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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Introduction to Sociology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Sociology?
    3. 1.2 The History of Sociology
    4. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology
    5. 1.4 Why Study Sociology?
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  3. 2 Sociological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research
    3. 2.2 Research Methods
    4. 2.3 Ethical Concerns
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  4. 3 Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 What Is Culture?
    3. 3.2 Elements of Culture
    4. 3.3 High, Low, Pop, Sub, Counter-culture and Cultural Change
    5. 3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  5. 4 Society and Social Interaction
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Types of Societies
    3. 4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society
    4. 4.3 Social Constructions of Reality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  6. 5 Socialization
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Theories of Self-Development
    3. 5.2 Why Socialization Matters
    4. 5.3 Agents of Socialization
    5. 5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  7. 6 Groups and Organization
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Types of Groups
    3. 6.2 Group Size and Structure
    4. 6.3 Formal Organizations
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  8. 7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Deviance and Control
    3. 7.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
    4. 7.3 Crime and the Law
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  9. 8 Media and Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Technology Today
    3. 8.2 Media and Technology in Society
    4. 8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology
    5. 8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  10. 9 Social Stratification in the United States
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Social Stratification?
    3. 9.2 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States
    4. 9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality
    5. 9.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  11. 10 Global Inequality
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Global Stratification and Classification
    3. 10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty
    4. 10.3 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  12. 11 Race and Ethnicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
    3. 11.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity
    4. 11.3 Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
    5. 11.4 Intergroup Relationships
    6. 11.5 Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  13. 12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sex, Gender, Identity, and Expression
    3. 12.2 Gender and Gender Inequality
    4. 12.3 Sexuality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  14. 13 Aging and the Elderly
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society
    3. 13.2 The Process of Aging
    4. 13.3 Challenges Facing the Elderly
    5. 13.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  15. 14 Relationships, Marriage, and Family
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?
    3. 14.2 Variations in Family Life
    4. 14.3 Challenges Families Face
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  16. 15 Religion
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Sociological Approach to Religion
    3. 15.2 World Religions
    4. 15.3 Religion in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  17. 16 Education
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Education around the World
    3. 16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education
    4. 16.3 Issues in Education
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  18. 17 Government and Politics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Power and Authority
    3. 17.2 Forms of Government
    4. 17.3 Politics in the United States
    5. 17.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  19. 18 Work and the Economy
    1. Introduction to Work and the Economy
    2. 18.1 Economic Systems
    3. 18.2 Globalization and the Economy
    4. 18.3 Work in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  20. 19 Health and Medicine
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 The Social Construction of Health
    3. 19.2 Global Health
    4. 19.3 Health in the United States
    5. 19.4 Comparative Health and Medicine
    6. 19.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  21. 20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Demography and Population
    3. 20.2 Urbanization
    4. 20.3 The Environment and Society
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  22. 21 Social Movements and Social Change
    1. Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change
    2. 21.1 Collective Behavior
    3. 21.2 Social Movements
    4. 21.3 Social Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. References
  23. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  24. Index

Introduction

ABC News Health News. "Ebola in America, Timeline of a Deadly Virus." Retrieved Oct. 23rd, 2014 (http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ebola-america-timeline/story?id=26159719).

Centers for Disease Control. 2011b. “Pertussis.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/outbreaks.html).

Centers for Disease Control. 2020. "What Is Ebola Virus Disease." (https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/about.html)

Conrad, Peter, and Kristin Barker. 2010. “The Social Construction of Illness: Key Insights and Policy Implications.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51:67–79.

CNN. 2011. “Retracted Autism Study an 'Elaborate Fraud,' British Journal Finds.” CNN, January 5. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html).

Devlin, Kate. 2008. “Measles worry MMR as vaccination rates stall.” The Telegraph, September 24. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3074023/Measles-worries-as-MMR-vaccination-rates-stall.html).

Sugerman, David E., Albert E. Barskey, Maryann G. Delea, Ismael R. Ortega-Sanchez, Daoling Bi, Kimberly J. Ralston, Paul A. Rota, Karen Waters-Montijo, and Charles W. LeBaron. 2010. “Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated.” Pediatrics 125(4):747–755. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.pediatricsdigest.mobi/content/125/4/747.full).

World Health Organization. 2014. "Global Alert and Response." Retrieved Oct. 23rd 2014 (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/).

Zacharyczuk, Colleen. 2011. “Myriad causes contributed to California pertussis outbreak.” Thorofar, NJ: Pediatric Supersite. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.pediatricsupersite.com/view.aspx?rid=90516).

19.1 The Social Construction of Health

Begos, Kevin. 2011. “Pinkwashing For Breast Cancer Awareness Questioned.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/11/breast-cancer-pink-pinkwashing_n_1005906.html).

Centers for Disease Control. 2011a. “Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/measuring/exertion.html).

Conrad, Peter, and Kristin Barker. 2010. “The Social Construction of Illness: Key Insights and Policy Implications.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51:67–79.

Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. London: Penguin.

Hutchison, Courtney. 2010. “Fried Chicken for the Cure?” ABC News Medical Unit. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/kfc-fights-breast-cancer-fried-chicken/story?id=10458830#.Tutz63ryT4s).

Sartorius, Norman. 2007. “Stigmatized Illness and Health Care.” The Croatian Medical Journal 48(3):396–397. Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2080544/).

Think Before You Pink. 2012. “Before You Buy Pink.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://thinkbeforeyoupink.org/?page_id=13).

“Vaccines and Immunizations.” 2011. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/default.htm).

World Health Organization. .n.d. “Definition of Health.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html).

World Health Organization: “Health Promotion Glossary Update.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/about/HPR%20Glossary_New%20Terms.pdf).

19.2 Global Health

Bromet et al. 2011. “Cross-National Epidemiology of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode.” BMC Medicine 9:90. Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/90).

Dagenais, Gilles and Darryl P Leong, PhD and Sumathy Rangarajan, MSc and Fernando Lanas, PhD and Prof Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, PhD and Prof Rajeev Gupta, PhD. 2019. "Variations in common diseases, hospital admissions, and deaths in middle-aged adults in 21 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study." September 8 2019. (https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)32007-0/fulltext#articleInformation)

Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among adults: United States, 2017–2018. NCHS Data Brief, no 360. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2020

Huffman, Wallace E., Sonya Kostova Huffman, AbebayehuTegene, and KyrreRickertsen. 2006. “The Economics of Obesity-Related Mortality among High Income Countries” International Association of Agricultural Economists. Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://purl.umn.edu/25567).

Mahase, Elisabeth. 2019. "Cancer overtakes CVD to become leading cause of death in high income countries" The BMJ. September 3 2019. (https://www.bmj.com/content/366/bmj.l5368)

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011. Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/health_glance-2011-en).

UNICEF. 2011. “Water, Sanitation and Hygiene.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.unicef.org/wash).

World Health Organization. 2011. “World Health Statistics 2011.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS2011_Part1.pdf).

19.3 Health in the United States

Agency for Health Research and Quality. 2010. “Disparities in Healthcare Quality Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups.” Agency for Health Research and Quality. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhqrdr10/nhqrdrminority10.htm)

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2021 "HCUP Fast Stats. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). March 2021. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/faststats/national/inpatientcommondiagnoses.jsp?year1=2017)

Agency for HealthCare Research and Quality. 2020. "2019 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Report." (https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2019qdr-intro-methods.pdf)

American Psychological Association. 2011a. “A 09 Autism Spectrum Disorder.” American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Retrieved December 14, 2011.

American Psychological Association. 2011b. “Personality Traits.” American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Retrieved December 14, 2011.

American Psychological Association. n.d. “Understanding the Ritalin Debate.” American Psychological Association. Retrieved December 14, 2011 (http://www.apa.org/topics/adhd/ritalin-debate.aspx)

Anxiety and Depression Institute of America. 2021. "Facts and Statistics." Retrieved April 1 2021. (https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/facts-statistics)

Applied Behavior Analysis. "30 Things Parents of Children on the Autism Spectrum Want You to Know" (https://www.appliedbehavioranalysisprograms.com/things-parents-of-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-want-you-to-know/)

Becker, Dana. n.d. “Borderline Personality Disorder: The Disparagement of Women through Diagnosis.” Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.awpsych.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=109&catid=74&Itemid=126).

Berkman, Lisa F. 2009. “Social Epidemiology: Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Are We Losing Ground?” Annual Review of Public Health 30:27–40.

Blumenthal, David, and Sarah R. Collins. 2014 "Health Care Coverage under the Affordable Care Act—a Progress Report." New England Journal of Medicine 371 (3): 275–81. Retrieved December 16, 2014 (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/04/).

Centers for Disease Control. 2021. "Infant Mortality." (https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm)

CHADD. 2021. "ADHD Changes in Adulthood." Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (https://chadd.org/adhd-weekly/adhd-changes-in-adulthood/)

Danielson, Melissa L. Rebecca H. Bitsko, Reem M. Ghandour, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan & Stephen J. Blumberg. 2018. "Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Associated Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016." Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47:2, 199-212, DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2017.1417860

Fox, B., and D. Worts. 1999. “Revisiting the Critique of Medicalized Childbirth: A Contribution to the Sociology of Birth.” Gender and Society 13(3):326–346.

Gellene, Denise. 2009. “Sleeping Pill Use Grows as Economy Keeps People up at Night.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/30/health/he-sleep30).

Hines, Susan M., and Kevin J. Thompson. 2007. “Fat Stigmatization in Television Shows and Movies: A Content Analysis.” Obesity 15:712–718. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2007.635/full).

Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington DC: National Academies Press.

Jacobs, Gregg D., Edward F. Pace-Schott, Robert Stickgold, and Michael W. Otto. 2004. “Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Direct Comparison.” Archives of Internal Medicine 164(17):1888–1896. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=217394).

James, Cara et al. 2007. “Key Facts: Race, Ethnicity & Medical Care.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.kff.org/minorityhealth/upload/6069-02.pdf).

Kaiser Family Foundation. 2018. "Key Findings From the Kaiser Women's Health Survey. March 13 2018. (https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/topic-details/GHO/child-mortality)

Keck School of Medicine. 2020. "The Shrinking Child Mortality Rate: 5 Things to Know." Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California. (https://mphdegree.usc.edu/blog/the-shrinking-child-mortality-rate-5-things-to-know/)

Moloney, Mairead Eastin, Thomas R. Konrad, and Catherine R. Zimmer. 2011. “The Medicalization of Sleeplessness: A Public Health Concern.” American Journal of Public Health 101:1429–1433.

National Alliance on Mental Illness. 2021. "Mental Health By The Numbers." Retrieved April 1, 2021. (https://www.nami.org/mhstats)

National Institute of Mental Health. 2005. “National Institute of Mental Health Statistics.” Retrieved December 14, 2011 (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/index.shtml).

National Institutes of Health. 2011a. “Insomnia.” The National Institute of Health. Retrieved December 16, 2011 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001808/).

National Institutes of Health. 2011b. “What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?” National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved December 14, 2011 (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/a-parents-guide-to-autism-spectrum-disorder/what-is-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd.shtml).

National Institute of Mental Health. 2021. "Mental Illness." Retrieved April 1, 2021. (https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness.shtml#part_15)

Phelan, Jo C., and Bruce G. Link. 2001. “Conceptualizing Stigma” Annual Review of Sociology 27:363–85. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.heart-intl.net/HEART/Legal/Comp/ConceptualizingStigma.pdf).

Phelan, Jo C., and Bruce G. Link. 2003. “When Income Affects Outcome: Socioeconomic Status and Health.” Research in Profile: 6. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.investigatorawards.org/downloads/research_in_profiles_iss06_feb2003.pdf).

Puhl, Rebecca M., and Chelsea A. Heuer. 2009. “The Stigma of Obesity: A Review and Update.” Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/bias/WeightBiasStudy.pdf).

Ranji, Usha, and Alina Salganico. 2011. “Women's Health Care Chartbook: Key Findings from the Kaiser Women's Health Survey.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/upload/8164.pdf=).

Scheff, Thomas. 1963. Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory. Chicago, IL: Aldine.

Szasz, Thomas. 1961. The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. “Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012.” 131st ed. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab).

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. “Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release.” Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 14, 2011 (http://www.bls.gov/news.release/disabl.htm).

Wamsley, Laurel. 2021. "American Life Expectancy Dropped by a Full Year in the 1st Half of 2020." National Public Radio. February 18 2021. (https://www.npr.org/2021/02/18/968791431/american-life-expectancy-dropped-by-a-full-year-in-the-first-half-of-2020)

Winkleby, Marilyn A., D. E. Jatulis, E. Frank, and S. P. Fortmann. 1992. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: How Education, Income, and Occupation Contribute to Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.” American Journal of Public Health 82:6.

World Health Organization. 2020. "Children: Improving Survival and Well-Being." September 8 2020. (https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality)

World Health Organization. 2021. "Child Mortality." Retrieved April 1 2020. (https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/topic-details/GHO/child-mortality)

19.4 Comparative Health and Medicine

Anders, George. 1996. Health Against Wealth: HMOs and the Breakdown of Medical Trust. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014 "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Data and Statistics." Retrieved October 13, 2014 (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html)

Docteur, Elizabeth, and Robert A. Berenson. 2009. “How Does the Quality of U.S. Health Care Compare Internationally?” Timely Analysis of Immediate Health Policy Issues 9:1–14.

Economic Policy Institute. 2021. "How would repealing the ACA affect healthcare and jobs in your state?" (https://www.epi.org/aca-obamacare-repeal-impact/)

Garfield, Rachel and Orgera, Kendal and Damico, Anthony. 2019. "The Uninsured and the ACA: A Primer - Key Facts about Health Insurance and the Uninsured amidst Changes to the Affordable Care Act" Faiser Family Foundation. (https://www.kff.org/report-section/the-uninsured-and-the-aca-a-primer-key-facts-about-health-insurance-and-the-uninsured-amidst-changes-to-the-affordable-care-act-how-many-people-are-uninsured/)

Kaiser Family Foundation. 2011. “Health Coverage of Children: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP.” Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.kff.org/uninsured/upload/7698-05.pdf).

Kaiser Family Foundation. 2010. “International Health Systems: Canada.” Retrieved December 14, 2011 (http://www.kaiseredu.org/Issue-Modules/International-Health-Systems/Canada.aspx).

Keisler-Starkey, Katherine and Bunch, Lisa. 2020. "Health Insurance Coverage In the United States 2019." United States Census Bureau. (https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2020/demo/p60-271.html)

Keith, Katie. 2020. "Tracking the uninsured rate in 2019-20." Health Affairs. October 7 2020. (https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20201007.502559/full/)

Klein, Ezra. 2009. “Health Reform for Beginners: The Difference between Socialized Medicine, Single-Payer Health Care, and What We'll Be Getting.” The Washington Post, December 14. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-12-15/don-t-let-death-panels-kill-a-better-way-to-die-commentary-by-ezra-klein.html).

Kogan, Richard. 2011. “Program Cuts Under a Balanced Budget Amendment: How Severe Might They Be?” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3619).

Pear, Robert. 2011. “In Cuts to Health Programs, Experts See Difficult Task in Protecting Patients.” The New York Times, September 20. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/21/us/politics/wielding-the-ax-on-medicaid-and-medicare-without-wounding-the-patient.html).

Rooney, Kate and Moyer, Liz. 2018. "Health care topped the economy as the biggest issue for voters now, here’s why." CNBC. November 8, 2018. (https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/07/healthcare-topped-the-economy-as-the-biggest-issue-for-voters-now-heres-why.html)

Schoen, C., M.M. Doty, R.H. Robertson, and S.R. Collins. 2011. "Affordable Care Act Reforms Could Reduce the Number of Underinsured U.S. Adults by 70 Percent." Health Affairs 30(9):1762–71. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Publications/In-the-Literature/2011/Sep/Reduce-Uninsured.aspx).

Uchiyma, T., M. Kurosawa, Y. Inaba. 2007. "MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan." Journal of Autism and Deviant Disorders 37(2):210–7.

U.S. Census. 2011. “Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2009 and 2010.” U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 and 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/incpovhlth/2010/table10.pdf).

U.S. Census. 2011. “CPS Health Insurance Definitions.” Retrieved December 13, 2011 (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/methodology/definitions/cps.html).

Washington University Center for Health Policy. n.d. “Health Care Access for Medicaid Patients—Physicians and Dentists Interview Study.” Retrieved December 15, 2011 (http://healthpolicy.wustl.edu/Content/HealthCareAccess.html?OpenDocument).

World Health Organization. 2011. “World Health Statistics 2011.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 (http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS2011_Part1.pdf).

World Health Organization. 2014. "Ebola Virus Disease Fact Sheet, Updated September 2014." Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/).

19.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine

Conrad, Peter, and Joseph W. Schneider. 1992. Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press

Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Scheff, Thomas. 1963. “The Role of the Mentally Ill and the Dynamics of Mental Disorder.” Sociometry 26:436–453.

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