In cells, can an oxidation reaction happen in the absence of a reduction reaction? Explain.
What is the function of molecules like NAD+/NADH and FAD/FADH2 in cells?
What is substrate-level phosphorylation? When does it occur during the breakdown of glucose to CO2?
Why is the Krebs cycle important in both catabolism and anabolism?
What is the relationship between chemiosmosis and the proton motive force?
How does oxidative phosphorylation differ from substrate-level phosphorylation?
How does the location of ATP synthase differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Where do protons accumulate as a result of the ETS in each cell type?
Why are some microbes, including Streptococcus spp., unable to perform aerobic respiration, even in the presence of oxygen?
How can fermentation be used to differentiate various types of microbes?
How are the products of lipid and protein degradation connected to glucose metabolism pathways?
What is the general strategy used by microbes for the degradation of macromolecules?
Why would an organism perform cyclic phosphorylation instead of noncyclic phosphorylation?
What is the function of photosynthetic pigments in the light-harvesting complex?
Why must autotrophic organisms also respire or ferment in addition to fixing CO2?
How can human activity lead to eutrophication?