Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Committee Opinion no. 664: Refusal of medically recommended treatment during pregnancy. Reaffirmed 2019.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 766 Summary: Approaches to limit intervention during labor and birth. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133(2), 406–408.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2022). Sample birth plan template.

American Society for the Alexander Technique. (n.d.-a). Find a teacher.

American Society for the Alexander Technique. (n.d.-b). How to learn.

Arnold, J., Gillerman, H., & Zimmerer, T. (n.d.). How the Alexander Technique can help during pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2022). Standards for professional registered nurse staffing for perinatal units. Journal of Obstetric & Gynecologic Neonatal Nursing, 51(4), e5–e98.

Baby-Friendly USA. (2024). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

Banoofatemeh, S., Oreyzi, H. R., & Bahadoran, P. (2017). Effects of implementing the Alexander Technique on enjoying the sense of motherhood in the postpartum period. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 22(5), 392–397.

Boules, N. (n.d.). Cultural birthing practices and experiences. Baulkham Hills Holroyd Parramatta Migrant Resource Centre.

Bradley, R. A., Hathaway, M., Hathaway, J., & Hathaway, J. (2008). Husband-coached childbirth: The Bradley method of natural childbirth. Bantam. (n.d.). A well balanced pregnancy diet consists of:

Campbell J. (2020). Understanding Millennial moms' choices: A nursing survey about Childbirth education in primigravid women. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 29(4), 208–218.

Duffee, S. (2021). The evolution of breathing in labour. CAPPA.

Grauer, A. (n.d.). Finding a healthcare provider: Learning why finding the right healthcare provider and birth place is important. Lamaze International.

Gurevich, R., & Odunsi, T. (2021, October 26). What is the Bradley method? Verywell Family.

Hanefeld, N., Glover, L., Jomeen, J., & Wadephul, F. (2021). Women’s experiences of using the Alexander Technique in the postpartum: ‘…in a way, it’s just as beneficial as sleep.’ Midwifery, 103, 103155.

Huang, J., Zang, Y., Ren, L. H., Li, F. J., & Lu, H. (2019). A review and comparison of common maternal positions during the second-stage of labor. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(4), 460–467.

International Childbirth Education Association. (2015). ICEA position paper: Physiologic birth.

Isidro-Cloudas, T., & Hargrove, I. M. (2023, September 19). What to know about the hypnobirthing technique. Parents.

Kinsey, D., Glover, L., & Wadephul, F. (2021). How does the Alexander Technique lead to psychological and non-physical outcomes? A realist review. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 46, 101371.

Lamaze International. (2017). Exercises for every trimester & favorite at-home prenatal fitness videos.

Lamaze International. (n.d.). About us: Our history.

Likar, A., & Clare-Newman, C. (n.d.). Pregnancy and childbirth with the Alexander Technique.

Lothian, J., & DeVries, C. (2017). Giving birth with confidence (what to expect) . Meadowbrook Press.

Mahalakshmi, T., Kirubamani, H., & Mangalagowri, P. (2018). Effectiveness of Lamaze method on mode of labor among primigravid mothers. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 52(1), 31–35.

Makarem, N., Chau, K., Miller, E. C., Gyamfi-Bannerman, C., Tous, I., Booker, W., Catov, J. M., Haas, D. M., Grobman, W. A., Levine, L. D., McNeil, R., Bairey Merz, C. N., Reddy, U., Wapner, R. J., Wong, M. S., & Bello, N. A. (2022). Association of a Mediterranean diet pattern with adverse pregnancy outcomes among US women. JAMA Network Open, 5(12):e2248165.

Mongan, M. (2015). HypnoBirthing (4th ed.). E-Book ed. Health Publishers.

Muza, S. (2012). Midwifery organizations band together in support of normal physiologic birth. Lamaze International.

Ondeck, M. (2019). Healthy birth practice #2: Walk, move around, and change positions throughout labor. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 28(2), 81–87.

Prusky, S. (2010). What is the meaning of normal birth? Lamaze International.

Sioma-Markowska, U., Poręba, R., Machura. M., & Skrzypulec-Plinta, V. Paternal engagement during childbirth depending on the manner of their preparation. (2016). Gynekologia Polska, 87(9), 639–643.

Stjernholm, Y. V., da Dilva Charvalho, P., Bergdahl, O., Vladic, T., & Petersson, M. (2021). Continuous support promotes obstetric labor progress and vaginal delivery in primiparous women: A randomized controlled study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Terreri, C. (2020, June 8). Universal rights in giving birth. Lamaze International.

Uldal, T., Ostmoen, M. S., Dahl, B., & Roseth, I. (2023). Women’s experiences with hypnobirth: A qualitative study. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 37, 100890.

Vanderlaan, J., & Givens, S. (n.d.). Evidence-based childbirth education: An essential step in shared decision-making for maternity care. Lamaze International.

What is a safe and healthy birth? (n.d.). Lamaze International.

Who was F. Matthias Alexander? (n.d.).

Wu, C. Ge, Y., Zhang, X., Du, Y., He, S., Ji, Z., & Lang, H. (2021). The combined effects of Lamaze breathing training and nursing intervention on the delivery in primipara: A PRISMA systematic review meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 100(4), e23920.

Zhu, Y., Liu, Y., Fu, W., Zeng, F., Cao, Y., Dou, W., Duan, D., Chen, Y., Lyu, Q., & Zhao, X. (2023). Associations of dietary patterns and pre-eclampsia: A matched case–control study. British Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 247–254.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 25, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.