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adolescent pregnancy
one that occurs in persons between 10 and 19 years of age
anemia
level of red blood cells or hemoglobin that is too low to supply enough oxygen to the tissues of the body
blighted ovum
also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants into the uterus, but an embryo does not form
cerclage
surgical procedure in which sutures are placed around the cervix to prevent it from dilating
cervical insufficiency
painless dilation of the cervix during pregnancy that often leads to inability to carry the fetus beyond the second trimester
chronic hypertension
high blood pressure that is present prior to pregnancy or before 20 weeks’ gestation
complete abortion
occurs when there is a termination of pregnancy that results in all the products of conception being expelled from the uterus, such as the fetus, placenta, and other tissue
cystic fibrosis
genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which causes thick mucus to build up in various organs of the body, such as the lungs, pancreas, and intestines
dilation and curettage (D&C)
surgical procedure in which the contents of the uterus are removed by dilating the cervix and using a surgical instrument (curette) to evacuate the uterine tissue and lining
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
serious condition where there is widespread coagulopathy and tiny blood clots form throughout the body
eclampsia
occurs when preeclampsia progresses and the patient develops seizure activity
ectopic pregnancy
occurs when a fertilized egg becomes implanted outside the uterus
fetal resorption
occurs when fetal tissues are broken down into simple molecules, which are easily absorbed by the body of the pregnant person
gestational trophoblastic disease
rare group of tumors caused by an abnormal growth of placental trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy
HELLP syndrome
acronym that stands for Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count and is a complication of liver involvement related to preeclampsia
high-risk pregnancy
pregnancy that has an increased likelihood of maternal and fetal complications
hyperemesis gravidarum
condition characterized by severe nausea and vomiting during the first trimester that can lead to electrolyte imbalances, weight loss, malnutrition, and dehydration
hyperthyroidism
diagnosed in the setting of high thyroxine (free T4) levels and low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; clinical signs and symptoms include heat intolerance, weight loss, frequent stools, sweating, palpitations, insomnia, tachycardia, and hypertension.
hypothyroidism
diagnosed in the setting of high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and low thyroxine (free T4) levels; clinical signs and symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, muscle cramps, cold intolerance, edema, hair loss, and dry skin
immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)
autoimmune disorder in which platelets are destroyed, which leads to low platelet levels
incomplete abortion
occurs when some of the products of conception are still present in the uterus after the pregnancy has been terminated
inevitable pregnancy loss
occurs when the cervix dilates or the membranes rupture without delivery of the fetus or placenta at less than 20 weeks’ gestation
intrauterine fetal demise
death of the fetus that occurs at any time during pregnancy
missed abortion
also referred to as a missed miscarriage, a type of spontaneous abortion where there is no expulsion of the products of conception and the cervix is closed; the patient may experience minimal to no signs or symptoms of miscarriage
multiple gestation
term used to describe a pregnancy in which there is more than one fetus
oligohydramnios
abnormally low volume of amniotic fluid present during pregnancy
overnutrition
imbalance of nutrition that results from excessive food intake
placenta accreta
occurs when the placenta grows into or through the uterine wall, which can lead to the placenta attaching to nearby pelvic and abdominal organs
placenta previa
placenta that is located near the internal cervical os or covering it
placental abruption
occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine lining, which may lead to significant maternal-fetal blood loss, intrauterine fetal demise, or maternal death
polyhydramnios
abnormally high volume of amniotic fluid that is present during pregnancy
preeclampsia
multisystem disorder that can occur after 20 weeks’ gestation and, if untreated, can lead to damage in the vital organs and cause seizures
preexisting medical condition
medical condition that is present prior to conception
preterm labor
onset of labor before 37 weeks’ gestation, which is considered term gestation
preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)
occurs when the membranes rupture before term gestation at 37 weeks and there is concern for imminent delivery
recurrent abortion
also known as a recurrent pregnancy loss, refers to two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions that occur before 20 weeks’ gestation
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
systemic autoimmune disease characterized primarily by joint inflammation
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy tissues in multiple organ systems
threatened abortion
diagnosed when bleeding occurs without cervical dilation during the first trimester or before 20 weeks’ gestation
tuberculosis (TB)
infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily impacts the lungs and can cause symptoms such as a chronic cough, hemoptysis, fever, night sweats, chills, fatigue, and chest pain, and symptoms can range from mild to severe
type 1 diabetes
caused by an insulin shortage from an autoimmune process that destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin
type 2 diabetes
caused by beta cells that do not secrete a sufficient amount of insulin in the setting of insulin resistance
undernutrition
imbalance of nutrition related to inadequate intake of food and necessary nutrients
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