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absorption
the process of cells taking in digested substances
amylase
an enzyme that helps to break down carbohydrates
bile
a fluid created in the liver that aids in digestion of food in the duodenum
carboxypeptidase
an enzyme that helps to breakdown fats
cholecystokinin
a hormone produced by the small intestine that triggers the pancreas and gallbladder to contract when fats and proteins enter
chyme
a mix of gastric juices and digested food
chymotrypsinogen
an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller particles
digestion
the breakdown of solid food that includes both mechanical and chemical actions to form smaller, more absorbable substances in the body’s gastrointestinal tract
dysbiosis
a disruption to the microbiome resulting in an imbalance in the microbiota of the intestines
elastase
an enzyme that helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
fistula
a condition in which two body parts are abnormally connected
frenulum
the small tissue beneath the tongue that provides support
gastrin
a peptide hormone that regulates gastric motility, gastric secretion of stomach acid, and gastric mucosal growth
guaiac test
a test that confirms the presence of blood in stool
homeostasis
a balanced state in the body that allows for proper function
ingestion
the first step of the digestive process that involves bringing food and liquids into the body through the mouth
insulin
a hormone that assists in the absorption of glucose into cells for energy usage
intrinsic factor
a glycoprotein required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
lipase
an enzyme that helps to break down fats
mastication
chewing action of the mouth
meconium
the first stool passed by a newborn
melena
dark, black, or sticky feces
metabolism
the part of digestion in which the body converts absorbed substances into energy
nucleases
an enzyme that breaks down nucleic acid chains
pepsin
an enzyme that begins to break down proteins in the stomach
protease
an enzyme that breaks down proteins
somatostatin
a hormone that regulates stomach acid secretion during digestion
succussion splash
a sloshing or splashing sound heard on auscultation of the abdomen due to excessive fluid remaining in the stomach
trypsinogen
an enzyme that helps break down fats into amino acids
tympany
a resonant, hollow sound potentially heard during percussion
uvula
the fleshy extension that hangs at the back of the throat and at the end of the soft palate
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