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amniotic fluid index (AFI)
standardized way to assess the sufficiency of the amniotic fluid quantity in pregnancy
antibody titer
simple blood test that determines the presence of antibodies to Rh-positive blood in a person with Rh-negative blood
biophysical profile (BPP)
scoring system to evaluate fetal well-being in the following areas: fetal heart rate, fetal breathing movements, fetal body movements, fetal muscle tone, and amount of amniotic fluid
cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening
blood test that can be done as early as 10 weeks’ gestation and up until delivery that screens for certain conditions caused by an abnormal number of chromosomes
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
prenatal diagnostic test conducted between the 10th and 13th week of pregnancy to diagnose fetal chromosomal, metabolic, or DNA abnormalities
contraction stress test (CST)
allows the provider to see how the fetal heart rate reacts when the uterus contracts
fetal movement count
(also called “kick count”) test that keeps track of the fetus’s movements and that can be performed at home by the pregnant person
fetoscopy
procedure that involves inserting a thin fiber-optic tube, or fetoscope, into the uterus through a small incision made in the abdomen of the pregnant person
integrated screen part 2
(also called quad screen) blood test taken between 15 and 20 weeks’ gestation to screen for neural tube defects such as spina bifida and chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome and trisomy 18
multiple marker screen
blood test for pregnant persons that screens for chromosomal disorders and neural tube defects
nonstress test (NST)
noninvasive test for fetal well-being that provides a graphic of the fetal heart pattern in relation to the movement of the fetus
nuchal translucency screening
ultrasound that measures the thickness of space at the back of the fetus’s neck, known as the nuchal fold thickness
percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)
diagnostic test that looks for specific genetic or blood disorders in the fetus
screening
test used to identify whether a fetus is more or less likely to have certain birth defects, many which are genetic disorders
ultrasound
safe and painless diagnostic procedure using high-frequency sound waves that allows health-care providers to see inside the uterus and examine the developing fetus without invasive measures
umbilical Doppler study
used to check blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel located in the umbilical cord
vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS)
noninvasive technique that uses vibratory and sound stimulation to determine fetal well-being in the antepartum period
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