Introductory Statistics

# Formula Review

### 4.2Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation

Mean or Expected Value: $μ= ∑ ​ x∈X xP(x) μ= ∑ ​ x∈X xP(x)$

Standard Deviation: $σ= ∑ ​ x∈X (x−μ) 2 P(x) σ= ∑ ​ x∈X (x−μ) 2 P(x)$

### 4.3Binomial Distribution

X ~ B(n, p) means that the discrete random variable X has a binomial probability distribution with n trials and probability of success p.

X = the number of successes in n independent trials

n = the number of independent trials

X takes on the values x = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., n

p = the probability of a success for any trial

q = the probability of a failure for any trial

p + q = 1

q = 1 – p

The mean of X is μ = np. The standard deviation of X is σ = $npq npq$.

### 4.4Geometric Distribution

X ~ G(p) means that the discrete random variable X has a geometric probability distribution with probability of success in a single trial p.

X = the number of independent trials until the first success

X takes on the values x = 1, 2, 3, ...

p = the probability of a success for any trial

q = the probability of a failure for any trial p + q = 1
q = 1 – p

The mean is μ = $1 p 1 p$.

The standard deviation is σ = = $1 p ( 1 p −1 ) 1 p ( 1 p −1 )$ .

### 4.5Hypergeometric Distribution

X ~ H(r, b, n) means that the discrete random variable X has a hypergeometric probability distribution with r = the size of the group of interest (first group), b = the size of the second group, and n = the size of the chosen sample.

X = the number of items from the group of interest that are in the chosen sample, and X may take on the values x = 0, 1, ..., up to the size of the group of interest. (The minimum value for X may be larger than zero in some instances.)

nr + b

The mean of X is given by the formula μ = and the standard deviation is = .

### 4.6Poisson Distribution

X ~ P(μ) means that X has a Poisson probability distribution where X = the number of occurrences in the interval of interest.

X takes on the values x = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

The mean μ is typically given.

The variance is σ2 = μ, and the standard deviation is
.

When P(μ) is used to approximate a binomial distribution, μ = np where n represents the number of independent trials and p represents the probability of success in a single trial. Do you know how you learn best?
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