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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Introduction to Sociology
    1. Introduction to Sociology
    2. 1.1 What Is Sociology?
    3. 1.2 The History of Sociology
    4. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives
    5. 1.4 Why Study Sociology?
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  3. 2 Sociological Research
    1. Introduction to Sociological Research
    2. 2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research
    3. 2.2 Research Methods
    4. 2.3 Ethical Concerns
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  4. 3 Culture
    1. Introduction to Culture
    2. 3.1 What Is Culture?
    3. 3.2 Elements of Culture
    4. 3.3 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change
    5. 3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  5. 4 Society and Social Interaction
    1. Introduction to Society and Social Interaction
    2. 4.1 Types of Societies
    3. 4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society
    4. 4.3 Social Constructions of Reality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  6. 5 Socialization
    1. Introduction to Socialization
    2. 5.1 Theories of Self-Development
    3. 5.2 Why Socialization Matters
    4. 5.3 Agents of Socialization
    5. 5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  7. 6 Groups and Organization
    1. Introduction to Groups and Organizations
    2. 6.1 Types of Groups
    3. 6.2 Group Size and Structure
    4. 6.3 Formal Organizations
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  8. 7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    1. Introduction to Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    2. 7.1 Deviance and Control
    3. 7.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance
    4. 7.3 Crime and the Law
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  9. 8 Media and Technology
    1. Introduction to Media and Technology
    2. 8.1 Technology Today
    3. 8.2 Media and Technology in Society
    4. 8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology
    5. 8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  10. 9 Social Stratification in the United States
    1. Introduction to Social Stratification in the United States
    2. 9.1 What Is Social Stratification?
    3. 9.2 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States
    4. 9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality
    5. 9.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  11. 10 Global Inequality
    1. Introduction to Global Inequality
    2. 10.1 Global Stratification and Classification
    3. 10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty
    4. 10.3 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  12. 11 Race and Ethnicity
    1. Introduction to Race and Ethnicity
    2. 11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
    3. 11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    4. 11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity
    5. 11.4 Intergroup Relationships
    6. 11.5 Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  13. 12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    1. Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    2. 12.1 Sex and Gender
    3. 12.2 Gender
    4. 12.3 Sex and Sexuality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  14. 13 Aging and the Elderly
    1. Introduction to Aging and the Elderly
    2. 13.1 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society
    3. 13.2 The Process of Aging
    4. 13.3 Challenges Facing the Elderly
    5. 13.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  15. 14 Marriage and Family
    1. Introduction to Marriage and Family
    2. 14.1 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?
    3. 14.2 Variations in Family Life
    4. 14.3 Challenges Families Face
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  16. 15 Religion
    1. Introduction to Religion
    2. 15.1 The Sociological Approach to Religion
    3. 15.2 World Religions
    4. 15.3 Religion in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  17. 16 Education
    1. Introduction to Education
    2. 16.1 Education around the World
    3. 16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education
    4. 16.3 Issues in Education
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  18. 17 Government and Politics
    1. Introduction to Government and Politics
    2. 17.1 Power and Authority
    3. 17.2 Forms of Government
    4. 17.3 Politics in the United States
    5. 17.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  19. 18 Work and the Economy
    1. Introduction to Work and the Economy
    2. 18.1 Economic Systems
    3. 18.2 Globalization and the Economy
    4. 18.3 Work in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  20. 19 Health and Medicine
    1. Introduction to Health and Medicine
    2. 19.1 The Social Construction of Health
    3. 19.2 Global Health
    4. 19.3 Health in the United States
    5. 19.4 Comparative Health and Medicine
    6. 19.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  21. 20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    1. Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    2. 20.1 Demography and Population
    3. 20.2 Urbanization
    4. 20.3 The Environment and Society
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  22. 21 Social Movements and Social Change
    1. Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change
    2. 21.1 Collective Behavior
    3. 21.2 Social Movements
    4. 21.3 Social Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. References
  23. Index

17.1 Power and Authority

1.

Which statement best expresses the difference between power and authority?

  1. Authority involves intimidation.
  2. Authority is more subtle than power.
  3. Authority is based on the perceived legitimacy of the individual in power.
  4. Authority is inherited, but power is seized by military force.
2.

Which of the following types of authority does not reside primarily in a leader?

  1. Dictatorial
  2. Traditional
  3. Charismatic
  4. Legal-rational
3.

In the U.S. Senate, it is customary to assign each senator a seniority ranking based on years of government service and the population of the state he or she represents. A top ranking gives the senator priority for assignments to office space, committee chair positions, and seating on the senate floor. What type of authority does this example best illustrate?

  1. Dictatorial
  2. Traditional
  3. Charismatic
  4. Legal-rational
4.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. used his public speaking abilities and magnetism to inspire African Americans to stand up against injustice in an extremely hostile environment. He is an example of a(n) __________ leader.

  1. traditional
  2. charismatic
  3. legal-rational
  4. illegitimate
5.

Which current world figure has the least amount of political power?

  1. President Barack Obama
  2. Queen Elizabeth II
  3. British Prime Minister David Cameron
  4. North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un
6.

Which statement best expresses why there have been so few charismatic female leaders throughout history?

  1. Women have different leadership styles than men.
  2. Women are not interested in leading at all.
  3. Few women have had the opportunity to hold leadership roles over the courseof history.
  4. Male historians have refused to acknowledge the contributions of female leaders in their records.

17.2 Forms of Government

7.

Many constitutional monarchies started out as:

  1. oligarchies
  2. absolute monarchies
  3. dictatorships
  4. democracies
8.

Which nation is an absolute monarchy?

  1. Oman
  2. Great Britain
  3. Denmark
  4. Australia
9.

Which of the following present and former government leaders is generally considered a dictator?

  1. David Cameron
  2. Barack Obama
  3. Qaboos bin Said Al Said
  4. Kim Jong-Un
10.

A(n) _________________ is an extremely oppressive government that seeks to control all aspects of its citizens’ lives.

  1. oligarchy
  2. totalitarian dictatorship
  3. anarchy
  4. absolute monarchy
11.

Which is not a characteristic of a democracy?

  1. People vote to elect officials.
  2. A king or queen holds the majority of governmental control.
  3. One goal of this type of government is to protect citizens’ basic rights.
  4. A constitution typically outlines the foundational ideas of how this government should operate.
12.

Which statement best expresses why the United States is not a true democracy?

  1. Many politicians are corrupt.
  2. Special-interest groups fund political campaigns.
  3. Citizens elect representatives who vote on their behalf to make policy.
  4. Ancient Greece was the only true democracy.

17.3 Politics in the United States

13.

In the past, Southern states discouraged African Americans from voting by requiring them to take a _____________________ test.

  1. blood
  2. literacy
  3. lie detector
  4. citizenship
14.

Which president signed the Voting Rights Act?

  1. Lyndon Johnson
  2. John F. Kennedy Jr.
  3. Barack Obama
  4. Franklin D. Roosevelt
15.

Which factor does not influence voting practices?

  1. Race
  2. Social class
  3. Ethnicity
  4. Voting booths
16.

The U.S. Supreme Court case _________________ led to the revision of voting districts to account for differences in population density.

  1. Roe v. Wade
  2. Reynolds v. Sims
  3. Brown v. Board of Education
  4. Marbury v. Madison
17.

Which statement best explains the meaning of “one person, one vote”?

  1. One person should not be allowed to vote twice.
  2. A voter deserves one chance to vote.
  3. A voter should vote only once a year.
  4. All people's votes should count equally.

17.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power

18.

Which concept corresponds best to functionalism?

  1. Happiness
  2. Interdependence
  3. Revolution
  4. Symbolism
19.

Which sociologist is not associated with conflict theory?

  1. C. Wright Mills
  2. G. William Domhoff
  3. Karl Marx
  4. George H. Mead
20.

Karl Marx believed social structures evolve through:

  1. supply and demand
  2. enlightenment
  3. conflict
  4. cooperation
21.

The Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street protests, and the Tea Party movement have the following in common:

  1. They sought to destroy central government.
  2. They are examples of conflict theory in action.
  3. They can only occur in a representative democracy.
  4. They used violence as the means of achieving their goals.
22.

Which is not one of functionalism’s four main purposes of government?

  1. Maintaining law and order
  2. Meeting social needs
  3. Equally distributing resources
  4. Planning and directing society
23.

Sociologist G. William Domhoff’s Who Rules America? asserts that wealth is often necessary to exert the most influence over social and political systems. This is a ____ perspective.

  1. conflict theory
  2. symbolic interactionist
  3. functionalist
  4. feminist
24.

Which of the following paradigms would consider movements such as Occupy Wall Street undesirable and unnecessarily forcing social change?

  1. Symbolic interactionism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Feminism
  4. Conflict theory
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