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analgesic
drug or medication that reduces pain or discomfort
apnea
stopped breathing
axillary temperature
temperature taken under the arm (in the armpit)
baby acne
common short-term skin condition that causes papules and pustules to break out on a baby’s face, chest, or scalp
bacterial meningitis
bacterial infection in the lining of the brain and spinal column
breast milk jaundice
(also: late-onset breast milk jaundice) jaundice occurring in the first 3 to 5 days of life and lasting 3 weeks to as long as 3 months for some infants
breast-feeding jaundice
(also: early-onset jaundice) type of jaundice in which bilirubin levels of >12 mg/dL develop in 13 percent of breast-fed infants by 1 week of life; most commonly caused this early in breast-fed infants by insufficient intake
circumcision
surgical removal of the foreskin, the layer of skin that covers the glans (head) of the penis
cluster feeding
when an infant chooses to space several feedings closely together with little time between the end of one feeding and the beginning of another
colostrum
first breast milk produced in breast-feeding
concavity
curving in of a surface
cord care
keeping the cord stump and surrounding skin clean and dry, which prevents infection and helps the stump to fall off and the navel to heal more quickly
COVID-19
infectious illness caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that became a pandemic disease in 2020
cradle cap
(also: seborrheic dermatitis) common, harmless skin condition on an infant’s scalp that presents as yellow, scaly patches with a red rash
crepitus
crackling or crunching sound made by the damaged bone
cyanosis
blue tint to skin and lips
dermatitis
skin inflammation
diaper rash
common form of dermatitis (skin irritation) in the diaper area of the buttocks, thighs, and genitals
donor breast milk
milk from lactating persons who pump or express breast milk and donate it to a regulated breast milk bank, following their policies and procedures
early-onset jaundice
(also: breast-feeding jaundice) type of jaundice in which bilirubin levels of >12 mg/dL develop in 13 percent of breast-fed infants by 1 week of life; most commonly caused this early in breast-fed infants by insufficient intake
eczema
common skin condition that causes patches of skin to become dry, itchy, and scaly
erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN)
skin condition in newborns that causes a red rash and small, fluid-filled bumps on the face and/or limbs
fissure
crack, opening, or split in the skin or tissues of the body, such as the anus from stooling
gastroesophageal reflux (GER)
spitting up of liquid or food, when the stomach contents move back up from a baby’s stomach into the esophagus
grunting
while breathing out (expiratory grunting), the infant’s way of trying to keep air in the lungs so they will stay open
hyperbilirubinemia
increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the serum
hypoglycemia
blood glucose level below 40 mg/dL in the term infant; a common transient occurrence in the immediate postbirth period
immunization
process by which someone becomes protected against a disease through injections into the skin, nasal spray, or by mouth
influenza
viral illness that can cause many of the same symptoms as the common cold but is accompanied by severe body aches and higher fever; commonly referred to as the flu
intercostal retraction
sucking-in between the ribs when the infant breathes in
jaundice
hyperbilirubinemia in which the skin and sclera of the eyes of the newborn may appear noticeably yellow due to the breakdown of fetal red blood cells
kernicterus
type of brain injury that can result from high levels of bilirubin in the baby’s blood
lethargy
lack of movement and energy, out-of-the-ordinary sleepiness
nasal flaring
when the nostrils flare out with each breath
nonphysiologic jaundice
(also: pathologic jaundice) jaundice that may appear in the first 24 hours of life
omphalitis
life-threatening infection of the umbilical cord
physiologic jaundice
(also: developmental jaundice) jaundice not present in the first 24 hours of life in term infants
physiologic regurgitation
(also: reflux) spitting up of stomach contents in infants, or reflux, that occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter muscle lets the stomach contents back into the esophagus because it is not fully developed
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
contagious virus causing an illness that is more serious than a cold or upper respiratory infection
seborrheic dermatitis
(also: cradle cap) common, harmless skin condition on an infant’s scalp that presents as yellow, scaly patches with a red rash
sepsis
bacterial infection in the blood
serum
amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby that is less than a year old
swaddling
traditional practice of wrapping up a baby gently in a light, breathable blanket to help them feel calm and sleepy, thereby offering comfort
temporal artery thermometry
measures the temperature of the blood flowing through the temporal artery on the forehead
transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) monitor
painless handheld light meter that is routinely used to scan for bilirubin in the skin
transient neonatal pustular melanosis (TNPM)
normal and harmless skin condition that affects term newborns and presents with skin bumps, pustules, or blisters anywhere on the infant’s body
transitional stool
stool that follows meconium and is yellowish-green
tympanic thermometer
thermometer that uses an infrared ray to measure the temperature inside the ear canal
umbilical cord granuloma
small nodule of tissue, which can measure up to 1 cm, that may become evident after the separation of the umbilical cord
umbilical hernia
hernia caused by a small hole in the muscular part of the abdominal wall that allows the tissue to bulge out when there is increased abdominal pressure (e.g., crying)
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