk for developing asthma and a decreased risk for experiencing asthma symptoms such as wheezing.
8.
a. A diet high in saturated fats has been linked with worsening airway inflammation and lung function.
9.
d. The main goal of an anti-inflammatory diet is to minimize the duration of and decrease the risk for infection. An anti-inflammatory diet supports the immune system and lung function and decreases oxidation.
10.
a. Long-term oxygen therapy in COPD clients causes nutritional deficiencies, because low oxygenation to the gastrointestinal tract decreases its ability to function and absorb nutrients.
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