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breech presentation
when the fetal buttocks (or legs) present into the pelvis first
cephalic presentation
when the fetal head presents into the pelvis first
cervical ripening
softening and opening of the cervix as it prepares for labor
clinical pelvimetry
assessment of the general shape and size of the patient’s pelvis
consanguinity
shared ancestry, such as when the parents are first cousins
estimated date of delivery (EDD)
date the pregnant patient is expected to give birth, plus or minus 2 weeks
fetal lie
relationship of the fetal spine to the pregnant patient’s spine
fetal presentation
part of the fetus entering the pregnant patient’s pelvis first
first trimester
0 to 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation
fundal height
measurement from the symphysis pubis to where the fundus (or top) of the uterus is palpated in a patient who is pregnant
gravidity
total number of times the patient has been pregnant (including the current pregnancy) regardless of the outcome or number of fetuses
integrated or sequential screenings
tests performed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy to determine if there is an increased risk for abnormal chromosome and neural tube defects in the fetus
Leopold’s maneuvers
a specific method of palpating the pregnant patient’s abdomen to determine the fetal lie, fetal presentation, location of the fetal back, and, with deeper palpation, the fetal position; can also be used, along with measurement of the fundal height, to estimate the fetal weight
longitudinal lie
when the fetal spine lines up vertically with the pregnant patient’s spine
multiparous
pregnant person who has given birth one or more times after 20 weeks of gestation
Naegele’s Rule
three-step calculation based on a 28-day menstrual cycle, used to determine a pregnant patient’s due date: subtract 3 months from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP); add 7 days to the LMP; and adjust the year as needed
oblique lie
when the fetal spine lies on the diagonal of the pregnant patient’s spine
parity
number of pregnancies where the patient has reached 20 weeks of gestation or more regardless of whether the pregnancy ended in a live birth or stillbirth
primiparous
person who is pregnant for the first time
quad marker screen
measures the maternal serum levels of four pregnancy markers, alpha fetoprotein, hCG, unconjugated estriol, and inhibin-A, to determine if there is an increased risk for abnormal chromosome and neural tube defects in the fetus and is performed at 15 to 20 weeks of pregnancy
second trimester
14 to 27 weeks and 6 days of gestation
shoulder presentation
when the fetus is in a transverse lie and the shoulder is presenting into the pelvis first
third trimester
week 28 until delivery (usually by 42 weeks’ gestation)
transverse lie
when the fetal spine lines up horizontally with the pregnant patient’s spine, like the plus (+) sign
trimester
14 weeks of pregnancy; the 280 days of gestation during pregnancy are divided into three periods, called trimesters
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