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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Homework
    9. References
    10. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Display Data
    3. 2.2 Measures of the Location of the Data
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Center of the Data
    5. 2.4 Sigma Notation and Calculating the Arithmetic Mean
    6. 2.5 Geometric Mean
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. Key Terms
    10. Chapter Review
    11. Formula Review
    12. Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables and Probability Trees
    6. 3.5 Venn Diagrams
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Bringing It Together: Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Hypergeometric Distribution
    3. 4.2 Binomial Distribution
    4. 4.3 Geometric Distribution
    5. 4.4 Poisson Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Properties of Continuous Probability Density Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution
    5. Key Terms
    6. Chapter Review
    7. Formula Review
    8. Practice
    9. Homework
    10. References
    11. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Estimating the Binomial with the Normal Distribution
    5. Key Terms
    6. Chapter Review
    7. Formula Review
    8. Practice
    9. Homework
    10. References
    11. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means
    3. 7.2 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    4. 7.3 The Central Limit Theorem for Proportions
    5. 7.4 Finite Population Correction Factor
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Confidence Interval for a Population Standard Deviation, Known or Large Sample Size
    3. 8.2 A Confidence Interval for a Population Standard Deviation Unknown, Small Sample Case
    4. 8.3 A Confidence Interval for A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Calculating the Sample Size n: Continuous and Binary Random Variables
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Comparing Two Independent Population Means
    3. 10.2 Cohen's Standards for Small, Medium, and Large Effect Sizes
    4. 10.3 Test for Differences in Means: Assuming Equal Population Variances
    5. 10.4 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    6. 10.5 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    7. 10.6 Matched or Paired Samples
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Test of a Single Variance
    4. 11.3 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    5. 11.4 Test of Independence
    6. 11.5 Test for Homogeneity
    7. 11.6 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  13. 12 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Test of Two Variances
    3. 12.2 One-Way ANOVA
    4. 12.3 The F Distribution and the F-Ratio
    5. 12.4 Facts About the F Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  14. 13 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 The Correlation Coefficient r
    3. 13.2 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    4. 13.3 Linear Equations
    5. 13.4 The Regression Equation
    6. 13.5 Interpretation of Regression Coefficients: Elasticity and Logarithmic Transformation
    7. 13.6 Predicting with a Regression Equation
    8. 13.7 How to Use Microsoft Excel® for Regression Analysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Chapter Review
    11. Practice
    12. Solutions
  15. A | Statistical Tables
  16. B | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  17. Index

12.1 Test of Two Variances

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. There are two assumptions that must be true in order to perform an F test of two variances.

1.

Name one assumption that must be true.

2.

What is the other assumption that must be true?


Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. Two coworkers commute from the same building. They are interested in whether or not there is any variation in the time it takes them to drive to work. They each record their times for 20 commutes. The first worker’s times have a variance of 12.1. The second worker’s times have a variance of 16.9. The first worker thinks that he is more consistent with his commute times. Test the claim at the 10% level. Assume that commute times are normally distributed.

3.

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

4.

What is s1 in this problem?

5.

What is s2 in this problem?

6.

What is n?

7.

What is the F statistic?

8.

What is the critical value?

9.

Is the claim accurate?


Use the following information to answer the next four exercises. Two students are interested in whether or not there is variation in their test scores for math class. There are 15 total math tests they have taken so far. The first student’s grades have a standard deviation of 38.1. The second student’s grades have a standard deviation of 22.5. The second student thinks his scores are more consistent.

10.

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

11.

What is the F Statistic?

12.

What is the critical value?

13.

At the 5% significance level, do we reject the null hypothesis?


Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. Two cyclists are comparing the variances of their overall paces going uphill. Each cyclist records his or her speeds going up 35 hills. The first cyclist has a variance of 23.8 and the second cyclist has a variance of 32.1. The cyclists want to see if their variances are the same or different. Assume that commute times are normally distributed.

14.

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

15.

What is the F Statistic?

16.

At the 5% significance level, what can we say about the cyclists’ variances?

12.2 One-Way ANOVA

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. There are five basic assumptions that must be fulfilled in order to perform a one-way ANOVA test. What are they?

17.

Write one assumption.

18.

Write another assumption.

19.

Write a third assumption.

20.

Write a fourth assumption.

12.3 The F Distribution and the F-Ratio

Use the following information to answer the next eight exercises. Groups of men from three different areas of the country are to be tested for mean weight. The entries in Table 12.13 are the weights for the different groups.

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
216 202 170
198 213 165
240 284 182
187 228 197
176 210 201
Table 12.13
21.

What is the Sum of Squares Factor?

22.

What is the Sum of Squares Error?

23.

What is the df for the numerator?

24.

What is the df for the denominator?

25.

What is the Mean Square Factor?

26.

What is the Mean Square Error?

27.

What is the F statistic?


Use the following information to answer the next eight exercises. Girls from four different soccer teams are to be tested for mean goals scored per game. The entries in Table 12.14 are the goals per game for the different teams.

Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4
1 2 0 3
2 3 1 4
0 2 1 4
3 4 0 3
2 4 0 2
Table 12.14
28.

What is SSbetween?

29.

What is the df for the numerator?

30.

What is MSbetween?

31.

What is SSwithin?

32.

What is the df for the denominator?

33.

What is MSwithin?

34.

What is the F statistic?

35.

Judging by the F statistic, do you think it is likely or unlikely that you will reject the null hypothesis?

12.4 Facts About the F Distribution

36.

An F statistic can have what values?

37.

What happens to the curves as the degrees of freedom for the numerator and the denominator get larger?

Use the following information to answer the next seven exercise. Four basketball teams took a random sample of players regarding how high each player can jump (in inches). The results are shown in Table 12.15.

Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5
36 32 48 38 41
42 35 50 44 39
51 38 39 46 40
Table 12.15
38.

What is the df(num)?

39.

What is the df(denom)?

40.

What are the Sum of Squares and Mean Squares Factors?

41.

What are the Sum of Squares and Mean Squares Errors?

42.

What is the F statistic?

43.

What is the p-value?

44.

At the 5% significance level, is there a difference in the mean jump heights among the teams?


Use the following information to answer the next seven exercises. A video game developer is testing a new game on three different groups. Each group represents a different target market for the game. The developer collects scores from a random sample from each group. The results are shown in Table 12.16

Group A Group B Group C
101 151 101
108 149 109
98 160 198
107 112 186
111 126 160
Table 12.16
45.

What is the df(num)?

46.

What is the df(denom)?

47.

What are the SSbetween and MSbetween?

48.

What are the SSwithin and MSwithin?

49.

What is the F Statistic?

50.

What is the p-value?

51.

At the 10% significance level, are the scores among the different groups different?


Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. Suppose a group is interested in determining whether teenagers obtain their drivers licenses at approximately the same average age across the country. Suppose that the following data are randomly collected from five teenagers in each region of the country. The numbers represent the age at which teenagers obtained their drivers licenses.

Northeast South West Central East
16.3 16.9 16.4 16.2 17.1
16.1 16.5 16.5 16.6 17.2
16.4 16.4 16.6 16.5 16.6
16.5 16.2 16.1 16.4 16.8
x ¯ = x ¯ = ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
s 2 = s 2 = ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
Table 12.17

Enter the data into your calculator or computer.

52.

p-value = ______

State the decisions and conclusions (in complete sentences) for the following preconceived levels of α.

53.

α = 0.05

a. Decision: ____________________________

b. Conclusion: ____________________________

54.

α = 0.01

a. Decision: ____________________________

b. Conclusion: ____________________________

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