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1 What Is Politics and What Is Political Science?

1. “Uganda Blocks Social Media Ahead of Tense Election,” Africanews, January 12, 2021,
2. Alan Elb, Anit Mukherjee, and Brian Webster, Delivering Social Assistance during COVID with a “Digital-First” Approach: Lessons from India (London: Center for Global Development, July 22, 2021),
3. “Protecting Your Privacy: Phone and Cable Records,” Consumer Guides, Federal Communications Commission,; “Cell Phones,” US Food & Drug Administration, content current as of May 13, 2021,
4. Katie Moritz, “You Can Influence Lawmakers with Your Smartphone,” Rewire, August 15, 2017,
5. Fred Miller, “Aristotle's Political Theory,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
6. Harold Dwight Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (New York: P. Smith, 1950).
7. The sociology discipline, in contrast, concentrates on the study of social behavior and institutions outside of the government.
8. Rachel Gable, The Hidden Curriculum: First Generation Students at Legacy Universities (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2021).
9. “Air Force Pilot Height Qualifications and Waivers,” US Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, November 5, 2019,
10. Henry Martyn Robert and Will Eisner, Robert's Rules of Order (Toronto: Bantam Books, 1986).
11. Sophy Owuor, “Which Country Has the Shortest Written Constitution in the World?” World Atlas, December 21, 2018,
12. Constitute, “Constitute: The World's Constitutions to Read, Search, and Compare,” accessed October 22, 2021,
13. For the US President, see, for example, David H. Gans, The President's Duty to Obey Court Judgments (Washington, DC: Constitutional Accountability Center, June 2018),
14. “About Us,” United Nations, accessed September 8, 2021,
15. “Twelve Times the UN Has Failed the World,” TRT World, November 28, 2018,; Kathy Calvin, “10 Ways the UN Made the World a Better Place in 2017,” United Nations Foundation blog, December 20, 2017,
16. See, for example, Jamie L. Carson, Joel Sievert, and Ryan D. Williamson, “Nationalization and the Incumbency Advantage,” Political Research Quarterly 73, no. 1 (March 1, 2020): 156–168,; James N. Druckman, Martin J. Kifer, and Michael Parkin, “Campaign Rhetoric and the Incumbency Advantage,” American Politics Research 48, no. 1 (January 30, 2019): 22–43; Maggie Koerth, “How Money Affects Elections,” FiveThirtyEight, September 10, 2018,
17. Tom Christiano and Sameer Bajaj, “Democracy,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
18. In fact, the Australian government has stated that “the public interest should not be defined.” Australian Law Reform Commission, “Meaning of Public Interest,” in Serious Invasions of Privacy in the Digital Era (Queensland, AU: Australian Law Reform Commission, March 30, 2014), accessed September 8, 2021,
19. Robert A. Dahl, “The Concept of Power,” Behavioral Science 2, no. 3 (1957): 201–215. doi:10.1002/bs.3830020303.
20. ​​Daniel Philpott, “Sovereignty,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
21. “Government,” The Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accessed September 8, 2021,
22. Why did we not provide an exact number? Because there are disputes regarding whether a few political entities, such as Taiwan and Palestine, meet the definition of a state.
23. Erin Blakemore, “Today, the Kurds Are Spread Across Four Nations. Who Are They?” National Geographic, August 16, 2019,
24. Tom Christiano, “Authority,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2020), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
25. David A. Harris, “The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why Driving While Black Matters,” Minnesota Law Review 84, no. 2 (1999): 265.
26. Yngve Vogt, “The World HAS Become More Peaceful,” Apollon, February 15, 2019,
27. Thomas Carothers and Andrew O’Donohue, “How to Understand the Global Spread of Political Polarization,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 1, 2019,
28. Carroll Doherty, “7 Things to Know about Polarization in American Politics,” Pew Research Center, June 12, 2014,
29. Fred Miller, “Aristotle's Political Theory,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
30. You can find an extensive discussion of the “good citizen” in Jack Crittenden and Peter Levine, “Civic Education,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
31. Rosalind Hursthouse and Glen Pettigrove, “Virtue Ethics,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
32. Klaus von Beyme, “Political Theory: Empirical Political Theory,” in A New Handbook of Political Science, eds. Robert E. Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingeman (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003).
33. Mary Ann Clark, Matthew Douglas, and Jung Choi, Biology, 2nd ed. (Houston, TX: OpenStax, 2018), 1.
34. Rebecca B. Morton and Kenneth C. Williams, “Experimentation in Political Science,” in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, eds. Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier, Henry E. Brady, and David Collier (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, August 2008),
35. John Gertz, “Maybe the Aliens Really Are Here,” Scientific American, June 21, 2021,
36. US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, “Senate Intel Releases New Report on Intel Community Assessment of Russian Interference,” press release, April 21, 2020,
37. Nate Silver, “How Much Did Russian Interference Affect the 2016 Election?” FiveThirtyEight, February 16, 2018,
38. Joseph M. Pierre, “The Psychology of Guns: Risk, Fear, and Motivated Reasoning,” Palgrave Communications 5, no. 1 (December 2019): 1–7. doi:10.1057/s41599-019-0373-z.
39. Stanton A. Glantz, The Cigarette Papers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).
40. “Voting Rights Litigation Tracker 2020,” Brennan Center for Justice, updated July 8, 2021,
41. Michelle Ye Hee Lee and Anu Narayanswamy, “Trump Raises $495 Million since Mid-October, Including a Massive Haul Fueled by Misleading Appeals about Election Fraud,” Washington Post, December 4, 2020,
42. For one interesting article on this topic, see Melissa R. Michelson, “Political Efficacy and Electoral Participation of Chicago Latinos,” Social Science Quarterly 81, no. 1 (2000): 136–150.
43. Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, “Why Younger Americans Don’t Vote More Often (*No, It’s Not Apathy),” FiveThirtyEight, October 30, 2020,
44. Nate Silver, “Election Update: Clinton Gains, and the Polls Magically Converge,” FiveThirtyEight, November 7, 2016,
45. Neil Bhutta, Andrew C. Chang, Lisa J. Dettling, and Joanne W. Hsu, “Disparities in Wealth by Race and Ethnicity in the 2019 Survey of Consumer Finances,” Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, September 28, 2020,
46. To be precise, 50 Republicans were elected to the Senate along with 48 Democrats and two Independents, but both Independents ally themselves with the Democrats.
47. Eitan Hersh, Politics Is for Power: How to Move Beyond Political Hobbyism, Take Action, and Make Real Change (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 2020).

2 Political Behavior Is Human Behavior

1. “China, Mongolia, and Taiwan,” Office of the United States Trade Representative,
2. Harold Lasswell famously defined politics as “who gets what, when, how.” Harold D. Laswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, vol. 30 (New York: Whittlesey House, 1936). Our task in this section is somewhat different, as we are asking who does what.
3. This word is sometimes spelled unalienable; either way, the meaning is the same.
4. “What Are Human Rights?” United Nations, Officer of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), accessed April 2, 2021,
5. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations,
6. F. A. Hayek, Law, Legislation, and Liberty, Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).
7. Julia Driver, “The History of Utilitarianism,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2014),
8. John F. Helliwell, Richard Layard, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Lara B. Aknin, and Shun Wang, World Happiness Report 2021 (New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2021),
9. Hubert Cheung, “Tourism in Kenya’s National Parks: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.” SURG Journal 6, no. 1 (2012): 31–40, doi:10.21083/surg.v6i1.2019.
10. “Cost-Benefit Analysis,” Center for Effective Government,; “Cost-Benefit Analysis,” Office of Economic Policy, USAID, last updated July 12, 2021,
11. Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1974).
12. Bas van der Vossen, “Libertarianism,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2019),
13. William Kottmeyer, The Robin Hood Stories. (St. Louis, MO: Webster Publishing Company, 1952).
14. As you might guess, there is substantial disagreement as to what constitutes a threat. One person might believe that carrying a handgun makes them safer without harming others, while some might believe that the very presence of guns makes them insecure.
15. Reason ( is a good source of contemporary articles advocating for libertarianism.
16. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Critique of the Gotha Programme (London: Electric Book Co., [1891] 2001).
17. Karl Marx, Civil War in France (New York: International Publishers, [1871] 1937), 19.
18. Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Chicago, IL: C. H. Kerr, [1859] 1911), 11.
19. Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, and V.I. Lenin, On the Dictatorship of the Proletariat (Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers, [1925] 1984), 243.
20. “Communist Countries,” World Atlas, accessed August 6, 2021,
21. For the US version of democratic socialism, see Gary J. Dorrien, American Democratic Socialism: History, Politics, Religion, and Theory (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2021).
22. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, [1971] 1999).
23. For Washington, DuBois, and King, see Robert Michael Franklin, Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African-American Thought (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1990); for Wells, see Ida B. Wells, Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells, 2nd ed. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2020).
24. Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972); Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901–1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983).
25. Booker T. Washington, Up from Slavery (New York: Penguin Books, [1901] 1986).
26. Sean Elias, “W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Human Rights.” Societies without Borders 4, no. 3 (2009): 273–294. doi:10.1163/187188609X12492771031492; see also Robert Gooding-Williams, “W. E. B. Du Bois,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2020),
27. For a discussion of Wells and other female activists during the early-20th-century Progressive era, see Stacey Ellen Sheriff, “Rhetoric and Revision: Women’s Arguments for Social Justice in the Progressive Era” (PhD diss., Pennsylvania State University, 2009).
28. Not until 2018 did the United States enact legislation labeling lynching as a hate crime. Louis P. Masur, “Why It Took a Century to Pass an Anti-Lynching Law,” Washington Post, December 28, 2018,
29. “Ida B. Wells Society for Investigative Reporting,” Hussman School for Journalism and Media, University of North Carolina,
30. Quote appears in Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “How Do We Change America?” Department of African American Studies, Princeton University, June 8, 2020,
31. Kate Langan, “Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Visit to WMU: Transcription of MLK’s WMU Speech and Q&A Session,” accessed August 16, 2021,
32. Shailender Kumar Tiwari, “Social Justice: Gandhi and Ambedkar,” The Indian Journal of Political Science 70, no. 2 (2009): 429–439,
33. Amartya Sen, The Idea of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013).
34. John de Coninck, Julian Culp, and Vivience Taylor, African Perspectives on Social Justice (Uganda: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2013), 6, 8.
35. Viviene Taylor, “Social Justice: Reframing the ‘Social’ in Critical Discourses in Africa,” in African Perspectives on Social Justice, eds. John de Coninck, Julian Culp, and Viviene Taylor (Uganda: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2013), 14. Note: Subsidiarity is the idea that governmental power should be assigned to the smallest feasible level (e.g., the village) rather than to the national government.
36. Martha C. Nussbaum, “Beyond the Social Contract: Capabilities and Global Justice. An Olaf Palme Lecture, Delivered in Oxford 19 June 2003,” Oxford Development Studies 32, no. 1 (2004): 3–8.
37. Julian Culp, “The Problem of Undemocratic Side Effects to Democracy Promotion,” in African Perspectives on Social Justice eds. John de Coninck, Julian Culp, and Viviene Taylor (Uganda: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2013), 26–44.
38. Al-Hasan Al-Aidaros, Faridahwati Mohd-Shamsudin, and Kamil Md. Idris, “Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective,” International Journal of Islamic Thought 4, no. 1 (December 2013): 1–13. doi:10.24035/ijit.04.2013.001.
39. Valerie Bryson, Feminist Political Theory, 3rd ed. (New York: Palgrave, 2016), 9.
40. Ibid, 64.
41. Susan Moller Okin, Justice, Gender, and the Family (New York: Basic Books, 1989).
42. You can find current scholarly engagement in social justice by female political scientists at the “Women Also Know Stuff” website ( with the keyword search “social justice.”
43. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, [1651] 2006).
44. John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, [1689] 1960).
45. David Hume, Essays: Moral, Political, Literary, ed. Eugene F. Miller (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1987).
46. “Constitution of the Confederate States of America,” US Constitution, accessed April 12, 2021,
47. Robert A. McGuire, To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of the United States Constitution (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003).
48. Jonathan Wolff, An Introduction to Political Philosophy (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2016).
49. “The Worst Form of Government,” International Churchill Society,
50. Jason Brennan, Against Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016).
51. Theodor W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper, 1950).
52. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011).
53. Dan Ariely, Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions (New York: Harper Perennial, 2010).
54. John Sides, Daron R. Shaw, Matthew Grossmann, and Keena Lipsitz, Campaigns and Elections: Rules, Reality, Strategy, Choice (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2018), 345.
55. To “mobilize” your supporters is to get them not just to favor you, but to go out and actually vote for you.
56. Brett Heinz, “Election Interference in Latin America: A Growing Danger,” Center for Economic and Policy Research, September 30, 2020,
57. Susan Rose-Ackerman and Bonnie J. Palifka, Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016).
58. Jacquelien van Stekelenburg and Bert Klandermans, “The Social Psychology of Protest,” Current Sociology 61, no. 5–6 (September 2013): 886–905.
59. Leonie Huddy, Lilliana Mason, and Lene Aarøe, “Expressive Partisanship: Campaign Involvement, Political Emotion, and Partisan Identity,” The American Political Science Review 109, no. 1 (2015): 1–17,
60. We use “public spirit” rather than “altruism” because altruism indicates an unselfish concern for the welfare of others, while public spirit simply states that the person considers the interests of others in making a decision, not that self-interest is sacrificed to benefit others. See Mark C. Rom, Public Spirit in the Thrift Tragedy (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996).
61. See, for example, James W. H. Sonne and Don M. Gash, “Psychopathy to Altruism: Neurobiology of the Selfish–Selfless Spectrum.” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018),
62. Graham Allison, “What Xi Jinping Wants,” The Atlantic, May 31, 2017,
63. “Evo Morales Defends Indigenous People After Bolsonaro Ally’s Racist Slur.” Orinoco Tribune, January 19, 2019,
64. Murray Edelman, Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence (Saint Louis, MO: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2013).
65. Brain scanning technology can observe which parts of the brain “light up” during various behaviors. There is evidence that altruistic behaviors light up the same “pleasure centers” that are activated when we eat chocolate or have sex. See James Baraz and Shoshana Alexander, “The Helper’s High,” Greater Good Magazine: Science-Based Insights for a Meaningful Life, February 1, 2010,
66. Bobby Hoffman, Motivation for Learning and Performance (Boston, MA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2015); see also Ian Deweese-Boyd, “Self-Deception,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2021),
67. Maggie McGrath, “Why Greta Thunberg Is One of the World’s Most Powerful Women,” Forbes, December 12, 2019.
68. Determinists maintain that all human behavior can be correctly predicted if all relevant facts are known. Those who believe in “free will”—or pure randomness—reject this idea.
69. “Good Guys, Bad Guys: Interview with Robert McNamara,” National Security Archive, The George Washington University.
70. Geoffrey Skelley, “Why Was the National Polling Environment So Off in 2020?” FiveThirtyEight, February 23, 2021,
71. The rational calculation would include the probability of getting killed if they stay to fight as well as the chances of being caught, court-martialed, and potentially executed as a deserter.
72. Toby Bolsen, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook, “The Influence of Partisan Motivated Reasoning on Public Opinion,” Political Behavior 36, no. 2 (2014): 235–262. doi:10.1007/s11109-013-9238-0.
73. Thomas J. Leeper and Rune Slothuus, “Political Parties, Motivated Reasoning, and Public Opinion Formation,” Political Psychology 35, no. S1 (2014): 129–156.
74. Hessel Oosterbeek, Randolph Sloof, and Gijs van de Kuilen, “Cultural Differences in Ultimatum Game Experiments: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis,” Experimental Economics: A Journal of the Economic Science Association 7, no. 2 (2004): 171–188. doi:10.1023/B:EXEC.0000026978.14316.74.

3 Political Ideology

1. “Venezuela,” in World Report 2021: Events of 2020 (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2021),; “Venezuela,” in World Report 2022: Events of 2021 (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2022),
2. Callum Brodie, “Venezuela Was Once South America’s Richest Country. Here’s What Went Wrong,” World Economic Forum, August 7, 2017,
3. Victor Bulmer-Thomas, “Analysis: How Hugo Chavez Changed Venezuela,” BBC News, March 6, 2013,
4. “Percentage of households in poverty and extreme poverty in Venezuela from 2002 to 2020,” Statista, 2022,
5. “Venezuela: Gross domestic product (GDP) in current prices from 1984 to 2022 (in billion U.S. dollars),” Statista, 2022,
6. “Venezuela: Unemployment rate from 1999 to 2020,” Statista, 2022,
7. Karen Silva-Torres, Carolina Rozo-Higuera, and Daniel S. Leon, eds., Social and Political Transitions during the Left Turn in Latin America (New York: Routledge, 2022).
8. Aristotle, The Politics of Aristotle, trans. Peter L. Phillips Simpson (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), bks. 3–4.
9. Curtis Johnson, “Aristotle’s Polity: Mixed or Middle Constitution?,” History of Political Thought 9, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 189–204,
10. Richard Kraut, Aristotle: Political Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 400.
11. Kraut, Aristotle, 240–276.
12. James S. Fishkin, Democracy When the People Are Thinking: Revitalizing Our Politics through Public Deliberation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
13. In 2015, a Pew Research Center report found that middle-income families and individuals now constitute a minority of the total US population—something that many see as a cause of concern. See Tami Luhby, “Middle Class No Longer Dominates in the US,” CNN Business, December 9, 2015,
14. Educational theorist Kristján Kristjánsson points out that a sizable amount of advocacy for educational reform is “anchored firmly in Aristotelian assumptions” and represents, in fact, an “Aristotle-fuelled trend” in educational policy. Kristján Kristjánsson, Aristotle, Emotions, and Education (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007), 2, 3.
15. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan; or, The Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil, introd. Herbert W. Schneider (Indianapolis: Library of the Liberal Arts, 1977), pt. 1, bks. 13–16.
16. At certain points in his famous Second Treatise of Government, Locke seems to imply that states of nature have arisen in human history. John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government, ch. 4, in Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), bk. 2.
17. Locke, Second Treatise, ch. 5.
18. See Gopal Sreenivasan, The Limits of Lockean Rights in Property (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
19. Frank Marini, “John Locke and the Revision of Classical Democratic Theory,” The Western Political Quarterly 22, no. 1 (1969): 11,
20. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, On the Social Contract: With Geneva Manuscript and Political Economy, ed. Roger D. Masters, trans. Judith R. Masters (London: Bedford, 1978), 46.
21. Melissa Schwartzberg, “Voting the General Will: Rousseau on Decision Rules,” Political Theory 36. no. 3 (2008): 403–423,
22. Pete Buttigieg, Trust: America’s Best Chance (New York: Liveright, 2020).
23. Eamonn Callan, Creating Citizens: Political Education and Liberal Democracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997); Derek W. Black, “Supreme Court School Voucher Ruling Threatens American Unity and Public Education,” USA Today, July 3, 2020,
24. Locke, Second Treatise, ch. 2.
25. Michael Waldman, The Fight to Vote (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2016).
26. Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005).
27. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, ed. Gertrude Himmelfarb (New York; Penguin, 1988), chs. 2, 4.
28. See Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Commonwealth Club Address (1932),” in American Political Thought: Readings and Materials, ed. Keith E. Whittington (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 508.
29. F. A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom: Text and Documents, ed. Bruce Caldwell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
30. Leland B. Yeager, “Mises and Hayek on Calculation and Knowledge,” The Review of Austrian Economics 7, no. 2 (September 1994): 93–109,
31. Richard White, “Herder: On the Ethics of Nationalism,” Humanitas 18, nos. 1 and 2 (2005): 166–181,
32. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology, vol. 1, pt. 1, in Marx-Engels Collected Works, vol. 5 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976),
33. Quoted in Robert S. Smith, “Cultural Marxism: Imaginary Conspiracy or Revolutionary Reality?,” Themelios 44, no. 3 (December 2019): 444,
34. See Neil Harding, Leninism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996).
35. See Neil Harding, “Leninism and Stalinism,” in Leninism, 243–263.
36. Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism, 1914–1945 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995).
37. Richard Steigmann-Gall, Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
38. Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986).
39. Gilbert, Holocaust.
40. Deng Xiaoping, “Building Socialism with a Specifically Chinese Character,” The People’s Daily, June 30, 1984.
41. Salvatore Babones, “The Meaning of Xi Jinping Thought: National Revival and Military Power,” Foreign Affairs, November 2, 2017,
42. See Noam Gidron and Daniel Ziblatt, “Center-Right Political Parties in Advanced Democracies,” Annual Review of Political Science 22 (2019): 17–35,
43. See Joseph Bottum, “Social Conservatism and the New Fusionism,” in Varieties of Conservatism in America, ed. Peter Berkowitz (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2004), 31–47.
44. Jacob G. Hornberger, “Open Borders Is the Only Libertarian Immigration Position,” Hornberger’s Blog, The Future of Freedom Foundation, May 19, 2016,
45. See Jeffrey Bell, The Case for Polarized Politics: Why America Needs Social Conservatism (New York: Encounter Books, 2012).
46. See Paul Starr, “Center-Left Liberalism,” in The Oxford Companion to American Politics, ed. David Coates, vol. 1 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
47. William J. Brennan, “The Great Debate” (speech, Washington, DC, October 12, 1985), The Federalist Society,
48. Buttigieg, Trust, 137.
49. Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
50. Heywood, Political Ideologies, 264.
51. Naomi Schoenbaum, “When Liberals and Conservatives Agree on Women’s Rights,” Politico, March 31, 2015,
52. Robert McCrum, “The 100 Best Nonfiction Books: No 18 – The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan (1963),” Guardian, May 30, 2016,
53. R. Claire Snyder, “What Is Third Wave Feminism? A New Directions Essay,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 34, no. 1 (Autumn 2008),; Constance Grady, “The Waves of Feminism, and Why People Keep Fighting over Them, Explained,” Vox, July 20, 2018,
54. See April Simpson, “Will Biden’s Relief Package Break Black Farmers’ ‘Cycle of Debt’?,” The Center for Public Integrity, March 19, 2021,
55. Nora Berenstain, “Epistemic Exploitation,” Ergo 3, no. 22 (2016): 578,
56. “What Is Democratic Socialism?,” Democratic Socialists of America, last modified June 9, 2021,
57. Ibid.
58. David Cooper, “Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $15 by 2024 Would Lift Pay for Nearly 40 Million Workers,” Economic Policy Institute, February 5, 2019,
59. Kirk A. Hawkins, “Chavismo, Liberal Democracy, and Radical Democracy,” Annual Review of Political Science 19 (2016): 311–319,
60. Jean-Philippe Thérien, “The United Nations Ideology: From Ideas to Global Policies,” Journal of Political Ideologies 20, no. 3 (2015): 221–243, 
61. See Michael Anton, “The Flight 93 Election,” Claremont Review of Books, September 5, 2016,
62. Douglas Kellner, “Herbert Marcuse,” UCLA School of Education & Information Studies,
63. Os Guinness, The Dust of Death: The Sixties Counterculture and How It Changed America Forever (1973; repr., Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2020).
64. See Jeremy Beaman, “Barr Slams ‘Secular Progressive Orthodoxy’ in Public Schools,” Washington Examiner, May 21, 2021,
65. See, for example, numerous pieces on the relatively new website American Greatness, such as Conrad Black, “China vs. America,” American Greatness, June 28, 2021,
66. See Vivek Ramaswamy, Woke, Inc.: Inside Corporate America’s Social Justice Scam (New York: Center Street, 2021).
67. Christian Parenti, “Hugo Chávez and Petro Populism,” The Nation, March 24, 2005,
68. Chris Teale, “Lawmakers See 2022 as the Year to Rein In Social Media. Others Worry Politics Will Get in the Way,” Morning Consult, December 15, 2021,
69. Matthew Continetti, “Making Sense of the New American Right,” National Review, June 1, 2019,
70. Scott Morefield, “In Defense of Trump,” The Hill, December 26, 2016,
71. See Amnesty International USA, The Rohingya in Myanmar: A History of Persecution, testimony for Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission hearing, House Comm. on Foreign Affairs, 115th Cong. (March 17, 2017),

4 Civil Liberties

1. Claire Felter and Nathalie Bussemaker, “Which Countries Are Requiring Face Masks?,” Council on Foreign Affairs, August 4, 2020,
2. Patrick Reilly, “Three Washington State Schools Put on Lockdown amid Anti-mask Protests,” New York Post, September 4, 2021,; Soo Kim, “Anti-mask Protests across Europe as Coronavirus Cases Rise 4 Days in a Row,” Newsweek, August 17, 2020,
3. “Global Protest Tracker,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, last updated January 7, 2022,
4. “Global Freedom Status,” Freedom House, accessed January 27, 2022,
5. UN General Assembly, Resolution 217 A, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, A/RES/217(III) (Dec. 10, 1948),
6. Organization of the Islamic Conference, “Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam,” University of Minnesota Human Rights Library, accessed June 28, 2021,
7. “Arab Charter on Human Rights Tunis May 2004 (Excerpts),” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, accessed June 28, 2021,
8. Franck Kuwonu, “Africa’s Freedom Struggles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” Africa Renewal, December 2018–March 2019,’s-freedom-struggles-and-universal-declaration-human-rights; “Human Rights Day,” Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, accessed January 27, 2022,; Penelope Andrews, “South Africa,” in Encyclopedia of Human Rights, ed. David P. Forsythe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 4:481–491,
9. “Unit 6: The End of Apartheid and the Birth of Democracy,” South Africa: Overcoming Apartheid, accessed January 27, 2022,; “South African Constitution: The Bill of Rights,” South African History Online, last updated August 27, 2019,
10. “Document 37: The Bill of Rights,” South African History Online, last updated September 1, 2019,
11. Becky Little, “Key Steps That Led to End of Apartheid,” History, last updated November 23, 2020,
12. “Fact Sheet No. 2 (Rev. 1), The International Bill of Human Rights,” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, accessed January 27, 2022,; Beverly McLachlin, “Bills of Rights in Common Law Countries,” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 51, no. 2 (April 2002): 197–203,
13. “The Bill of Rights: What Does It Say?,” America’s Founding Documents, National Archives, last updated July 24, 2020,; U.S. Const., Bill of Rights,
14. Lauren Wade, “The Pros and Cons of an ‘Unwritten’ Constitution,” The Lawyer Portal, October 1, 2019,
15. International IDEA, What Is a Constitution? Principles and Concepts, August 2014,
16. Ibid.
17. U.S. Const. amend. I–X,
18. Germany Const. art. V, ¶ 1,
19. For example, the right to writ of habeas corpus, the right to assistance of counsel, and the right to a jury trial. U.S. Const.,
20. Commission on Unalienable Rights, Report of the Commission on Unalienable Rights, August 26, 2020,; Vicki C. Jackson, “Positive Obligations, Positive Rights, and Constitutional Amendment,” in Boundaries of State, Boundaries of Rights: Human Rights, Private Actors, and Positive Obligations, ed. Tsvi Kahana and Anat Scolnicov (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 109–128,
21. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London, 1859; Project Gutenberg, 2011), 18,
22. “We do not want the Government (i.e., the Ohio Elections Commission) deciding what is political truth—for fear that the Government might persecute those who criticize it. Instead, in a democracy, the voters should decide.” Susan B. Anthony List et al. v. Ohio Elections Commission, 45 F. Supp. 3d 765 (S.D. Ohio 2014),; affirmed, 814 F.3d 466 (6th Cir. 2016).
23. Germany Const., art. V, ¶ 2.
24. China Const. ch. 1, art. I,
25. Ibid. ch. 2, art. XXXV,
26. Amnesty International, “China,” in Amnesty International Report 2020/21: The State of the World’s Human Rights (London: Amnesty International, 2021), 119–124,
27. Darren Cartwright, “Masks Should Not Be Mandatory When Community Transmission Not Prevalent: Experts,”, January 20, 2021,
28. Alex Berezow, “Should COVID Vaccines Be Mandatory?,” American Council on Science and Health, February 5, 2021,
29. U.S. Const. amend. V.
30. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. 644 (2015),
31. Victor V. Ramraj, “Four Models of Due Process,” International Journal of Constitutional Law 2, no. 3 (July 2004): 492–524,
32. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law, s.v. “right of privacy,” accessed June 28, 2021,
33. Wex, s.v. “right to privacy,” accessed January 27, 2022,
34. Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, “The Right to Privacy,” Harvard Law Review 4, no. 5 (December 15, 1890): 205,
35. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510 (1925),
36. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965),; Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003),; Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973),
37. Lawrence, 539 U.S.
38. Human Rights Act 1998, c. 42, § 1(3), sch. 1, art. 8 (UK),
39. Several US state constitutions do include an explicit right to privacy. See “Privacy Protections in State Constitutions,” National Conference of State Legislatures, last modified January 3, 2022,
40. David D. Bodenhamer, “The Right of Privacy,” in Our Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), ch. 22,
41. Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928),
42. Griswold, 381 U.S.
43. Judith Haydel, “Privacy,” The First Amendment Encyclopedia, Middle Tennessee State University, 2009,
44. A/RES/217(III), art. 12.
45. “Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy,” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, accessed January 27, 2022,
46. “Senegalese Lawmakers Draft Tougher Laws against LGBT,” Reuters, December 13, 2021,; “Mapping Anti-Gay Laws in Africa,” Amnesty International UK, May 31, 2018,; Report: The State of Human Rights for LGBT People in Africa (Washington, DC: Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Human Rights First, 2014),
47. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).
48. Obergefell, 576 U.S.
49. “China Allows Three Children in Major Policy Shift,” BBC News, May 31, 2021,
50. “Child, Early and Forced Marriage, Including in Humanitarian Settings,” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, accessed June 28, 2021,
51. “Girls’ Education,” UNICEF, accessed June 28, 2021,
52. Restrictions on Women’s Religious Attire (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, April 5, 2016),; Brenda J. Norton, A Question of Balance: A Study of Legal Equality and State Neutrality in the United States, France, and the Netherlands (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016).
53. The Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 protects personal financial information collected by credit reporting agencies. The Privacy Act of 1974 prevents the unauthorized disclosure of personal information held by the federal government. The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 requires financial institutions to provide customers with a privacy policy and to safeguard their information.
54. Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule, 16 C.F.R. 312 (2013),
55. Law Library of Congress, Children’s Online Privacy and Data Protection in Selected European Countries (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, April 2021),
56. Exec. Order No. 14,028, 86 Fed. Reg. 26633 (May 17, 2021),
57. “Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC),” Electronic Privacy Information Center, accessed January 27, 2022,
58. “About the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court,” United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, accessed January 27, 2022,
59. General Data Protection Regulation, Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (Apr. 27, 2016),
60. “Summary of Adoption of E-commerce Legislation Worldwide,” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, accessed February 22, 2022,
61. “Data Protection and Privacy Legislation Worldwide,” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, accessed February 22, 2022,
62. China Const. ch. 2, art. XL.
63. “‘Eradicating Ideological Viruses’: China’s Campaign of Repression against Xinjiang’s Muslims,” Human Rights Watch, September 9, 2018,; “China: Big Data Program Targets Xinjiang’s Muslims,” Human Rights Watch, December 9, 2020,
64. A/RES/217(III), art. 19.
65. Ibid., art. 18.
66. UN General Assembly, Resolution 2200A (XXI), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, A/RES/2200A(XXI) (Dec. 16, 1966), art. 27,
67. Leah Levin, “Human Rights and the International Community: Twenty Questions,” The UNESCO Courier, October 1978,
68. Dan Glaun, “Germany’s Laws on Hate Speech, Nazi Propaganda & Holocaust Denial: An Explainer,” Frontline, PBS, July 1, 2021,
69. Ibid.
70. Germany Const. art. V, ¶ 1.
71. Manasi Gopalakrishnan, “Germany Treads Thin Line between Hate Speech and Free Expression,” DW Akademie, April 19, 2016,
72. “Is Hate Speech Legal?,” FIRE, March 28, 2019,
73. Anastasiia Kruope, “New Laws Further Stifle Freedom of Speech in Belarus,” Human Rights Watch, April 7, 2021,; “Belarus: Opposition Leader Tikhanovsky Jailed for 18 Years over Protests,” BBC News, December 14, 2021,
74. Sebastian Usher, “Saudi Arabia Allows Free Thinkers to Talk to Students,” BBC News, December 14, 2021,
75. U.S. Const. amend. I.
76. Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1, 15–16 (1947).
77. One current controversy in this area is conversion therapy, or intervention by religious practitioners intended to “cure” children of LGBTQ+ sexual orientations or gender identities. See “Conversion ‘Therapy’ Laws,” Movement Advancement Project, last updated July 16, 2021,
78. Paul J. Angelo and Dominic Bocci, “The Changing Landscape of Global LGBTQ+ Rights,” Council on Foreign Relations, January 29, 2021,
79. “Parliament, Church and Religion,” UK Parliament, accessed June 28, 2021,
80. A Closer Look at How Religious Restrictions Have Risen around the World (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, July 15, 2019), 6,
81. Norton, A Question.
82. “Qatar,” in 2017 Report on International Religious Freedom (Washington, DC: US Department of State, 2018),
83. Lindsay Maizland, “China’s Repression of Uyghurs in Xinjiang,” Council on Foreign Relations, last updated March 1, 2021,
84. A/RES/217(III), art. 13.
85. Crandall v. Nevada, 73 U.S. 35 (1868); United States v. Wheeler, 254 U.S. 281 (1920).
86. Saenz v. Roe, 526 U.S. 489 (1999),
87. The court struck down one-year residency requirements as interfering with the right to interstate travel but did hold that shorter residency requirements may be permissible in certain circumstances. Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 618 (1969); Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S. 330 (1972); Memorial Hospital v. Maricopa County, 415 U.S. 250 (1974); Attorney Gen. of New York v. Soto-Lopez, 476 U.S. 898 (1986); Baldwin v. Fish and Game Commission of Montana, 436 U.S. 371 (1978).
88. Sweden Const., art. XV,
89. “China,” Freedom in the World 2021: Democracy under Siege, Freedom House, last modified March 2, 2021,
90. “China,” Amnesty International, accessed June 28, 2021,
91. “China,” Freedom in the World 2020: A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy, Freedom House, last modified May 5, 2021,
92. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, 8 U.S.C. § 1185,
93. Kent v. Dulles, 357 U.S. 116 (1958),
94. “Xinjiang’s Government Gives Uyghurs Passports, Only to Take Them Away Later,” Radio Free Asia, 2017,; Gary Sands, “Xinjiang: Uighurs Grapple with Travel Restrictions,” Eurasianet, December 28, 2016,
95. A/RES/217(III), art. 14–15.
96. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, International Migration Policies: Data Booklet (United Nations, 2017), ST/ESA/SER.A/395,
97. Law Library of Congress, Criminalization of Illegal Entry around the World (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, August 2019),
98. “10 Countries That Take the Most Migrants,” U.S. News & World Report, last updated August 24, 2021,
99. “Hardest Countries to Immigrate To,” World Population Review, accessed June 28, 2021,
100. “Refugees are persons who are outside their country of origin for reasons of feared persecution, conflict, generalized violence, or other circumstances that have seriously disturbed public order and, as a result, require international protection. The refugee definition can be found in the 1951 Convention and regional refugee instruments, as well as UNHCR’s Statute.” Source: “Definitions,” Refugees and Migrants, United Nations, last modified July 22, 2016,
101. “Our Partners,” UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency, accessed June 28, 2021,
102. Shelley Wilcox, “The Open Borders Debate on Immigration,” Philosophy Compass 4, no. 5 (September 2009): 813–821,
103. Kelly Buchanan, “You Have the Right to Remain Silent . . . ,” In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress, Library of Congress, July 18, 2016,
104. Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights, amend. and supp. (Strasbourg: European Court of Human Rights, 2021),; A/RES/217(III), art. 10–11.
105. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Understanding Human Rights and Climate Change” (submission, 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2015),
106. UN General Assembly, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment, A/73/88, ¶¶ 8, 55 (July 19, 2018),
107. “What Are Your Environmental Rights?,” UN Environment Programme, accessed June 28, 2021,
108. Juliana v. United States, 947 F.3d 1159 (9th Cir. 2020),; “Juliana v. United States: Ninth Circuit Court Holds That Developing and Supervising Plan to Mitigate Anthropogenic Climate Change Would Exceed Remedial Powers of Article III Court,” Harvard Law Review 134, no. 5 (March 2021),; “Juliana v. United States,” Our Children’s Trust, accessed February 20, 2022,; “Juliana v. United States,” Climate Change Litigation Databases, Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, last modified December 6, 2021,
109. “Climate Change and Disaster Displacement,” UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency, accessed June 28, 2021,
110. Ibid.

5 Political Participation and Public Opinion

1. “About,” Black Lives Matter, last modified October 16, 2020,
2. Oluwakemi Aladesuyi, “How Black Lives Matter Went Global, by Co-founder Patrisse Cullors,” Financial Times, December 4, 2020,
3. Deja Thomas and Juliana Menasce Horowitz, “Support for Black Lives Matter Has Decreased since June but Remains Strong among Black Americans,” Pew Research Center, September 16, 2020,
4. Lawrence J. Saha and Murray Print, “Student School Elections and Political Engagement: A Cradle of Democracy?,” International Journal of Educational Research 49, no. 1 (2010): 22.
5. Ibid., 22.
6. James Madison, Federalist, no. 39, in The Federalist Papers, by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and Madison (Project Gutenberg, 2009),
7. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Henry Reeve, vol. 1 (London: Saunders and Otley, 1835; Project Gutenberg, 1997), chap. IX,
8. Jenny Higgins, “Indigenous Self-Government,” Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Website, 2009, updated July 2021,
9. Reynolds v. Sims, 377 US 533 (1964),
10. Drew DeSilver, “Turnout Soared in 2020 as Nearly Two-Thirds of Eligible US Voters Cast Ballots for President,” Pew Research Center, January 28, 2021,
11. Before becoming a state, Wyoming granted women unrestricted voting rights in 1869. However, this only applied to territorial matters, not national elections. Upon achieving statehood in 1890, Wyoming affirmed voting rights for women in its state constitution.
12. Jocelyn Benson and Michael T. Morley, “Common Interpretation: The Twenty-Sixth Amendment,” The Interactive Constitution, National Constitution Center, accessed April 20, 2021,
13. Geoffrey Skelley, “This Isn’t the First Time America Has Weathered a Crisis in an Election Year,” FiveThirtyEight, ABC News, March 23, 2020,
14. Drew DeSilver, “In Past Elections, US Trailed Most Developed Countries in Voter Turnout,” Pew Research Center, November 3, 2020,
15. Mark N. Franklin, “Electoral Engineering and Cross-National Turnout Differences: What Role for Compulsory Voting?,” British Journal of Political Science 29, no. 1 (January 1999): 205–216,
16. Robert W. Jackman, “Political Institutions and Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies,” American Political Science Review 81, no. 2 (June 1987): 405–423,
17. Jeffrey A. Karp and Susan A. Banducci, “Political Efficacy and Participation in Twenty-Seven Democracies: How Electoral Systems Shape Political Behaviour,” British Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (April 2008): 311–334,
18. Aie-Rie Lee, “The Quality of Social Capital and Political Participation in South Korea,” Journal of East Asian Studies 10, no. 3 (September–December 2010): 483–505,
19. Joseph L. Klesner, “Social Capital and Political Participation in Latin America: Evidence from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and Peru,” Latin American Research Review 42, no. 2 (2007): 1–32,
20. Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000).
21. The 100 Million Project: The Untold Story of American Non-Voters (Knight Foundation, 2020), 8,
22. Ruth Dassonneville, “Age and Voting,” in The Sage Handbook of Electoral Behaviour, ed. Kai Arzheimer, Jocelyn Evans, and Michael S. Lewis-Beck (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2017), 137.
23. Yosef Bhatti, Kasper M. Hansen, and Hanna Wass, “The Relationship between Age and Turnout: A Roller-Coaster Ride,” Electoral Studies 31, no. 3 (September 2012): 588–593.
24. Achim Goerres, “Why Are Older People More Likely to Vote? The Impact of Ageing on Electoral Turnout in Europe,” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 9, no. 1 (February 2007): 90–121.
25. Robert H. Binstock, “Older People and Political Engagement: From Avid Voters to ‘Cooled-Out Marks,’” Generations: Journal of the American Society on Aging 30, no. 4 (Winter 2006–2007): 24–30,
26. Susan A. McManus, Young v. Old: Generational Combat in the 21st Century (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996), 36.
27. Andrea Louise Campbell, How Policies Make Citizens: Senior Political Activism and the American Welfare State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), 14.
28. Ben Y. Hayden, “Why Do Old People Vote More?,” Psychology Today, September 27, 2011,
29. Christoper J. Anderson and Pablo Beramendi, “Income, Inequality, and Electoral Participation,” in Democracy, Inequality, and Representation: A Comparative Perspective, ed. Beramendi and Anderson (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008), 278.
30. Sean McElwee, Why the Voting Gap Matters (New York:, 2014),
31. Jeremy Adam Smith and Teja Pattabhiraman, “How Inequality Keeps People from Voting,” Greater Good, October 29, 2020,
32. Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, Jasmine Mithani, and Laura Bronner, “Why Many Americans Don’t Vote,” FiveThirtyEight, ABC News, October 26, 2020,
33. Abdurashid Solijonov, Voter Turnout Trends around the World (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2016), 35–36,
34. Ruth Igielnik and Abby Budiman, “The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the US Electorate,” Pew Research Center, September 23, 2020,
35. Ryan Benk and Lulu Garcia-Navarro, “Asian American and Pacific Islander Turnout Helped Hand Biden Georgia,” NPR, December 4, 2020,
36. Rashawn Ray and Mark Whitlock, “Setting the Record Straight on Black Voter Turnout,” How We Rise (blog), Brookings Institution, September 12, 2019,
37. Benjamin Highton and Arthur L. Burris, “New Perspectives on Latino Voter Turnout in the United States,” American Politics Research 30, no. 3 (May 2002): 285–306.
38. “Gender Differences in Voter Turnout,” Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University, updated May 4, 2021,
39. Catherine Rampell, “Why Women Are Far More Likely to Vote Than Men,” Washington Post, July 17, 2014,
40. Laurence Arnold, “The Gender Gap in Voting,” Bloomberg, updated August 27, 2020,
41. Courtney Weaver, “A Historic Gender Gap: Why Men and Women Are Voting Differently,” Financial Times, November 3, 2020,
42. Geoffrey Skelley, “Why the Gender Gap May Have Shrunk in the 2020 Election,” FiveThirtyEight, ABC News, July 9, 2021,
43. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
44. Solijonov, Voter Turnout Trends
45. Pew Research Center, Who Votes, Who Doesn’t, and Why (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, October 2006),
46. André Blais and Simon Labbé St-Vincent, “Personality Traits, Political Attitudes and the Propensity to Vote,” European Journal of Political Research 50, no. 3 (May 2011): 395–417.
47. Stephen D. Shaffer, “A Multivariate Explanation of Decreasing Turnout in Presidential Elections, 1960–1976,” American Journal of Political Science 25, no. 1 (February 1981): 68–95,
48. C. Rallings, M. Thrasher, and G. Borisyuk, “Seasonal Factors, Voter Fatigue and the Costs of Voting,” Electoral Studies 22, no. 1 (March 2003): 65–79.
49. Arend Lijphart, “Unequal Participation: Democracy’s Unresolved Dilemma,” American Political Science Review 91, no. 1 (March 1997): 1–14,
50. Jennifer S. Rosenberg and Margaret Chen, Expanding Democracy: Voter Registration around the World (New York: Brennan Center for Justice, 2009),
51. Kevin Morris and Peter Dunphy, AVR Impact on State Voter Registration (New York: Brennan Center for Justice, 2019),
52. Domenico Montanaro, “Poll: Despite Record Turnout, 80 Million Americans Didn’t Vote. Here’s Why,” NPR, December 15, 2020,
53. Sarina Vij, “Why Minority Voters Have a Lower Voter Turnout: An Analysis of Current Restrictions,” Human Rights 45, no. 3 (May 2020),
54. John Shattuck and Mathias Risse, Reimagining Rights and Responsibilities in the United States: Voting Rights (Cambridge, MA: Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Harvard University, 2020),
55. Robert DeFina and Lance Hannon, “The Legacy of Black Lynching and Contemporary Segregation in the South,” The Review of Black Political Economy 38, no. 2 (January 2011): 171.
56. “Voting Rights: A Short History,” Carnegie Corporation of New York.
57. Paul A. Djupe and J. Tobin Grant, “Religious Institutions and Political Participation in America,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40, no. 2 (June 2011): 303–314.
58. “Constituents Tell Senator How to Vote,” United States Senate, December 12, 2019,
59. Martin H. Redish, “The Value of Free Speech,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 130, no. 3 (January 1982): 604,
60. Cliff Zukin et al., A New Engagement? Political Participation, Civic Life, and the Changing American Citizen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 7.
61. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, with Robert Leonardi and Raffaella Y. Nanetti (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993).
62. John Fryar, “Volunteers Can Be Key to Election Outcomes, Activists Say,” AP News, Associated Press, October 19, 2018,
63. Andrew Rudalevige, “Americans Get More Politically Involved Than Citizens Elsewhere. The Constitution’s Framers Designed It That Way,” Washington Post, September 1, 2017,
64. Richard Wike and Alexandra Castillo, “Many around the World Are Disengaged from Politics,” Pew Research Center, October 17, 2018,
65. “Contribution Limits,” Federal Election Commission, accessed April 21, 2021,
66. Chad Day and Julie Bykowicz, “Small Donors Get Creative to Give Over and Over to 2020 Candidates,” Wall Street Journal, October 25, 2019,
67. Ollie Gratzinger, “Small Donors Give Big Money in 2020 Election Cycle,” OpenSecrets, October 30, 2020,
68. Chapter 8: Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Elections will discuss some of these ideas in further detail.
69. “Limits on Contributions,” Elections Canada, last modified June 8, 2021,
70. “France,” International IDEA, 2019,
71. Paul Waldman, “How Our Campaign Finance System Compares to Other Countries,” American Prospect, April 4, 2014,
72. Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, “Conceptualizations of Good Citizenship and Political Participation,” Political Behavior 15, no. 4 (December 1993): 355–380,
73. Ian Prasad Philbrick and David Leonhardt, “How to Participate in Politics,” New York Times, updated February 13, 2019,
74. “About,” Common Ground Committee, last modified May 3, 2021,
75. Bruce Bond and Erik Olsen, “Engaging in Tough Conversations Is Worth It. Even If We Can’t Find Agreement,” USA Today, January 23, 2020,
76. Amy Mitchell et al., Americans Who Mainly Get Their News on Social Media Are Less Engaged, Less Knowledgeable (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, July 2020),
77. Leticia Bode, “Political News in the News Feed: Learning Politics from Social Media,” Mass Communication and Society 19, no. 1 (2016): 24–48.
78. Daniel Halpern, Sebastián Valenzuela, and James E. Katz, “We Face, I Tweet: How Different Social Media Influence Political Participation through Collective and Internal Efficacy,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 22, no. 6 (November 2017): 320–336,
79. Shelley Boulianne, “Social Media Use and Participation: A Meta-analysis of Current Research,” Information, Communication & Society 18, no. 5 (2015): 524–538.
80. Sara Brown, “MIT Sloan Research about Social Media, Misinformation, and Elections,” MIT Sloan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, October 5, 2020,
81. Dylan Walsh, “Crowdsourced Ratings of Online News Quality May Actually Work,” MIT Sloan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 28, 2019,
82. Bence Bago, David G. Rand, and Gordon Pennycook, “Fake News, Fast and Slow: Deliberation Reduces Belief in False (but Not True) News Headlines,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 149, no. 8 (2020): 1608–1613.
83. “Take Action,” Democratic National Committee, 2021,
84. “Sign Up to Volunteer,” The Republican National Committee, 2021,
85. Interviews
86. Cameron McWhirter, Allison Pohle, and Alex Janin, “Protests across US Call for End to Anti-Asian Violence,” Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2021,
87. Fabiana Machado, Carlos Scartascini, and Mariano Tommasi, “Political Institutions and Street Protests in Latin America,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55, no. 3 (June 2011): 342,
88. Lynette H. Ong and Donglin Han, “What Drives People to Protest in an Authoritarian Country? Resources and Rewards vs. Risks of Protests in Urban and Rural China,” Political Studies 67, no. 1 (February 2019): 224–248.
89. Catherine Dumas et al., “E-petitioning as Collective Political Action in We the People” (conference paper, iConference 2015 Proceedings, University of California, Irvine Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, March 24–27, 2015),
90. Jonah E. Bromwich, “How the Parkland Students Got So Good at Social Media,” New York Times, March 7, 2018,
91. Brian D. Loader, Ariadne Vromen, and Michael A. Xenos, “The Networked Young Citizen: Social Media, Political Participation and Civic Engagement,” Information, Communication & Society 17, no. 2 (2014): 143,
92. Ibid., 149.
93. Bill Wanlund, “Global Protest Movements,” CQ Researcher 30, no. 17 (May 2020),
94. Samuel J. Brannen, Christian S. Haig, and Katherine Schmidt, The Age of Mass Protests: Understanding an Escalating Global Trend (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, March 2020),
95. Chloe Whiteaker, “The Essential Tool for Hong Kong Protesters? An Umbrella,” Bloomberg, September 20, 2019,
96. “The Hong Kong Protests Explained in 100 and 500 words,” BBC News, November 28, 2019,
97. Austin Ramzy, “Hundreds in Rare Hong Kong Protest as Opposition Figures Are Charged,” New York Times, March 1, 2021,
98. Kali Robinson, “The Arab Spring at Ten Years: What’s the Legacy of the Uprisings?,” Council on Foreign Relations, December 3, 2020,
99. Simon Speakman Cordall, “‘Things Are Getting Worse’: Tunisia Protests Rage On as Latest Victim Named,” Guardian, January 27, 2021,
100. Putnam, Bowling Alone, 21.
101. Ken’ichi Ikeda and Sean E. Richey, “Japanese Network Capital: The Impact of Social Networks on Japanese Political Participation,” Political Behavior 27, no. 3 (September 2005): 239–260.
102. Klesner, “Social Capital,” 29.
103. Sebastián Valenzuela, Namsu Park, and Kerk F. Kee, “Is There Social Capital in a Social Network Site? Facebook Use and College Students’ Life Satisfaction, Trust, and Participation,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14, no. 4 (July 2009): 875–901,
104. Homero Gil de Zúñiga, Nakwon Jung, and Sebastián Valenzuela, “Social Media Use for News and Individuals’ Social Capital, Civic Engagement and Political Participation,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 17, no. 3 (April 2012): 329,
105. Lambe Kayode Mustapha, Victor Olanrewaju Gbonegun, and Maryam Lasisi Mustapha, “Social Media Use, Social Capital, and Political Participation among Nigerian University Students,” Trípodos, no. 39 (2016): 127–143,
106. Lee B. Erickson, “Social Media, Social Capital, and Seniors: The Impact of Facebook on Bonding and Bridging Social Capital of Individuals over 65,” (conference paper, AMCIS 2011 Proceedings, 2011),
107. Ronald La Due Lake and Robert Huckfeldt, “Social Capital, Social Networks, and Political Participation,” Political Psychology 19, no. 3 (1998): 583,
108. Caitlin Oprysko, “Poll: Americans United on a Slew of Issues, despite Contentious Election Season,” Politico, September 15, 2020,
109. Jon A. Krosnick, “Government Policy and Citizen Passion: A Study of Issue Publics in Contemporary America,” Political Behavior 12, no. 1 (1990): 60,
110. Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1922), 4.
111. Pew Research Center, Large Majority of the Public Views Prosecution of Capitol Rioters as “Very Important” (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, March 2021),
112. Omkar Joshi and Jonathan Evans, “British Attitudes on National Identity and Religious Minorities Not Unique in EU,” Pew Research Center, February 19, 2019,
113. Vincent Price, “Social Identification and Public Opinion: Effects of Communicating Group Conflict,” Public Opinion Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1989): 198,
114. V. O. Key, Public Opinion and American Democracy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1961), 68.
115. Shannon Schumacher, “Brexit Divides the UK, but Partisanship and Ideology Are Still Key Factors,” Pew Research Center, October 28, 2019,
116. Bernard R. Barelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William N. McPhee, Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign (1954; repr., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 109.
117. Ibid., 109.
118. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859; repr., Kitchener, ON: Batoche Books, 2001), 62,
119. Benjamin I. Page and Robert Y. Shapiro, “Presidents as Opinion Leaders: Some New Evidence,” Policy Studies Journal 12, no. 4 (1984): 649–661.
120. Angus Campbell et al., The American Voter (1960; repr., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 271.
121. Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955), 3.
122. Robert M. Entman, “How the Media Affect What People Think: An Information Processing Approach,” Journal of Politics 51, no. 2 (1989): 347–370,
123. Key, Public Opinion, 401–405.
124. Benjamin I. Page and Robert Y. Shapiro, The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 354.
125. John R. Zaller, The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 81.
126. Shanto Iyengar, Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
127. Jean M. Converse, Survey Research in the United States: Roots and Emergence, 1890–1960 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 1.
128. David Lauter, “Which Pollsters Did Best: Non-traditional Methods Were Standouts,” Los Angeles Times, November 8, 2012,
129. Nicolaos E. Synodinos and Shigeru Yamada, “Response Rate Trends in Japanese Surveys,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 12, no. 1 (March 2000): 48–72.
130. James Bell, “Q/A: How Pew Research Tracks Public Opinion in Countries Stricken by Violence and Unrest,” Pew Research Center, May 8, 2014,
131. Stephen J. Blumberg and Julian V. Luke, Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January–June 2020 (Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, February 2021),
132. Kenneth A. Rasinski, “The Effect of Question Wording on Public Support for Government Spending,” Public Opinion Quarterly 53, no. 3 (Autumn 1989): 388–394,
133. Jonathon P. Schuldt, Sara H. Konrath, and Norbert Schwarz, “‘Global Warming’ or ‘Climate Change’? Whether the Planet Is Warming Depends on Question Wording,” Public Opinion Quarterly 75, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 115–124,
134. Daniel Katz, “Do Interviewers Bias Poll Results?,” Public Opinion Quarterly 6, no. 2 (Summer 1942): 248–268,
135. Patricia G. Moorman et al., “Participation Rates in a Case-Control Study: The Impact of Age, Race, and Race of Interviewer,” Annals of Epidemiology 9, no. 3 (April 1999): 188–195.
136. Leonie Huddy et al., “The Effect of Interviewer Gender on the Survey Response,” Political Behavior 19, no. 3 (September 1997): 197–220,
137. Benjamin I. Page and Robert Y. Shapiro, “Effects of Public Opinion on Policy,” American Political Science Review 77, no. 1 (March 1983): 175–190,
138. Paul Burstein, “The Impact of Public Opinion on Public Policy: A Review and an Agenda,” Political Research Quarterly 56, no. 1 (March 2003): 29–40,
139. Larry M. Bartels, “Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up,” American Political Science Review 85, no. 2 (June 1991): 457–474,
140. James Stimson, “Don’t Underestimate the Power of Public Opinion,” New York Times, updated April 22, 2014,
141. Pew Research Center, For Voters It’s Still the Economy (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, September 2012),
142. Steven Kull, Stewart M. Patrick, and Marvin Kalb, “Does Public Opinion Matter? World Attitudes on Global Governance,” Council on Foreign Relations, December 4, 2009,
143. Paul R. Pillar, “American Politicians Should Care More about Global Public Opinion,” Atlantic, January 7, 2012,
144. Benjamin E. Goldsmith and Yusaku Horiuchi, “Spinning the Globe? US Public Diplomacy and Foreign Public Opinion,” Journal of Politics 71, no. 3 (July 2009): 1.
145. David A. Graham, “The Polling Crisis Is a Catastrophe for American Democracy,” Atlantic, November 4, 2020,
146. Nate Cohn, “What Went Wrong with Polling? Some Early Theories,” New York Times, November 10, 2020,
147. Dylan Matthews, “One Pollster’s Explanation for Why the Polls Got It Wrong,” Vox, Vox Media, November 10, 2020,
148. Joshua Clinton, “Polling Problems and Why We Should Still Trust (Some) Polls,” The Vanderbilt Project on Unity and American Democracy, Vanderbilt University, January 11, 2021,
149. Sam Wang, “Why Polls Were Mostly Wrong,” interview by Gloria Dickie, Scientific American, November 13, 2020,
150. Frank Newport, Polling Matters: Why Leaders Must Listen to the Wisdom of the People (New York: Warner Books, 2004), 1–2.

6 The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity

1. Suyin Haynes, “‘It’s Literally Our Future.’ Here’s What Youth Climate Strikers Worldwide Want Next,” Time, March 20, 2019,
2. Thunberg’s activism has earned her many awards, such as being selected as Time “Person of the Year” in 2019. Alter, Charlotte, Suyin Haynes, and Justin Worland, “Greta Thunberg is Time’s 2019 Person of the Year,” Time, December 23, 2019,
3. Pascal Fletcher, “Cuba Protests: Frustration at Government Runs Deep.” BBC News, July 14, 2021,
4. Subsequent chapters will examine civil rights, as well as the structure and behavior of specific categories of groups, such as interest groups, political parties, and legislatures.
5. Martin Vrijland, “Greta Thunberg’s Great-Grandfather is Greenhouse Gas Guru Svante Arrhenius,” Principia Scientific International, January 20, 2020,
6. Kirsten Korosec, “Sweden ‘Most Sustainable Country in the World,’” Environment + Energy Leader, August 13, 2013.
7. Linda Givetash, “How Teen Greta Thunberg Shifted World’s Gaze to Climate Change,” NBC News, August 17, 2019,
8. An excellent original statement regarding socialization is found in Berger; Haegel provides an update on the controversies in the field. Peter L. Berger, The Social Construction of Reality; a Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966); Florence Haegel, “Political Socialisation: Out of Purgatory?” European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes De Sociologie 61, no. 3 (December 2020): 333–64. doi:10.1017/S000397562000017X.
9. See, for example, ​Anke Hufer, Anna Elena Kornadt, Christian Kandler, and Rainer Riemann, “Genetic and Environmental Variation in Political Orientation in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Nuclear Twin Family Analysis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 118, no. 4 (2020): 762–76. doi:10.1037/pspp0000258.
10. Urban Child Institute, “How Neighborhoods Affect Children’s Well-Being,”
11. World Health Organization, The Physical School Environment: An Essential Component of a Health-Promoting School (2004),
12. The term families is used in the broadest sense to include those who sheltered you and raised you as a child. This includes caregivers in institutional settings, extended biological and nonbiological relatives, and other possibilities.
13. Lydia Denworth, “Children Change Their Parents’ Minds about Climate Change,” Scientific American, May 6, 2019,
14. Kent L. Tedin, “The Influence of Parents on the Political Attitudes of Adolescents,” American Political Science Review 68, no. 4 (December 1974): 1579–92.
15. Some countries have taken steps to ensure that political parties do not exist strictly along ethnic or religious lines. Kenya, for example, explicitly prohibits ethnically determined political parties. ​​See John Rabuogi Ahere, “Party Politics in Kenya and South Africa: The Conundrum of Ethnic and Race Relations.” Scientific Research 7, no. 5 (May, 2020): 1–24. doi:10.4236/oalib.1106383.
16. For US data, see Jeff Diamant and Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, “10 Key Findings about the Religious Lives of US Teens and Their Parents,” Pew Research Center, September 10, 2020,
17. Peter K. Hatemi and Christopher Ojeda, “The Role of Child Perception and Motivation in Political Socialization.” British Journal of Political Science 51 (3): 1097–118. doi:10.1017/S0007123419000516.
18. Feng Wang, Baochang Gu, and Yong Cai, The End of China’s One-Child Policy, Brookings, March 30, 2016,
19. Richard Fry, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D'vera Cohn, “A Majority of Young Adults in the US Live with Their Parents for the First Time since the Great Depression,” Pew Research Center, September 4, 2020,
20. Because these data include 15-to-17-year-olds, they are not directly comparable to the United States. They still show the substantial variation across countries. Devon Haynie, “Countries Where the Most Young Adults Live with Their Parents,” U.S. News & World Report, October 5, 2016, //
21. “Family Support in Graying Societies,” Pew Research Center, May 21, 2015,
22. Linda Lyons, “Teens Stay True to Parents’ Political Perspectives,” Gallup, January 5, 2005,
23. If first-generation immigrants are disconnected from politics, it appears that the political socialization of the second generation may be later and more prolonged. Roberto F. Carlos, “Late to the Party: On the Prolonged Partisan Socialization Process of Second-Generation Americans,” Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics 3 (2): 381–408. doi:10.1017/rep.2018.21.
24. Political scientists know a bit more about how family structure and changes in structure affect such political behaviors as voting. See, for example, Julianna Sandell and Eric Plutzer, “Families, Divorce and Voter Turnout in the US,” Political Behavior 27 (2005): 133–62. doi:10.1007/s11109-005-3341-9. Only a small amount of research has focused on family structure and political socialization. James W. Clarke, “Family Structure and Political Socialization among Urban Black Children,” American Journal of Political Science 17, no. 2 (May 1973): 302–15,
25. Florence Haegel, “Political Socialization: Out of Purgatory?” European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes De Sociologie 61, no. 3 (December 2020): 333–64. doi:10.1017/S000397562000017X.
26. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Outsiders No More? Models of Immigrant Political Incorporation (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013).
27. Sky L. Ammann, “Creating Partisan ‘Footprints’: The Influence of Parental Religious Socialization on Party Identification,” Social Science Quarterly 95, no. 5 (December 2014): 1360–80.
28. Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz and James G. Gimple, “Religion and Political Socialization” in The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics, eds. Corwin E. Smidt, Lyman A. Kellstedt, and James L. Guth (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009).
29. Miki C. Kittilson, “Gender and Political Behavior,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, May 9, 2016,
30. See, for example, Andrew R. Flores and Maisy Morrison, “Potential Differences between the Political Attitudes of People with Same-Sex Parents and People with Different-Sex Parents: An Exploratory Assessment of First-Year College Students,” PLoS One 16, no. 2 (2021),; Landon, Schnabel, “Sexual Orientation and Social Attitudes,” Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World (January 2018), doi:10.1177/2378023118769550.
31. Gabriel Abraham Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015), doi:10.1515/9781400874569.
32. Richard Wike, “5 Ways Americans and Europeans Are Different,” Pew Research Center, April 19, 2016. Note that this survey asked only Americans and Europeans. If it had asked people living in other countries, the differences would likely be even greater.
33. United States Census Bureau, “Census Bureau Reports There Are 89,004 Local Governments in the United States,” August 30, 2012,
34. Harold D. Lasswell, Daniel Lerner, and C. Easton Rothwell, “The Elite Concept,” in Political Elites in a Democracy, ed. Peter Bachrach (London: Routledge, 2010), 13–27,
35. Howard Wial, Where the One Percent Live, Brookings, October 31, 2011,; “Where the 1% Send Their Kids to College,” College Stats, accessed August 2, 2021,
36. Lee Drutman, “The Political One Percent of the One Percent,” Sunlight Foundation, December 13, 2011,
37. Martin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page, “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens,” Perspectives on Politics 12, no. 3 (2014): 564–81, doi:10.1017/S1537592714001595.
38. National Park Service, “What Is Cultural Anthropology?” accessed October 21, 2021,
39. W. Penn Handwerker, “The Construct Validity of Cultures: Cultural Diversity, Culture Theory, and a Method for Ethnography.” American Anthropologist 104, no. 1 (2002): 106–22.
40. “Media Advisory: Final Presidential Debate of 2020 Draws 63 Million Viewers,” Nielsen, October 23, 2020,; United States Census Bureau, “The US Adult and Under-Age-18 Populations: 2020 Census,” August 12, 2021,
41. Adam Muskin, “Of Russian Origin: Gopnik,” Russiapedia,
42. Lauren Cocking, “A Brief Guide to Mexican Subcultures,” Culture Trap, November 28, 2016,
43. Evan Valentine, “WWE Superstar Xavier Woods Shares His Love for the God of High School,” ComicBook, July 31, 2020,
44. Language evolves, and what was commonly called “gay” in the 1900s is generally referred to today as LGBTQ.
45. The reader should note that there is not one single African American culture, so referring to it in singular terms is a generalization.
46. Danielle Garcia, “The Politics of Hip Hop: A Political Analysis of Hip Hop’s History and Its Complicated Relationship with Capitalism” (master’s thesis, CUNY, 2021),
47. Megan Brenan, “Americans’ Confidence in Major US Institutions Dips,” Gallup, July 14, 2021,
48. David Kent, “The Countries Where People Are Most Dissatisfied with How Democracy Is Working,” Pew Research Center, May 31, 2019,
49. “Most Border Wall Opponents, Supporters Say Shutdown Concessions Are Unacceptable,” Pew Research Center, January 6, 2019,
50. For the seminal book on this topic, see Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965).
51. The rules can become quite complicated. For example, a majority could be defined as 50 percent plus one of all eligible voters, of all voters present, or of all voters casting votes, among other possibilities.
52. In the United States, conviction requires jury unanimity and each member of the jury is instructed to vote to convict only if they believe the evidence shows the suspect’s guilt “beyond reasonable doubt.” For more on this idea, see Chapter 11.
53. One credible source has estimated that about 4 percent of persons convicted of murder in the United States are likely not guilty. Samuel R. Gross, Barbara O'Brien, Chen Hu, and Edward Kennedy, “Rate of False Conviction of Criminal Defendants Who Are Sentenced to Death” (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 405, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 14-011, 2014),
54. Scott Snyder, Domestic Constraints on South Korean Foreign Policy (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2018).
55. “Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage,” Pew Research Center, May 14, 2019,
56. In 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled that the states could not prohibit same-sex marriage. By the time the Supreme Court ruled, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states. “State-by-State History of Banning and Legalizing Gay Marriage,” ProCon/Encyclopaedia Britannica, last modified February 16, 2016,
57. Oliver E. Williamson, “The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach on JSTOR,” American Journal of Sociology 87, no. 3 (November 1981): 548–77.
58. Toby Ord, The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity (New York: Hachette Books, 2020).
59. Adam Smith and Knud Haakonssen, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
60. Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162, no. 3859 (December 1968): 1243–48, doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243.
61. World Wildlife Fund, “Black Rhino,” accessed July 30, 2021,
62. World Wildlife Fund, “Overfishing,” accessed July 30, 2021,
63. Jouni Paavola, “Climate Change: The Ultimate Tragedy of the Commons?” in Property in Land and Other Resources, eds. Daniel H. Cole and Elinor Ostrom (Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2012) 417–33.
64. Tim Radford, “Scientists Call for Urgent Action to Save Atlantic Tuna,” The Guardian, April 27, 2005,; “Popular Fish Species Disappear from Turkey’s Marmara and Black Seas,” Sea Around Us, August 18, 2020,
65. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), “Tuna Species Recovering Despite Growing Pressures on Marine Life—IUCN Red List,” September 4, 2021,
66. Emyr Jones Parry, “The Greatest Threat to Global Security: Climate Change Is Not Merely an Environmental Problem,” UN Chronicle,
67. Humans have been aware of the free rider problem since antiquity. For a history and analysis, see Russell Hardin and Garrett Cullity, “The Free Rider Problem,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Winter 2020),
68. Jane A. Leggett, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement: A Summary (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2020).
69. Kieran Mulvaney, “World Climate Change Report Card: These Countries Are Meeting Goals,” National Geographic, September 19, 2019,
70. Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser, “Fossil Fuels,” Our World in Data,
71. The exact number of years in the example is not critically important. What is important is that the overall number of years is lowest when both suspects “cooperate” and highest when both “defect.”
72. While the classic prisoner’s dilemma example uses two “suspects,” any two actors, including individuals, political parties, or entire countries, can be involved in prisoner’s dilemmas.
73. Per capita emissions are the total CO2 emissions for each country divided by the number of people living in that country.
74. Hannah Ritchie, “Where in the World Do People Emit the Most CO2?” Our World in Data, October 4, 2019,; Johannes Friedrich, Mengpin Ge, and Andrew Pickens, “This Interactive Chart Shows Changes in the World's Top 10 Emitters,” World Resources Institute, December 10, 2020,
75. NOAA Fisheries, “Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Permit Shop,”
76. Richard Black, “Last Rites for a Marine Marvel?” BBC News, last modified October 17, 2007,
77. Virginia Morell, “Why Did New Zealand's Moas Go Extinct?” Science, March 17, 2014,
78. Adele Cecile Morris, Ian Parry, and Roberton C. Williams, Implementing a US Carbon Tax: Challenges and Debates (New York: Routledge, 2015). doi:10.4324/9781315747682.
79. “What Is a Carbon Tax?” Tax Policy Center, accessed October 20, 2021,
80. Benjamin Storrow, “Carbon Prices Are Too Low to Reduce Emissions,” Scientific American, September 20, 2018, You can find a 2020 world map of carbon pricing plans here:
81. ​​Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
82. ​​Flavio Felice, “Elinor Ostrom and the Solution to the Tragedy of the Commons,” American Enterprise Institute, July 27, 2012,
83. Silvia Amaro, Joanna Tan, and Emma Newburger, “G-7 Nations Reach Historic Deal on Global Tax Reform,” CNBC, June 5, 2021,
84. Robert A Weinberger, “The IRS Data Book Tells a Story of Shrinking Staff, Fewer Audits, and Less Customer Service,” Tax Policy Center, June 7, 2019,
85. Internal Revenue Service, “The Tax Gap,” accessed July 14, 2021,
86. Larissa Batrancea et al. “Trust and Power as Determinants of Tax Compliance across 44 Nations,” Journal of Economic Psychology 74 (October 2019): 102191, doi:10.1016/j.joep.2019.102191.
87. United Nations, “Flagship UN Study shows Accelerating Climate Change on Land, Sea and in the Atmosphere,” March 10, 2020,

7 Civil Rights

1. “Civil Rights,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School,
2. Kay Lehman Schlozman, Sidney Verba, and Henry E. Brady, The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012), 6.
3. Neill Atkinson, “Voting Rights,” Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand,
4. Patty Ferguson-Bohnee, “How the Native American Vote Continues to Be Suppressed,” Human Rights Magazine 45, no. 1 (February 9, 2020),
5. Mathilde Mostrup, “Voting Rights for Debate in Europe,” in Votes at 16 (Copenhagen: The Danish Youth Council),
6. Maru Bazezew, “Constitutionalism,” Mizan Law Review 3, no. 2 (September 2009): 358–369.
7. “Fundamental Rights,” Know India,
8. Mauritania’s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2012, trans. Maria del Carmen Gress (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co., 2012),
9. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations General Assembly, December 10, 1948,
10. Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, and Michael J. Meyer, “Rights,” Issues in Ethics 3, no. 1 (Winter 1990),
11. North Macedonia (Republic of’s) Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2011 (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co.),
12. “Constitutional Rankings,” Comparative Constitutions Project,
13. Ian Vasquez and Fred McMahon, “The Human Freedom Index 2020,” Cato Institute,
14. “International Laws,” Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund,
15. Shirley Wilcher, “The Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 45 Years of Activism and Progress,” Insight into Diversity, September 17, 2018,
16. US Department of Justice, “Introduction to the ADA,”
17. Lewis M. Killian, “What or Who Is a ‘Minority’?” Michigan Sociological Review, no. 10 (Fall 1996): 18–31.
18. “Concept of a Minority: Mandate Definition,” United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,
19. Michael Hechter and Dina Okamoto, “Political Consequences of Minority Group Formation,” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (June 2001): 189–215.
20. Max Bearak and Darla Cameron, “Here Are the 10 Countries Where Homosexuality May Be Punished by Death,” Washington Post, June 16, 2016,
21. Patrick Kelleher, “Gay Fans Are Welcome at Qatar World Cup — Just as Long as They Don’t Have Sex,” Pink News, September 27, 2019,
22. John F. Kowal, “The Improbable Victory of Marriage Equality,” Brennan Center for Justice, September 29, 2015,
23. Greg Zwiers, “LGBT Laws Differ from State to State,” Iowa State Daily, October 17, 2014,
24. “Fifty Years Since Stonewall: The Change in Public Opinion,” Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 2019,
25. “Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage,” Pew Research Center, May 14, 2019,
26. John Wilkens, “What’s Behind the Gay Rights Attitude Shift?” The San Diego Union-Tribune, April 4, 2015,
27. Kowal, “Improbable Victory.”
28. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015),
29. Oxford Reference Online, “Majoritarianism,”
30. “Chart: Where Adoption Is Illegal for LGBT+ Couples,” Statista, March 8, 2018,
31. Pavan v. Smith, 582 U.S. __ (2017),
32. “Lesbians, Gays, Can Adopt Children,” News 24, September 10, 2002,
33. Kimon de Greef, “The Unfulfilled Promise of LGBTQ Rights in South Africa,” The Atlantic, July 2, 2019,
34. Marina Koren, “Why Men Thought Women Weren’t Made to Vote,” The Atlantic, July 11, 2019,
35. Danyelle Solomon, Connor Maxwell, and Abril Castro, “Systematic Inequality and American Democracy,” Center for American Progress, August 7, 2019,
36. John G. Stewart, “Why the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Really Mattered,” Washingtonian, June 4, 2014,
37. Barbara Arnwine, “61 Forms of Voter Suppression,” The Voting Rights Alliance, 2019,
38. Jeremy Amar-Dolan and Zachary Zemlin, “Shelby County v. Holder,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School,
39. Ari Berman, “Why Are Conservatives Trying to Destroy the Voting Rights Act?” The Nation, February 6, 2013,
40. Adam Serwer, “If You Didn’t Vote for Trump, Your Vote Is Fraudulent,” The Atlantic, December 10, 2020,
41. “The Myth of Voter Fraud,” Brennan Center for Justice, 2021,
42. “Voting Laws Roundup: December 2021,” Brennan Center for Justice, last updated January 12, 2022,
43. Sri Lanka’s Constitution of 1978 with Amendments through 2015 (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co.),
44. “Sri Lanka Says Buddhism Will Remain Paramount in New Charter,” Reuters, July 12, 2017,
45. Julie McCarthy, “The Birthplace of ‘Gross National Happiness’ Is Growing a Bit Cynical,” NPR, February 12, 2018,
46. “Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness Index,” Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative,
47. “II. Background,” in “We Don’t Want to Be Refugees Again”: HRW Briefing Paper for the Fourteenth Ministerial Joint Committee of Bhutan and Nepal (New York: Human Rights Watch, May 19, 2003),
48. Shyam K. Sriram, “Of Acculturative Stress and Integration Distress: The Resettlement Challenges of Bhutanese Refugees in Metro Atlanta,” South Asian Diaspora 12, no. 1 (2020): 93–108.
49. Rebecca Onion and Claudio Saunt, “Interactive Time-Lapse Map Shows How the US Took More Than 1.5 Billion Acres from Native Americans,” Slate (The Vault), June 17, 2014,
50. “IDA Treaties Explorer,” The Indigenous Digital Archive,
51. Kevin Gover, “Nation to Nation: Treaties between the United States and American Indian Nations,” American Indian 15, no. 2 (Summer/Fall 2014),
52. Laura Wamsley, “Supreme Court Rules That About Half of Oklahoma Is Native American Land,” NPR, July 9, 2020,
53. Alleen Brown, “Half of Oklahoma Is ‘Indian Country.’ What If All Native Treaties Were Upheld?” The Intercept, July 17, 2020,
54. Mary Annette Pember, “Death by Civilization,” The Atlantic, March 8, 2019,
55. David W. Adams, Education for Extinction (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1995), 27.
56. Lillian Sparks, “Preserving Native Languages: No Time to Waste,” Administration for Native Americans, (US Department of Health and Human Services),
57. “Facts about Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women,” Native Hope,
58. Devon Haynie, “How States Are Addressing Violence against Indigenous Women,” US News & World Report, November 1, 2021,
59. Helen Rosner, “The Long American History of ‘Missing White Woman Syndrome,’” The New Yorker, October 8, 2021,
60. Exec. Order No. 9066, 7 Fed. Reg. 38 (Feb. 25, 1942).
61. The executive order did not mention any racial or ethnic category of individual. (“A Controversial Executive Order Leads to Internment Camps,” Constitution Daily, February 19, 2021, The largest share of those subjected to Executive Order 9066 were Japanese Americans, although individuals of German and Italian descent were also affected.
62. War Relocation Authority, Japanese-Americans in Relocation Centers, March 1943, The War Relocation Authority & the Incarceration of Japanese-Americans During World War II Collection, Harry S. Truman Library and Museum,
63. Hirabayashi v. United States, 320 U.S. 81 (1943),
64. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).
65. “Forced Labour, Modern Slavery, and Human Trafficking,” International Labor Organization,—en/index.htm.
66. As cited by Andrea Nicholson, Minh Dang, and Zoe Trodd, “A Full Freedom: Contemporary Survivors’ Definitions of Slavery,” Human Rights Law Review 18, no. 4 (2018): 689–704.
67. “What Is Modern Slavery?” US Department of State,
68. Global Slavery Index, 2018,
69. Katarina Schwarz and Jean Allain, “Slavery Is Not a Crime in Almost Half the Countries of the World—New Research,” The Conversation, February 13, 2020,
70. Nadia’s Initiative,
71. “Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War,” Dr. Denise Mukwege Foundation,
72. Colman Andrews, “These Are the 56 People Who Signed the Declaration of Independence,” USA Today, July 4, 2019,
73. Richard Albert, “Time to Update the Language of the Constitution,” The Hill, June 30, 2020,
74. Less discussed is how the ambiguous language of the 13th Amendment may have ended slavery but laid the groundwork for the mass incarceration of African Americans. Students should watch Ana DuVernay’s 2016 documentary 13th to understand this issue.
75. Paul Finkelman, “Three-Fifths Clause: Why Its Taint Persists,” The Root, February 26, 2013,
76. Derek Litvak, “The Census and Slavery: Why We Count People, Not Citizens,” Chicago Sun Times, July 1, 2019,
77. Candice Delmas and Kimberley Brownlee, “Civil Disobedience,” in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, revised June 2, 2021,; John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971), 320.
78. G. Hendrick, “The Influence of Thoreau’s ‘Civil Disobedience’ on Gandhi’s Satyagraha,” New England Quarterly (1956): 462–471.
79. Brent Powell, “Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest,” OAH Magazine of History 9, no. 2 (1995): 26–29.
80. Bob Pepperman Taylor, The Routledge Guidebook to Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience (New York: Routledge, 2014).
81. “The Louisiana Railway Accommodations Act,” Acts of 1890, No. 111,
82. Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),
83. Krystyna Blokhina Gilkis, “Separate But Equal. I: Plessy v. Ferguson,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, last updated January 2022,
84. Charlie Cobb, “The Story of SNCC,”
85. Andy Kopsa, “Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution Started 30 Years Ago—But It Was Decades in the Making,” TIME, November 16, 2019,
86. Thessa Lageman, “Remembering Mohamed Bouazizi: The Man Who Sparked the Arab Spring,” Al Jazeera, December 17, 2020,
87. Erin Blakemore, “What Was the Arab Spring and How Did It Spread?” National Geographic, March 29, 2019,
88. Aldon Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986).
89. “About,” Black Lives Matter,
90. Gabe Granillo, “The Role of Social Media in Social Movements,” Portland Monthly, June 10, 2021,; Shira Ovide, “How Social Media Has Changed Civil Rights Protests,” The New York Times, last updated December 17, 2020,
91. Morris, Origins of the Civil Rights Movement.
92. Allison Calhoun-Brown, “Upon This Rock: The Black Church, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement,” PS: Political Science and Politics 33, no. 2 (2000): 169–174.
93. Julian Bond, “SNCC: What We Did,” SNCC Legacy Project, 2000,
94. Justin Worland, “America’s Long Overdue Awakening to Systemic Racism,” TIME, June 11, 2020,
95. Larry Buchanan, Quoctrung Bui, and Jugal K. Patel, “Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in US History,” The New York Times, July 3, 2020,
96. Leanna Garfield and Zoe Ettinger, “14 of the Biggest Marches and Protests in American History,” Business Insider, last updated June 1, 2020,
97. Tarana Burke, “History & Inception,” Me Too,
98. Tonya Mosley, “‘Me Too’ Founder Tarana Burke Says Black Girls’ Trauma Shouldn’t Be Ignored,” NPR, September 29, 2021,
99. Sophia Gilbert, “The Movement of #MeToo,” The Atlantic, October 16, 2017,
100. David Bloom, “How Gen Z and Millennials are Reshaping What Power Is, and What It Means for Brands,” Forbes, September 19, 2019,
101. Anna North, “7 Positive Changes That Have Come from the #MeToo Movement,” Vox, October 4, 2019,
102. Rituparna Chatterjee, “Women Came Forward. Then a Chill Factor Set In,” The Washington Post, May 8, 2020,
103. Sam Richards, “Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System,” SOC 119, Penn State University, September 18, 2019,
104. “Day 8: Addressing the Four Levels of Racism—Institutional Racism (within and between Institutions and Systems of Power),” Diversity Recruitment Vanderbilt University,
105. Sarah Chamness Long and Alejandro Ponce, “Measuring the Justice Gap: A People-Centered Assessment of Unmet Justice Needs Around the World,” World Justice Project, 2019,
106. India’s Constitution of 1949 with Amendments through 2015 (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co.),
107. Mohammed Haris Usmani, “Public Interest Litigation: Its Origin and Meaning,” Legal Service India, 2018,
108. Zachary Holladay, “Public Interest Litigation in India as a Paradigm for Developing Nations,” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 19, no. 2 (2012): 555–573, 557.
109. Vivek Maru, Between Law and Society: Paralegals and the Provision of Primary Justice Services in Sierra Leone (New York: Open Society Justice Initiative, 2006),
110. American Bar Association, “Demographics: Growth of the Legal Profession,” in Profile of the Legal Profession 2021 (Chicago: American Bar Association, 2021), 10,; “Quick Facts: United States,” US Bureau of the Census,
111. Maha Jweied and Miranda Jolicoeur, “Community-Based Paralegals in Africa,” in Expert Working Group Report: International Perspectives on Indigent Defense (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice),
112. Stuart Streichler, “The Worst Decision Ever?” Legal Times 30, no. 11 (2007),; Sanford Levinson, “Is Dred Scott Really the Worst Opinion of All Time?” Harvard Law Review 125, no. 23 (2012),
113. Alexander M. Bickel, “Citizenship in the American Constitution,” Arizona Law Review 15 (1973): 369.
114. Mike Nicholas, “Supreme Decision: Roger Taney and the Dred Scott Case,” The Histories 5, no. 1,
115. Brittany Rico, Rose M. Kreider, and Lydia Anderson, “Growth in Interracial and Interethnic Married-Couple Households,” US Census Bureau, 2018,
116. Karen Grigsby Bates, “Loving Day Commemorates When Interracial Marriage Became Legal,” NPR, June 12, 2015,
117. U.S. Const. amend. 14,
118. Calvin Naito and Esther Scott, Against All Odds: The Campaign in Congress for Japanese American Redress (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, 1990), 4.
119. Helen Yoshida, “Redress and Reparations for Japanese American Incarceration,” National World War II Museum, August 13, 2021,
120. Sharon Yamamoto, “Civil Liberties Act of 1988,” in Densho Encyclopedia,
121. Trump v. Hawaii, 585 US _ (2018),
122. Ron Skynovitz and Gordana Cosic, “Lesbian PM or Not, Serbia Blocks Gays’ Path to Parenthood,” Radio Free Europe, August 22, 2019,
123. “LGBT Rights in Serbia,” Equaldex,
124. Steven Levingston, “Speaking from the Heart,” Washington Post, January 11, 2021,
125. Michael D. Shear and Thomas Kaplan, “Buttigieg Recalls Discrimination against Gay People, as Biden Celebrates Cabinet’s Diversity,” New York Times, December 16, 2020,
126. “Terminology,” Indigenous Foundations, 2021,
127. “Ethnic and Cultural Origins of Canadians: Portrait of a Rich Heritage,” Statistics Canada, October 25, 2017,
128. “Calls to Action,” Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015,
129. “Canada: 751 Unmarked Graves Found at Residential School,” BBC News, June 24, 2021,
130. Reuters, “Canada’s First Indigenous Governor General Pledges to Help Heal Nation,” NBC News, July 7, 2021,

8 Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Elections

1. Allison Norlian, “After 35 Years, EMILY’s List Continues to Transform the Political Landscape for Women; The PAC Is One Week Away from the Fight of Its Life,” Forbes, October 27, 2020,
2. Lillian Faderman, “Remembering the Activists Who Helped Make HIV/AIDS Research Possible,” Washington Post, March 12, 2019.
3. “Social Impact,” About AARP, AARP, accessed March 1, 2021,
4. “Our Party,” San Francisco Democratic Party, accessed March 1, 2021,
5. “2019/20 Impact Review,” Publications and Resources, UK Youth, accessed June 10, 2021,
6. “About Us,” La Quadrature du Net,
7. Stephanie Bodoni, “Amazon Gets Record $888 Million EU Fine Over Data Violations,” Bloomberg, July 30, 2021,
8. “About the US Chamber of Commerce,” US Chamber of Commerce, accessed March 1, 2021,
9. “Latest News,” Advocacy, Canadian Federation of Independent Businesses, accessed June 10, 2021,
10. Service Employees International Union (website), accessed March 1, 2021,
11. DGB—German Trade Union Confederation (website), accessed June 10, 2021,
12. “Who We Are,” About Us, Irish Farmers Association, accessed March 1, 2021,
13. “About NFU,” National Farmers Union, accessed June 10, 2021,
14. “About,” American Medical Association, accessed March 1, 2021,
15. “About JMA,” Japan Medical Association, accessed June 10, 2021,
16. “Our Network,” About Us, Greenpeace International, accessed March 1, 2021,
17. The Trust for Public Land (website), accessed March 1, 2021,
18. Toronto Public Space Committee (website), accessed June 10, 2021,
19. “About Us,” Japanese Rice Millers Association, accessed August 2, 2021,
20. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (website), accessed March 1, 2021,
21. “About Us,” Who We Are, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, accessed March 1, 2021,
22. Ken Moritsugu, “Hong Kong Democracy Activists Get Bail, Protest Marches Banned,” PBS News Hour, August 30, 2019,
23. “Hong Kong Democracy Group Behind Massive Protest Disbands,” AP News, August 15, 2021,
24. This concept is also covered in Chapter 6: The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity.
25. Robert H. Salisbury, “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups,” Midwest Journal of Political Science 13, no. 1 (1969): 1–32,
26. “Vision & Mission,” About Us, Drug Policy Alliance, accessed August 5, 2021,
27. Matthew Taylor, “The Evolution of Extinction Rebellion,” The Guardian, August 4, 2020,
28. Salisbury, “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups,” (1969).
29. See also Chapter 6: The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity.
30. “Fact Sheet,” One Fair Wage, accessed August 2, 2021,
31. E. E. Schattschneider, The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960), 35.
32. Theodore Lowi, “The Public Philosophy: Interest-Group Liberalism,” The American Political Science Review 61, no. 1 (1967): 5–24,
33. “Trump v. Sierra Club,” Oyez, accessed June 10, 2021.
34. “Sierra Club v. Trump—Challenge to Trump’s National Emergency Declaration to Construct a Border Wall,” Court Battles, Our Work, ACLU, updated July 20, 2021,
35. Ian Millhiser, “Two Major Supreme Court Immigration Cases Just Went up in Smoke,” Vox, February 3, 2021,
36. Nellie Bowles, “Hurt by Lockdowns, California’s Small Businesses Push to Recall Governor,” New York Times, February 19, 2021.
37. Sam Husseini, “Religious Beliefs Are Struck Down as Defense for Nuclear Protest,” The Nation, October 31, 2019.
38. Joe Middleton, “Extinction Rebellion: Ex-Paralympian Convicted of ‘Public Nuisance’ After Gluing Himself to Plane,” The Independent, July 29, 2021,
39. Florian Weiler and Matthais Brändli, “Inside versus Outside Lobbying: How the Institutional Framework Shapes the Lobbying Behaviour of Interest Groups,” European Journal of Political Research 54, no. 4 (November 2015): 745–766,
40. “PAC Profile: TACO PAC,” PACS, Influence and Lobbying, Open Secrets, accessed March 10, 2021,
41. TACO PAC (website), accessed March 10, 2021,
42. Vince Dixon, “Red Chains, Blue Chains: Which Politicians Are America’s Largest Fast Food Chains Donating To?” Eater, October 21, 2020,
43. “2020 Outside Spending, by Super PAC,” Politicians and Elections, Outside Spending, Federal Election Spending, Open Secrets, accessed March 1, 2021,
44. “Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,” Oyez, accessed August 2, 2021.
45. Tim Lau, “Citizens United Explained,” December 12, 2019, The Brennan Center for Justice,
46. Karl Evers-Hillstrom and Dan Auble, “‘Shadow Lobbying’ in Trump’s Washington,” News, Reports, Open Secrets, October 3, 2019,
47. Jeff Maskell, Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules, CRS Report No. RL31126 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007),
48. US President, Executive Order, “Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel, Executive Order 13989 of January 20, 2021,” Federal Register 86, no. 14 (January 25, 2021),
49. Craig Holman and William Luneburg, “Lobbying and Transparency: A Comparative Analysis of Regulatory Reform.” Interest Groups & Advocacy 1 (2012): 75–104.
50. “About,” Scottish National Party, accessed August 2, 2021,
51. Gina Davidson, “Poll Shows Drop for Scottish Independence Support as Sir John Curtice Claims Results Shows 'Cooling' over UK Split,” The Scotsman, June 27, 2021,; Ben Walker, “More Than Two-Thirds of Young Scots Now Back Independence,” The New Statesman, September 15, 2020,
52. Marjorie Randon Hershey, “Political Parties as Mechanisms of Social Choice,” in Handbook of Party Politics, eds. Richard S. Katz and William J. Crotty (London: Sage, 2005), 75–88.
53. Jeffrey M. Berry and Clyde Wilcox, The Interest Group Society (New York: Routledge, 2018).
54. Courtney Weaver, “Why U.S. Evangelicals Are Flocking to Trump,” Financial Times, October 2, 2020,
55. José Antonio Crespo, “The Liberal Democratic Party in Japan: Conservative Domination.” International Political Science Review 16, no. 2 (April 1995): 199–209, doi:10.1177/019251219501600206.
56. “Regular Primary Season Ends in Delaware, Adding One to Record Number of Women House Nominees,” Center for American Women and Politics, September 16, 2020,
57. Carrie Blazina and Drew Desilver, “A Record Number of Women Are Serving in the 117th Congress,” Pew Research Center, January 15, 2021,
58. “Political Parties,” Politicians and Elections, Open Secrets, accessed March 2, 2021,
59. “Japanese Industry Donations to Liberal Democratic Party in 2018 Hit ¥2.46 Billion, Up for Seventh Straight Year,” The Japan Times, November 29, 2019,¥2-46-billion-seventh-straight-year/.
60. Nicholas Riccardi, “Republicans See Bright Spot in Voter Registration Push,” AP News, October 20, 2020.
61. Nick Corasaniti, Annie Karni, and Isabella Grullón Paz, “‘There’s Nothing Left’: Why Thousands of Republicans Are Leaving the Party,” The New York Times, February 10, 2021.
62. Nick Corasaniti and Isabella Grullón Paz, “Did the George Floyd Protests Boost Democratic Voter Registration?” The New York Times, August 11, 2020,
63. Peter Miller, “Voter Registration Has Plummeted in 2020,” Brennan Center for Justice, September 21, 2020,
64. Elmer E. Schnattschneider, Party Government, American Government in Action (New York: Routledge, 2014).
65. Lester G. Seligman, “Political Recruitment and Party Structure: A Case Study,” American Political Science Review 55, no. 1 (March 1960): 77–86.
66. Jo Silvester, “Recruiting Politicians: Designing Competency-Based Selection for UK Parliamentary Candidates,” in The Psychology of Politicians (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 21–38.
67. Jonathan Rauch and Raymond La Raja, Re-engineering Politicians: How Activist Groups Choose Our Candidates—Long before We Vote (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2017),
68. Philip Lynch, “Party System Change in Britain: Multi-Party Politics in a Multi-Level Polity,” British Politics 2 (October 2007): 323–46,
69. Gerhard Loewenberg, “The Remaking of the German Party System: Political & Socio-economic Factors” Polity 1, no. 1 (1968): 86–113,
70. Isabelle Rousel and Biodun Iginla, “German politics is turning into a six-party system,” The Economist, September 19, 2016,
71. “China Anniversary: How the Communist Party Runs the Country,” BBC, September 30, 2019,
72. US Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958-1960, Cuba, Volume VI, eds. John P. Glennon and Ronald D. Landa (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1991) Document 278,
73. US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Executive Summary, 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Eritrea, (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 2018),
74. Martin P. Wattenburg, The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991).
75. Thomas E. Patterson, We the People (New York: McGraw Hill, 2014), 258.
76. Gerald Seib and James Hagarty, “H. Ross Perot, Texas Billionaire Who Twice Ran for President, Dies at 89,” The Wall Street Journal, July 9, 2019.
77. Mike Cummings, “Polarization in US Politics Starts with Weak Political Parties,” Yale News, November 17, 2020.
78. Peter Mair and Ingrid van Biezen, “Party Membership in Twenty European Democracies, 1980–2000,” Party Politics 7, no. 1 (January 2001): 5–21.
79. Paul Whiteley, “Is the Party Over? The Decline of Party Activism and Membership across the Democratic World,” Party Politics 17, no. 1 (June 2010): 21–44.
80. Patrick Liddiard, Are Political Parties in Trouble? (Washington, DC: Wilson Center, 2018),
81. Thomas Piketty, “Brahmin Left vs. Merchant Right: Rising Inequality & the Changing Structure of Political Conflict,” World Inequality Database, March 2018,
82. Ibid., 2.
83. Jason Seawright, Collapse: The Roots of Crisis in Peru and Venezuela (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012).
84. Ibid, p. 2.
85. Eve Warburton and Edward Aspinall, “Explaining Indonesia’s Democratic Regression: Structure, Agency and Popular Opinion,” Contemporary Southeast Asia 41, no. 2 (August 2019): 255–85,
86. Gerald Pomper, “The Concept of Elections in Political Theory,” The Review of Politics 29, no. 4 (October 1967): 478–91,
87. James Madison, “Federalist No. 52,” in The Federalist Papers (New Haven, CT: The Avalon Project),, first published 1788 by the New York Packet.
88. Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, Kenneth A. Shepsle, and Stephen Ansolabehere, American Government: Power and Purpose (New York: W. W. Norton, 2017), 428.
89. Michael Hiltzik, “With Prop 22, Uber and Lyft Used Their Wealth to Reshape Labor Law in Their Sole Interest,” Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2020.
90. Federico Fubini, “Voter Suppression Comes to Europe,” International Politics and Society, January 15, 2020,
91. “Voting Laws Roundup: May 2021,” Brennan Center for Justice, May 28, 2021.
92. Drew Desilver, “Turnout Soared in 2020 as Nearly Two-Thirds of Eligible U.S. Voters Cast Ballots for President,” Pew Research Center, January 28, 2021,
93. Drew Desilver, “In Past Elections, U.S. Trailed Most Developed Countries in Voter Turnout,” Pew Research Center, November 3, 2020,
94. Arend Lijphart, “Unequal Participation: Democracy’s Unresolved Dilemma,” The American Political Science Review 91, no. 1 (March 1997): 1–14,
95. Robert R. Jackman and Ross A. Miller, “Voter Turnout in Industrial Democracies during the 1980s,” Comparative Political Studies 27, no. 4 (January 1995): 467–92,
96. Sintia Radu, “Americans Don’t Show Up at the Polls, but Neither Do the Swiss,” US News & World Report, November 2, 2018.
97. “Same Day Voter Registration,” Research, Elections and Campaigns, National Conference of State Legislatures, October 6, 2020,
98. Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000).
99. “Thickening the Culture of Participation: Archon Fung on Why Tinkering around the Edges of Voting Won’t Get Us to a Truly Participatory Democracy,” Policy Topics, Harvard Kennedy School, November 1, 2018,
100. Nadia Fiorino, Emma Galli, and Nicola Pontarollo, “Does Social Capital Affect Voter Turnout? Evidence from Italy,” Social Indicators Research 156, (February 2021): 289–309.
101. Maneesh Arora, Hannah Kim, and Mary Mendoza, “A Cross-National Study of the Effects of Social Capital on Voter Turnout” (paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Conference, Chicago, April 10, 2016).
102. “Afghanistan’s First Presidential Election Not Perfect, but Sets Stage for Journey towards Vigorous Democracy, Security Council Told,” Security Council, United Nations, October 14, 2004,
103. “Afghans Vote in Historic Election,” CNN, October 8, 2004,
104. Carlotta Gall, “Election of Karzai Is Declared Official,” New York Times, November 4, 2004,
105. Wahabuddin Ra’ees, “Presidential Election in Afghanistan: Democracy in the Making,” Intellectual Discourse 13, no. 1, (2005): 31.
106. U.S. Const. art. I, § 4, cl. 1.
107. “Landmark Legislation: The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution,” United States Senate, accessed March 3, 2021,
108. Washington, DC, has three electoral votes, while other US territories have none.
109. Five presidents have lost the popular vote and won the Electoral College: John Quincy Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, George W. Bush, and Donald Trump.
110. William Riker, “Duverger’s Law Revisited,” in Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences, eds. Bernard Grofman and Arend Ljiphardt (New York: Agathon Press, 1986), 19.
111. The majority of list-proportional representation (list PR) systems in the world are closed, meaning that the order of candidates elected by that list is fixed by the party itself, and voters are not able to express a preference for a particular candidate. Many of the list PR systems used in continental Europe therefore use open lists, in which voters can indicate not just their favored party, but their favored candidate within that party. (Source: “Open, Closed and Free Lists,” ACE Project: The Electoral Knowledge Network,
112. John G. Matsusaka, “Direct Democracy Works,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, no. 2 (Spring 2005): 185–206.
113. Priscilla Southwell, “Mail-In Voting Lessons from Oregon, the State with the Longest History of Voting by Mail,” The Conversation, September 30, 2020,
114. Gabrielle Manino, “What Is Maine Ranked-Choice Voting and How Does Ranked-Choice Voting Work?” News Center Maine, updated November 3, 2020,
115. Eugene Scott, “New Georgia Legislation Would Curb ‘Souls to the Polls,’” Washington Post, February 21, 2021,
116. R. Sam Garrett, Federal Role in US Campaigns and Elections: An Overview, CRS Report No. R45302 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2018),
117. Matt Vasilogambros, “Few People Want to Be Poll Workers, and That’s a Problem,” The Pew Charitable Trusts, October 22, 2018,
118. “Our Work,” All Voting Is Local, accessed March 16, 2021,
119. “Become a Poll Worker,” Voters, US Election Assistance Commission, accessed March 16, 2021,
120. “French Media Rules Prohibit Election Coverage over Weekend,” France 24, May 7, 2017,
121. “Campaign Finance: France,” Law Library, Research and Reports, Legal Topics, United States Library of Congress, accessed March 3, 2021,
122. Mostafa Farmani and Afshin Jafari, “A Comparative Approach to Study the Electoral Systems of Selected Countries,” International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies 2, no. 4 (March 2016): 1913–24.
123. “General Elections,” About Parliament, UK Parliament, accessed March 3, 2021,

9 Legislatures

1. “The Four Career Competencies Employers Value Most,” NACE Center for Career Development and Talent Acquisition, National Association of Colleges and Employers, March 29, 2019,; “Employers More Interested in Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Than College Major,” Association of American Colleges & Universities, April 10, 2013,
2. Henry M. Robert III et al., Robert’s Rules of Order: Newly Revised, 12th ed. (New York: PublicAffairs, 2020); Kari Palonen, The Politics of Parliamentary Procedure: The Formation of the Westminster Procedure as a Parliamentary Ideal Type (Opladen, Germany: Barbara Budrich, 2014).
3. Valerie Heitshusen and Richard S. Beth, Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate, CRS Report No. RL30360 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2017),
4. “About Filibusters and Cloture: Historical Overview,” United States Senate, last modified June 3, 2021,
5. Carles Boix and Milan W. Svolik, “The Foundations of Limited Authoritarian Government: Institutions, Commitment, and Power-Sharing in Dictatorships,” Journal of Politics 75, no. 2 (April 2013): 300–316,; Jennifer Gandhi and Adam Przeworski, “Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats,” Comparative Political Studies 40, no. 11 (November 2007): 1279–1301,
6. Ora John Reuter and Graeme B. Robertson, “Legislatures, Cooptation, and Social Protest in Contemporary Authoritarian Regimes,” Journal of Politics 77, no. 1 (January 2015): 235–248,; Jennifer Gandhi, Political Institutions under Dictatorship (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
7. Scott Williamson and Beatriz Magaloni, “Legislatures and Policy Making in Authoritarian Regimes,” Comparative Political Studies 53, no. 9 (August 2020): 1525–1543.
8. “Political Parties,” United States Senate, last modified October 12, 2021,
9. John Patrick, “Majority Rule and Minority Rights,” Annenberg Classroom, Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania, August 4, 2017,
10. “Irish Government: Parties Agree to Form Coalition Government,” BBC News, BBC, June 26, 2020,
11. “2020 Legislator Compensation,” National Conference of State Legislatures, June 17, 2020,
12. “Frequently Asked Questions,” Texas House of Representatives, accessed October 15, 2021,
13. William Ruger and Jason Sorens, The Citizen Legislature: How Reasonable Limits on State Legislative Salaries, Staff and Session Lengths Keep Liberty Alive, Policy Brief No. 11-04 (Phoenix, AZ: Goldwater Institute, 2011),
14. Andrew C. Eggers and Alexander B. Fouirnaies, “Representation and District Magnitude in Plurality Systems,” Electoral Studies 33 (March 2014): 267–277.
15. “Resultater: Bornholms Storkreds.” Folketingsvalg Onsdag 5. Juni 2019, Danmarks Statistik, last updated June 13, 2019,
16. “Resultater: Sjællands Storkreds.” Folketingsvalg Onsdag 5. Juni 2019, Danmarks Statistik, last updated June 13, 2019,
17. Susan Welch, “The Impact of At-Large Elections on the Representation of Blacks and Hispanics,” Journal of Politics 52, no. 4 (November 1990): 1050–1076,
18. Susan Welch and Donley T. Studlar, “Multi-Member Districts and the Representation of Women: Evidence from Britain and the United States,” Journal of Politics 52, no. 2 (May 1990): 391–412,
19. Marco Portmann, David Stadelmann, and Reiner Eichenberger, “District Magnitude and Representation of the Majority’s Preferences: Evidence from Popular and Parliamentary Votes,” Public Choice 151, no. 3–4 (June 2011): 585–610,
20. “History of Women in the US Congress,” Levels of Office, Center for American Women and Politics, last updated June 15, 2021,; Katherine Schaeffer, “Racial, Ethnic Diversity Increases Yet Again with the 117th Congress,” Pew Research Center, January 28, 2021,
21. Sara Atske, A. W. Geiger, and Alissa Scheller, “The Share of Women in Legislatures around the World Is Growing, but They Are Still Underrepresented,” Pew Research Center, March 18, 2019,
22. Adrian D. Pantoja and Gary M. Segura, “Does Ethnicity Matter? Descriptive Representation in Legislatures and Political Alienation among Latinos,” Social Science Quarterly 84, no. 2 (June 2003): 441–460; Beth Reingold and Jessica Harrell, “The Impact of Descriptive Representation on Women’s Political Engagement: Does Party Matter?,” Political Research Quarterly 63, no. 2 (June 2010): 280–294,
23. Edmund Burke, “To the Electors of Bristol,” The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), 1:446–448.
24. Norman Meller, “Representational Role Types: A Research Note,” American Political Science Review 61, no. 2 (June 1967): 474–477,
25. “US Position in the World,” Gallup, last modified March 27, 2021,
26. George Ingram, “What Every American Should Know about US Foreign Aid,” Policy 2020, Brookings Institution, October 15, 2019,
27. Russell Muirhead, “The Case for Party Loyalty,” Nomos 54 (2013): 229–256,
28. Shaun Bowler, David M. Farrell, and Richard S. Katz, eds., Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999).
29. Kathryn Schulz, “What Calling Congress Achieves,” New Yorker, February 26, 2017,
30. Partnership for a More Perfect Union, Communicating with Congress: Perceptions of Citizen Advocacy on Capitol Hill (Washington, DC: Congressional Management Foundation, 2011),
31. “Separation of Powers: Legislative Oversight,” National Conference of State Legislatures, last modified May 6, 2019,
32. “Health and Social Care Committee,” Committees, UK Parliament, 2021,
33. “Fragestunde,” Parlamentsbegriffe A–Z, Deutscher Bundestag, May 26, 2014,
34. Rens Vliegenthart and Stefaan Walgrave, “Content Matters: The Dynamics of Parliamentary Questioning in Belgium and Denmark,” Comparative Political Studies 44, no. 8 (August 2011): 1031–1059.
35. Ibid.
36. Rick Stapenhurst et al., eds., Legislative Oversight and Budgeting: A World Perspective (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008),
37. E. Bradford Burns et al., “Brazil,” Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, last updated October 11, 2021, under “The Legislature of Brazil,”
38. Arend Lijphart and Robert W. Gibberd, “Thresholds and Payoffs in List Systems of Proportional Representation,” European Journal of Political Research 5, no. 3 (September 1977): 219–244.
39. “2020 General Election Results,” Elections & Voting, Office of the Minnesota Secretary of State, 2020,
40. “Election for South Korean National Assembly,” IFES Election Guide, International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2020,
41. Maurice Duverger, Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State, trans. Barbara North and Robert North, 2nd ed. (1959; repr., London: Methuen, 1967).
42. Joseph A. Schlesinger and Mildred S. Schlesinger, “Maurice Duverger and the Study of Political Parties,” French Politics 4, no. 1 (April 2006): 58–68,
43. EDM Division, “State Wise Seat Won & Valid Votes Polled by Political Parties,” Election Commission of India, October 11, 2019,
44. While the names of the parties have remained the same since the mid-1860s, it is important to note that the policy beliefs and positions of the parties have changed over time, so a deeper study of American party systems recognizes further realignments.
45. Theodore Rosenof, Realignment: The Theory That Changed the Way We Think about American Politics (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).
46. Tony Saich, The National People’s Congress: Functions and Membership (Cambridge, MA: Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School, November 2015),
47. “Bahrain,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated October 12, 2021, under “Government,”
48. “Brunei: Government,” globalEDGE, Broad College of Business, Michigan State University, 2021,; “Brunei,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated October 6, 2021, under “Government,”
49. “Bahamas,” Political Database of the Americas, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, last updated June 10, 2021,
50. US Constitution, amend. 17.
51. Anne Stevens, Government and Politics of France, 3rd ed. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 83–105,
52. Paolo Passaglia, “Unicameralism, Bicameralism, Multicameralism: Evolution and Trends in Europe,” Perspectives on Federalism 10, no. 2 (2018): 1–29,
53. “Voting,” Plenary Sessions, Bundesrat, accessed October 15, 2021,
54. Daniel González and Dan Nowicki, “Timeline: Immigration Reform,” Arizona Republic, updated November 24, 2014,
55. Ben Noble and Nikolay Petrov, “From Constitution to Law: Implementing the 2020 Russian Constitutional Changes,” Russian Politics 6, no. 1 (2021): 130–152,
56. Nolan McCarty, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal, Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006).
57. Morris P. Fiorina and Samuel J. Abrams, “Political Polarization in the American Public,” Annual Review of Political Science 11 (2008): 563–588,
58. Sean M. Theriault, The Gingrich Senators (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
59. APSA Committee on Political Parties, “Summary of Conclusions and Proposals,” in “Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System: A Report of the Committee on Political Parties,” special issue, American Political Science Review 44, no. 3 pt. 2 (September 1950): 1–14,

10 Executives, Cabinets, and Bureaucracies

1. Quoted in Godfrey Hodgson, All Things to All Men: The False Promise of the Modern American Presidency (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1980), 25.
2. William Greider and Barry Sussman, “Poll Finds Carter Popularity Soars,” The Washington Post, September 24, 1978,
3. Adam Clymer, “Carter’s Standing Drops to New Low in Times-CBS Poll,” The New York Times, June 10, 1979,
4. Nils-Christian Bormann and Matt Golder, “Democratic Electoral Systems around the World, 1946–2011,” Electoral Studies 32, no. 2 (June 2013), 360–369.
5. José Antonio Cheibub, Zachary Elkins, and Tom Ginsburg, “Beyond Presidentialism and Parliamentarianism,” British Journal of Political Science 44, no. 3 (July 2014): 515–544.
6. This YouTube clip by Townhall provides a great overview of the event and the event’s importance: Fisher’s quote comes at the 3:38 mark. See
7. Marina Watts, “Why George Bush’s 2001 World Series First Pitch Meant More Than Just ‘Play Ball,’” Newsweek, September 11, 2020,
8. Zaheena Rasheed, “COVID-19 Pandemic Is Testing World Leaders. Who’s Stepping Up?” Al Jazeera, April 3, 2020,
9. Jacob Poushter and J. J. Moncus, “How People in 14 Countries View the State of the World in 2020,” Pew Research Center, September 23, 2020,
10. Constanze Stelzenmüller, “Angela Merkel’s Final Year,” Order from Chaos (blog), Brookings, September 30, 2020, This link to the polling report appears in the article:
11. Holly Ellyatt, “Confidence in Merkel’s Leadership Falters as Germany’s Pandemic Drags,” CNBC, March 26, 2021,
12. “President Trump: Job Ratings,”, The September number is an average of two Gallup polls (8/31 to 9/13 and 9/14 to 9/28).
13. “Exit Polls,” CNN,
14. Amina Dunn, “Only 24% of Trump Supporters View the Coronavirus Outbreak as a ‘Very Important’ Voting Issue,” Pew Research Center, October 21, 2020, Please note there is no inherent contradiction between 17 percent on Election Day stating the coronavirus was the most important issue and 55 percent of respondents stating before the election that it was a very important issue. For the CNN exit poll, respondents can only choose one issue as most important. For the Pew Research poll, respondents considered each issue independently and were asked to rate that issue’s importance.
15. Quoted in Gregory H. Fox and Georg Nolte, “Intolerant Democracies,” Harvard International Law Journal 36, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 89.
16. Arend Lijphart, ed., Parliamentary versus Presidential Government (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 11.
17. Ibid., 12–13.
18. Ibid., 2.
19. Argentina Constitution, section 90,
20. William G. Howell and Terry M. Moe, Presidents, Populism, and the Crisis of Democracy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000).
21. Ibid., 7.
22. Fareed Zarkaria, “Populism on the March: Why the West Is in Trouble,” Foreign Affairs 95, no. 6 (November/December 2016),
23. Donald J. Trump, “Let Me Ask America a Question,” The Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2016,
24. Ibid., 6-7. Howell and Moe write: “Populists don’t just feed on socioeconomic discontent. They feed on ineffective government—and their great appeal is that they claim to replace it with a government that is effective through their own autocratic power. This generic formula was precisely what Trump followed in the 2016 election.” William G. Howell and Terry M. Moe, Presidents, Populism, and the Crisis of Democracy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000).
25. Brian Winter, “Messiah Complex: How Brazil Made Bolsonaro,” Foreign Affairs 99, no. 5 (September/October 2020),
26. “Populists in Power around the World,” Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, November 7, 2018,
27. Fareed Zakaria, “The Rise of Illiberal Democracy,” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 6 (November/December 1997): 23–24.
28. William G. Howell and Terry M. Moe, Presidents, Populism, and the Crisis of Democracy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 40.
29. Andrew Higgins, “Populist Leaders in Eastern Europe Run into a Little Problem: Unpopularity,” The New York Times, June 21, 2021,
30. William G. Howell and Terry M. Moe, Presidents, Populism, and the Crisis of Democracy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2020). At the top of their list of system issues that remain is the ineffectiveness of government. See also Daron Acemoglu, “Trump Won’t Be the Last American Populist: The Conditions That Produced Him Need to be Understood to be Addressed,” Foreign Affairs, November 6, 2020,
31. Maggie Haberman, Jonathan Martin, and Reid J. Epstein, “Trump Floats an Election Delay, and Republicans Shoot it Down,” The New York Times, July 30, 2020,
32. Richard Neustadt, Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership from FDR to Carter (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1980), 10.
33. Lydia Saad, “Gallup Vault: Issue of Gays in Military Split Americans in 1993,” Gallup, July 28, 2017,
34. Elizabeth Bumiller, “Obama Ends ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Policy,” The New York Times, July 22, 2011,
35. Terrence McCoy and Gabriela Sá Pessoa, “Bolsonaro Worked to Shake Brazil’s Faith in Vaccines. But Even His Supporters Are Racing to Get Their Shots,” The Washington Post, August 16, 2021,
36. “Swedish PM Stefan Löfven Loses No-Confidence Vote,” The Guardian, June 21, 2021,
37. “Stefan Löfven: Caretaker PM Wins Parliament Vote to Form New Swedish Government,” Euronews, July 7, 2021,
38. Juan Linz, “The Perils of Presidentialism,” Journal of Democracy 1, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 51.
39. Patrick Kingsley, “Israel’s Election Ends in a Stalemate, Final Results Show.” The New York Times, updated May 3, 2021,
40. Isabel Kershner, “Netanyahu Gets First Crack at Forming a New Government in Israel,” The New York Times, updated May 3, 2021,
41. Patrick Kingsley and Richard Pérez-Peña, “Netanyahu Ousted as Israeli Parliament Votes in New Government,” The New York Times, June 13, 2021,
42. Jaap Woldendorp, Hans Keman, and Ian Budge, Party Government in 48 Democracies (1945–1998) (Dordrecht, NL: Springer, 2000).
43. Josep M. Colomer, “The More Parties, the Greater Policy Stability,” European Political Science 11, no. 2 (June 2012): 231.
44. David Mayhew, Divided We Govern, 2nd ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005).
45. Sarah Binder, “Polarized We Govern?” Brookings, May 27, 2014,
46. David Mayhew, Partisan Balance: Why Political Parties Don’t Kill the US Constitutional System (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011).
47. “Political Polarization in the American Public,” Pew Research Center, June 12, 2014,
48. See, for example, Morris P. Fiorina, Samuel J. Abrams, and Jeremy C. Pope, Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, 3rd ed. (New York: Longman, 2010).
49. Lawrence C. Dodd and Scot Schraufnagel, “Reconsidering Party Polarization and Policy Productivity: A Curvilinear Perspective,” in Congress Reconsidered, Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds., 9th ed. (Washington DC: CQ Press, 2009): 413.
50. Marjorie Randon Hershey, Party Politics in America (New York: Routledge, 2021): 39.
51. “Election 2020: Voters Are Highly Engaged, but Nearly Half Expect to Have Difficulties Voting,” Pew Research Center, August 13, 2020,
52. Freedom House’s home page is For a list of countries and their global freedom scores, see For an overview of their methodology, see
53. Data are taken from Kathryn Dunn Tenpas, “Tracking President Joe Biden’s Cabinet and Appointees: Diversity and Pace of Senate-Confirmed Positions,” Brookings, November 2021,
54. Danielle Kurtzleben, “How the Donald Trump Cabinet Stacks Up, in 3 Charts,” NPR, December 28, 2016,
55. Paul J. Quirk, “Presidential Competence,” in The Presidency and the Political System, 12th ed., ed. Michael Nelson (Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press, 2021), 80. Quirk continues: “Many were wealthy businesspeople and campaign contributors. Most appointees had little or no experience relevant to their agencies.”
56. Lyn Ragsdale, “Studying the Presidency: Why Presidents Need Political Scientists,” in The Presidency and the Political System, 12th ed., ed. Michael Nelson (Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press, 2021), 60.
57. It is rare for cabinet appointments to fail Senate confirmation. In the last 100 years, less than a handful have failed.
58. Rita Dallas, “Thatcher Reshuffles Cabinet, Fires Three,” The Washington Post, September 15, 1981,
59. Jeffrey K. Tulis, “The Two Constitutional Presidencies,” in The Presidency and the Political System, 12th ed., ed. Michael Nelson (Thousand Oaks: CA, 2021), 15.
60. Michael Foley, The Rise of the British Presidency (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1993).
61. Keith Dowding, “The Prime Ministerialisation of the British Prime Minister,” Parliamentary Affairs 66, no. 3 (July 2013): 617–635.
62. H. G. Creel, “The Beginnings of Bureaucracy in China: The Origin of Nsein,” The Journal of Asian Studies 23, no. 2 (February 1964): 155–156.
63. Max Weber, N.D. “Bureaucracy,” in Economy and Society, .
64. Herbert Kaufman, “Emerging Conflicts in the Doctrines of Public Administration,” The American Political Science Review 50, no. 4 (December 1956): 1057–1073. Kaufman writes: “[Neutral competence is the] ability to do the work of government expertly, and to do it according to explicit, objective standards rather than to personal or party or other obligations and loyalties. The slogan of the neutral competence school became, ‘Take administration out of politics.’”
65. Marina Nistotskaya, Stefan Dahlberg, Carl Dahlström, Aksel Sundström, Sofia Axelsson, Cem Mert Dalli, and Natalia Alvarado Pachon, The Quality of Government Expert Survey 2020 (Wave III): Report (Gothenberg, SE: University of Gothenburg: The QoG Working Paper Series, 2021:2). Data available at
66. Lawrence C. Dodd and Richard L. Schott, Congress and the Administrative State (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1979), 2. The authors write: “The administrative state is, however, in many respects a prodigal child. Although born of congressional intent, it has taken on a life of its own and has matured to a point where its muscle and brawn can be turned against its creator.”
67. Lyn Ragsdale, “Studying the Presidency: Why Presidents Need Political Scientists,” in The Presidency and the Political System, 12th ed., ed. Michael Nelson (Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press, 2021), 61. Ragsdale continues: “In many ways, presidents are satellites of the executive branch. They and their administrations do not share in the values of the various departments and agencies, they operate under different timetables, and they do not know or serve as advocates for clients of the bureaucracy, whether farmers, welfare mothers, or some other group.”
68. “The Federal Register,” National Archives,
69. 76 Fed. Reg. 66625 (Oct. 27, 2011), 27 C.F.R. 4.
70. Ibid.
71. Ibid.
72. Jason W. Yackee and Susan Webb Yackee. “A Bias toward Business? Assessing Interest Group Influence on the Bureaucracy,” The Journal of Politics 68, no. 1 (February 2006): 128–139.
73. Ibid.; Susan Webb Yackee, “The Politics of Rulemaking,” Annual Review of Political Science 22 (2019): 37–55.
74. Rick Rojas, “‘Get People Off’: Shutdown Ordered for Cracked Bridge in Memphis,” The New York Times, May 13, 2021,
75. Azi Paybarah, “Inspector Who Twice Missed Crack in Bridge is Fired, Arkansas Officials Say,” The New York Times, May 17, 2021,

11 Courts and Law

1. Evan Hill et al., “How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody,” New York Times, updated November 1, 2021,; Yamiche Alcindor and Amna Nawaz, “What We Know about George Floyd’s Death in Minneapolis Police Custody,” PBS News Hour, NewsHour Productions, updated May 29, 2020,; Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, “Prosecutors Say Derek Chauvin Knelt on George Floyd for 9 Minutes 29 Seconds, Longer Than Initially Reported,” New York Times, March 30, 2021,
2. Shaila Dewan, “What Are the Charges against Derek Chauvin?,” New York Times, April 19, 2021,; Tim Arango, “Derek Chauvin Faces Three Charges. Here’s How His Sentencing Could Unfold,” New York Times, updated April 26, 2021,; Matt Sepic, “Televised Chauvin Trial due to Pandemic Yields Wide Access—and Concern,” NPR, March 29, 2021,
3. Peter H. Solomon, “Law and Courts in Authoritarian States,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, ed. James D. Wright, 2nd ed. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015), 427–434.
4. Tom Ginsburg and Tamir Moustafa, “Introduction: The Functions of Courts in Authoritarian Politics,” in Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes, ed. Tom Ginsburg and Tamir Moustafa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 1–22,
5. Mansoureh Galestan, “A Glance at Iran’s Human Rights Violations in 2020,” National Council of Resistance of Iran, January 1, 2021,
6. “North Korea: Systematic Repression,” Human Rights Watch, January 14, 2020,
7. Carlotta Gall, “Erdoğan’s Purges Leave Turkey’s Justice System Reeling,” New York Times, June 21, 2019,
8. “Key Findings of the 2020 Report on Turkey,” European Commission, October 6, 2020,
9. Ibid.
10. Alexander Hamilton, Federalist, no. 78, in The Federalist Papers, The Avalon Project, Lillian Goldman Law Library, 2008,
11. “Court Role and Structure,” United States Courts, Administrative Office of the US Courts, accessed December 21, 2021,
12. William G. Ross, “Roberts Day 4: A Ritual of Democracy,” edited by Jeremiah Lee, JURIST, September 16, 2005,
13. Oliver Martin, “Justice Can Only Be Done When We Have Equal Representation in the Judiciary,” King’s College London, August 29, 2019,
14. Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, “Appointments of Justices,” The Supreme Court, Crown, April 2016,
15. There are proposals pending to increase this to 75. See Ministry of Justice and Robert Buckland, “Judicial Retirement Age to Rise to 75,” GOV.UK, March 9, 2021,
16. Ivan-Serge Brouhns, “Legal Systems in Belgium: Overview,” Practical Law, Thomson Reuters, March 1, 2019, no. 12,
17. “Belgium,” The World Factbook 2016–17 (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016), 78,
18. Presidential Commission on the Supreme Court of the United States, Final Report, December 2021,
19. Williams v. United States, 289 U.S. 553 (1933),
20. “Judicial Selection in the States,” Ballotpedia, accessed May 25, 2021,
21. Elliot W. Bulmer, Judicial Appointments, 2nd ed. (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2017),
22. “Albania,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 14, 2021,
23. “China,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 14, 2021,
24. Nicole Atwill, “The French National School for the Judiciary,” In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress (blog), Library of Congress, January 26, 2011,
25. Debra Cassens Weiss, “Most Countries Don’t Hold Judicial Elections,” ABA Journal, May 27, 2008,
26. “Judicial Selection in the States,” National Center for State Courts, accessed May 25, 2021,
27. “Judicial Selection in the States: Texas,” National Center for State Courts, accessed May 25, 2021,
28. Texas Commission on Judicial Selection and Public Policy Research Institute, Texas Commission on Judicial Selection: Final Report (College Station, TX: Public Policy Research Institute, December 2020),
29. “Justice for Sale,” Frontline, PBS, November 1999,; Emma Platoff, “Despite committee’s recommendation, ending Texas’ partisan judicial elections looks unlikely,” The Texas Tribune, December 31, 2020,
30. Federalist Society, “The Merits of Electing Our Judges 3-7-08,” April 19, 2011, video, 1:00:57,
31. Matthew J. Streb, ed., Running for Judge: The Rising Political, Financial, and Legal Stakes of Judicial Elections (New York: New York University Press, 2007).
32. “Switzerland,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 2, 2021,; Aubrey Diem et al., “Switzerland,” Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, last updated December 19, 2021,
33. “Judicial Branch,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, accessed December 21, 2021,
34. “Japan,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 14, 2021,
35. “Retention Election,” Ballotpedia, accessed May 25, 2021,
36. “This Day in History: September 24,” Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed May 25, 2021,
37. Elizabeth Jacoway, Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, the Crisis That Shocked the Nation (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2008), 127–133.
38. Eisenhower signed EO 10730 on September 24, “authorizing the Army to subdue a mob.” The order resulted in 856 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division being dispatched to Arkansas. Another 99 soldiers arrived the next day. See Jacoway, Turn Away, 178–179; Elizabeth Jacoway, “Daisy Lee Gatson Bates (1913?–1999): The Quest for Justice,” in Arkansas Women: Their Lives and Times, ed. Cherisse Jones-Branch and Gary T. Edwards (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2018), 209.
39. Gonzales v. Raich, 545 U.S. 352 (2005),
40. “Amdt16.1 Sixteenth Amendment: Historical Background,” Constitution Annotated,, accessed December 21, 2021,
41. Ellen Terrell, “Income Tax Day,” Research Guides, Library of Congress, last updated December 2020,
42. Pamela C. Corely, Artemus Ward, and Wendy L. Martinek, “Implementation and Impact,” in American Judicial Process: Myth and Reality in Law and Courts (New York: Routledge, 2015), 429–452.
43. While the United States is a common law system, note that the state of Louisiana has a hybrid system, utilizing civil law for many state matters because of its origins as a French territory.
44. Albert Roland Kiralfy et al., “Common Law,” Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, last updated October 30, 2020,
45. “Common Law,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, last updated May 2020,
46. “Civil Law vs. Common Law,” Diffen, accessed December 21, 2021,
47. Ibid.
48. For an example of a civil legal system, see this explanation of the system in France: Ministère de la Justice, ed., The French Legal System (Paris: Ministère de la Justice, November 2012),
49. “Sharia Law Countries 2021,” World Population Review, accessed December 21, 2021,
50. “Legal and Judicial Structure,” The Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accessed December 21, 2021,
51. “The Judiciary: The Court System,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State of Israel, last modified June 24, 2021,
52. “Andorra,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 14, 2021,
53. “History & Constitution,” Law Officers of the Crown, Guernsey, last modified November 14, 2017,; “Guernsey,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated December 14, 2021,; “Normandy,” Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, last updated September 27, 2018,
54. Jersey Business Law Handbook, vol. 1, Strategic Information and Laws (Washington, DC: International Business Publications USA, 2013), 16–17.
55. “Guernsey,” World Factbook; “Jurats and the States of Election,” The Royal Court of Guernsey, last modified July 19, 2017,
56. “Tribal Governments,” USLegal, airSlate Legal Forms, accessed December 21, 2021,
57. University of Colorado Law School, Native American Rights Fund, and University of California, Los Angeles, Tribal Implementation Toolkit (Boulder, CO: Native American Rights Fund, 2021),
58. Law Commission, Māori Custom and Values in New Zealand Law, Study Paper 9 (Wellington, New Zealand: Law Commission, 2001),; Nā Carwyn Jones, “Tikanga Māori in NZ Common Law,” New Zealand Law Society / Te Kāhui Ture o Aotearoa, September 15, 2020,
59. “Mixed Legal Systems,” JuriGlobe, University of Ottawa, last updated April 1, 2021,
60. Milagros Santos-Ong, “Update: Philippine Legal Research,” GlobaLex, Hauser Global Law School Program, New York University School of Law, January/February 2020,
61. Muna Ndulo, “African Customary Law, Customs, and Women’s Rights,” Cornell Law Faculty Publications 187 (Winter 2011),
62. “Civil Law vs. Common Law,” Diffen.
63. “The Purposes of Punishment,” Criminal Law (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing, 2015),
64. Rebecca McCray, “Seven International Prisons That Put Rehabilitation before Punishment,” TakePart, Participant Media, April 23, 2015,
65. Sonja Meijer, “Rehabilitation as a Positive Obligation,” European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 25, no. 2 (2017): 145–162,
66. “Principles and Strategies,” Alcohol and Drug Policy Commission,, accessed December 21, 2021,
67. “Death Penalty in 2020: Facts and Figures,” Amnesty International, last modified April 21, 202,
68. “Criminal Justice Systems Around the World,” Criminal Defense Wiki, International Bridges to Justice, las edited December 6, 2021,
69. 18 USC § 3559,
70. To compare French protections of individual rights in a criminal case, see Ministère de la Justice, French Legal System.
71. “Miranda Warning Equivalents Abroad,” Law Library of Congress, Library of Congress, last updated December 30, 2020,
72. United Nations, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Human Rights Standards and Practice for the Police. New York, NY and Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations, 2004,
73. See Christopher Slobogin, “An Empirically Based Comparison of American and European Regulatory Approaches to Police Investigation,” Michigan Journal of International Law 22, issue 3 (2001), for an example of countries with right to privacy protections.
74. For an example of a country with low protections, see David Tate Cicotte, “Saudi Search and Seizure Law Compared with the Fourth Amendment” (2014). Law School Student Scholarship. 453,
75. UN General Assembly, Resolution 43/173, Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, A/RES/43/173 (Dec. 9, 1988),
76. Ibid.
77. “Being arrested: your rights,” Crime, justice and the law, GOV.UK, accessed January 11, 2022,
78. “Criminal Justice,” Factors, WJP Rule of Law Index, World Justice Project, accessed January 11, 2022,
79. “How Courts Work,” Division for Public Education, American Bar Association, September 9, 2019,
80. “Executions of Juveniles Outside of the US,” Juveniles, Policy Issues, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,; “Juveniles and the Death Penalty,” ACLU, accessed January 11, 2022,; “TalkAboutIt: Capital punishment around the world,” ABC News Australia, last updated April 7, 2015,
81. “Countries That Have Abolished the Death Penalty Since 1976,” International, Policy Issues, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,
82. Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).
83. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976); Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 (1976); Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976); Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976); Roberts v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 325 (1976).
84. “States and Capital Punishment,” National Conference of State Legislatures, August 11, 2021,
85. “Federal Death Penalty,” State & Federal Info, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,,six-month%20period%20between%20July%202020%20and%20January%202021.
86. “State by State,” Death Penalty Information Center, last updated June 13, 2019,
87. “States with and without the death penalty—2021,” State by State, State & Federal Info, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,
88. “Summary of Death Penalty Statutes,” Crimes Punishable by Death, Facts & Research, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,
89. “Texas House of Representatives Passes Bill to Limit Death-Penalty Eligibility for Defendants Who Do Not Kill,” News, Death Penalty Information Center, May 7, 2021,
90. Roper, Superintendent, Potosi Correctional Center v. Simmons, 543 US 551 (2005); Daryl Renard Atkins, Petitioner v. Virginia, 536 US 304 (2002).
91. “List of Federal Death Row Prisoners,” State & Federal Info, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,
92. Michael Tarm, “On federal death row, inmates talk about Biden, executions,” APNews, March 22, 2021,; “Capital Punishment,” History, About, Federal Bureau of Prisons, accessed January 11, 2022,
93. “Data on the Death Penalty in the US,” USAFacts, last updated January 13, 2021,
94. “Death Penalty,” Your Human Rights, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, accessed January 11, 2022,
95. Trop v. Dulles, 356 US 86 (1958)
96. “Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty,” Virginians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty, accessed January 11, 2022,, “The Facts: 13 Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty,” Facts, Oregonians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty, accessed January 11, 2022,; “Death penalty: key facts about the situation in Europe and the rest of the world,” World, News, European Parliament, last updated July 28, 2020,
97. “Should Life without Parole Replace the Death Penalty?”, accessed January 11, 2022,
98. “The Innocent and the Death Penalty,” Innocence Project, News, February 10, 2009,,death%20row%20%E2%80%93%20for%20crimes%20they%20didn%E2%80%99t%20commit.
99. “Race and the Death Penalty by the Numbers,” Race, Policy Issues, Death Penalty Information Center, accessed January 11, 2022,
100. United States General Accounting Office, Death Penalty Sentencing: Research Indicates Pattern of Racial Disparities (Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, February 1990), 5,
101. G. R. C. Davis, Magna Carta, Revised Edition, British Library, 1989, accessed January 11, 2022 from “The Text of Magna Carta,” Fordham University,
102. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” About Us, United Nations, accessed January 11, 2022,
103. European Court of Human Rights, “European Convention on Human Rights,” France: Council of Europe, 2013,
104. U.S. Const. amend. V.
105. U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 1.
106. Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306 (1950).
107. Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319 (1976).
108. See the Iranian constitution at
109. “Rule of Law and Justice,” United Nations and the Rule of Law, United Nations, last modified October 8, 2019,
110. “Court Role and Structure,” About Federal Courts, United States Courts, accessed January 11, 2022,
111. “Your Day in Court,” Judicial Learning Center, accessed January 11, 2022,; “How Courts Work,” Division for Public Education, September 9, 2019,
112. “Justice 101,” Offices of the United States Attorneys, accessed January 11, 2022,
113. U.S. Const. amend. V.
114. Katherine A. Currier, Thomas E. Eimermann, and Marisa S. Campbell, “The Court System and the Role of Judges,” in The Study of Law: A Critical Thinking Approach, 5th ed. (New York: Wolters Kluwer, 2020).
115. For an example of a court opinion reversing and rendering a decision, see Medina v. Zuniga,, and Valentine v. Collier, For an example of rules allowing rendition on reversal, see Texas Rules of Appellate Procedure at
116. “About the Supreme Court,” United States Courts, accessed January 11, 2022,
117. Constitutional Council, accessed January 11, 2022,
118. U.S. Const. art. III, VI.
119. “Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation,”, US Government Publishing Office, accessed May 25, 2021,
120. Congress passed 15,817 laws from 1954 to 2002. The Supreme Court ruled 103 of them, a total of two-thirds of 1 percent, unconstitutional. In that same period, state legislatures enacted 1,006,649 laws. The court ruled 452 of those, less than one-twentieth of 1 percent, unconstitutional. The federal government adopted 21,462 regulations from 1986 to 2006. The court held 121 of them, about one-half of 1 percent, unconstitutional. See Clark Neily and Dick M. Carpenter II, Government Unchecked: The False Problem of “Judicial Activism” and the Need for Judicial Engagement (Arlington, VA: Center for Judicial Engagement, September 2011),
121. “Table of Laws Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court,” Constitution Annotated, Library of Congress, accessed May 25, 2021,
122. “Parliament’s Authority,” What is the role of Parliament?, UK Parliament, accessed January 11, 2022,

12 The Media

1. Ronald Hamowy, “Cato’s Letters, John Locke, and the Republican Paradigm,” History of Political Thought 11, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 273–294,-94. Accessed May 18, 2021.
2. David S. Bogen, “The Origins of Freedom of Speech and Press,” Maryland Law Review 42, no. 3 (1983): 429,
3. Doris A. Graber, Mass Media and American Politics, 6th ed. (Washington, DC (Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press, 2002), 2.
4. Thomas Carlyle, “The Hero as a Man of Letters: Johnson, Rousseau, Burns,” in On Heroes, and Hero- Worship, and the Heroic in History (London: James Fraser, Regent Street, 1841), 265 (italics in original).
5. Legal suppression of material prior to its being published or broadcast on the grounds that it is libelous or harmful
6. New York Times Company v. United States, 403 US 713 (1971),
7. Richard Harris, “The Presidency and the Press,” New Yorker, September 24, 1973,
8. Member of Parliament, equivalent to a congressperson in the United States
9. Independent Inquiry Child Sexual Abuse, “The 1979 Rochdale Alternative Paper Articles,” in Cambridge House, Knowl View and Rochdale: Investigation Report (London: Crown, 2018), 25,
10. Elizabeth Howcroft, “British Politicians Covered Up Child Sex Abuse for Decades, Inquiry Finds,” Reuters, February 25, 2020,
11. Timothy Snyder, On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century (New York: Tim Duggan Books, 2017), 65.
12. James Kirchick, “On World Press Freedom Day, Brookings Experts Reflect on the Importance of a Free Press,” Brookings, Brookings Institution, May 3, 2018,
13. “The World Press Freedom Index,” Reporters Without Borders, accessed May 18, 2021,
14. Sam Lebovic, “The Inadequacy of American Press Freedom,” American Historian, August 2018,
15. “The Trump Administration and the Media,” Committee to Protect Journalists, April 16, 2020,
16. Darragh RocheRoch, “Joe Biden Warns Truth Is ‘Under Attack’ in World Press Freedom Day Message,” Newsweek, May 3, 2021,
17. Michael B. Salwen and Bruce Garrison, “Press Freedom and Development: US and Latin American Views,” Journalism Quarterly 66, no. 1 (March 1989): 87–92,
18. Manuel Vega-Gordillo and José L. Álvarez-Arce, “Economic Growth and Freedom: A Causality Study,” Cato Journal 23, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 199–-215; Abdullah Alam and Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, “The Role of Press Freedom in Economic Development: A Global Perspective,” Journal of Media Economics 26, no. 1 (2013): 4–20.
19. Timothy Besley and Robin Burgess, “The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117, no. 4 (November 2002): 1415–1451; Sebastian Freille, M. Emranul Haque, and Richard Kneller, “A Contribution to the Empirics of Press Freedom and Corruption,” European Journal of Political Economy 23, no. 4 (December 2007): 838–862; Shyamal K. Chowdhury, “The Effect of Democracy and Press Freedom on Corruption: An Empirical Test,” Economics Letters 85, no. 1 (October 2004): 93–101.
20. Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (New York: Vintage Books, 19801979), 39.
21. Ibid., 43.
22. Monika Bednarek and Helen Caple, The Discourse of News Values: How News Organizations Create Newsworthiness (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 3.
23. Lisbeth Clausen, Global News Production (Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2003).
24. Cristina Archetti, “Comparing International Coverage of 9/11: Towards an Interdisciplinary Explanation of the Constructionof News,” Journalism 11, no. 5 (October 2010): 567–-588.
25. Vincent Campbell, Information Age Journalism: Journalism in an International Context (London: Arnold, 2004), 123.
26. Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald L. Shaw, “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media,” Public Opinion Quarterly 36, no. 2 (Summer 1972): 176,
27. David Tewksbury and Dietram A. Scheufele, “News Framing Theory and Research,” in Media Effects, Advances in Theory and Research, edited by Mary Beth Oliver, Arthur A. Raney, and Jennings Bryant, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2020), 51.
28. James Devitt, “Framing Gender on the Campaign Trail: Female Gubernatorial Candidates and the Press,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79, no. 2 (June 2002): 445–463.
29. Claes H. De Vreese, Jochen Peter, and Holli A. Semetko, “Framing Politics at the Launch of the Euro: A Cross-National Comparative Study of Frames in the News,” Political Communication 18, no. 2 (2001): 107–122,
30. Jason Daley, “Five Things to Know about the Diamond Sutra, the World’s Oldest Dated Printed Book,” Smithsonian, May 11, 2016,
31. “Printing & Movable Type,” China in 1000 CE: The Most Advanced Society in the World, Asia for Educators, Columbia University, accessed November 2, 2021,
32. Cyndia Susan Clegg, “Tudor Literary Censorship,” Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford University Press, October 2014,; Md Nurus Safa et al., “Blog as a Medium of Freedom of Expression,” International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research 3, no. 1 (June 2014), 1–-9,
33. Theodore J. Lowi et al., American Government:, Power and Purpose, 15th ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2018).
34. “Newspapers Fact Sheet,” Pew Research Center, June 29, 2021,
35. Andy Meek, “Stop Saying Print Journalism Is Dead. 60 Magazines Launched during This Crazy Year,” Forbes, December 30, 2020,
36. H. Iris Chyi, Trial and Error: US Newspapers’ Digital Struggle toward Inferiority, (Pamplona: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, 2013), 80,
37. Hillel Nossek, Hanna Adoni, and Galit Nimrod, “Is Print Really Dying? The State of Print Media Use in Europe,” International Journal of Communication 9 (2015): 365–385,
38. Chava Gourarie, “Print Isis the New ‘New Media,’” Columbia Journalism Review, December 7, 2015,
39. Laura Houston Santhanam and Tom Rosenstiel, Why US Newspapers Suffer More Than Others (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, March 2011), 3,
40. Ibid., 13.
41. Erin Conway-Smith, “Read Allall about It: Newspapers Are Thriving!,” The World, PRX, October 20, 2012,
42. “History of Commercial Radio,” Federal Communications Commission, last modified April 12, 2021,
43. “The Development of Radio,” American Experience, WGBH Educational Foundation, last modified September 23, 2019,
44. Audio Today 2019: How America Listens (New York: Nielsen, June 2019),
45. “World Radio Day Marks Evolution, Innovation and Connection of ‘Vector of Freedom,” UN News, United Nations, February 13, 2021,
46. Seth Berkman, “A Brief History of Television, by Decade,” Newsweek, July 12, 2021,
47. “History of Commercial Radio.”
48. Rita Gunther McGrath, “The Pace of Technology Adoption Is Speeding Up,” Harvard Business Review, November 25, 2013,
49. Amanda D. Lotz, “What Is US Television Now?,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 625 (September 2009): 51,
50. “History: Cable Television,” Make ’Em‘Em Laugh: The Funny Business of America, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, December 1, 2008,
51. Brad Adgate, “The Rise and Fall of Cable Television,” Forbes, November 2, 2020,
52. Lee Rainie, “Cable and Satellite TV Use Has Dropped Dramatically in the US since 2015,” Pew Research Center, March 17, 2021,
53. Kevin Westcott et al., “Digital Media Trends, 15th Edition: Courting the Consumer in a World of Choice,” Deloitte Insights, April 16, 2021,
54. Suneera Tandon, “What Netflix? Indians Are Still Glued to the Idiot Box,” Quartz India, July 28, 2018,
55. Barry M. Leiner et al., Brief History of the Internet (Reston, VA: Internet Society), 1997,
56. “The Birth of the Web,” CERN, Accessed August 17, 2021,
57. “Mobile Fact Sheet,” Pew Research Center, April 7, 2021,
58. Kyle Taylor and Laura Silver, Smartphone Ownership Is Growing Rapidly Around the World, but Not Always Equally (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, 2019), 3,
59. Elisa Shearer, “More Than Eight- in-Ten Americans Get News from Digital Devices,” Pew Research Center, January 12, 2021,
60. Elisa Shearer and Amy Mitchell, News Use across Social Media Platforms in 2020 (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, January 2021), 4–5,
61. Nickie Louise, “These 6 Corporations Control 90% of the Media Outlets in America. The Illusion of Choice and Objectivity,” Tech Startups, September 18, 2020, (Viacom and CBS completed a merger in December 2019.)
62. Eli M. Noam, Media Ownership and Concentration in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 17.
63. Brad Tuttle, “It Takes Jeff Bezos 26 Seconds to Make What One of His Washington Post Employees Earns in a Year,” Money, August 15, 2018,
64. Matt Guardino, “How Corporate Media Mergers Weaken News Coverage,” Scholars Strategy Network, October 22, 2019,
65. Matthew A. Baum and Yuri M. Zhukov, “Media Ownership and News Coverage of International Conflict,” Political Communication 36, no. 1 (2019): 36,
66. Edda Humprecht, “Ownership of News Media,” in The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies, edited by Tim P. Vos et al. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019), 3–4,
67. Mark Cooper, Media Ownership and Democracy in the Digital Information Age: Promoting Diversity with First Amendment Principles and Market Structure Analysis (Stanford, CA: Center for Internet & Society, Stanford Law School), 18,
68. Ibid., 6.
69. Gregory J. Martin and Joshua McCrain, “Local News and National Politics,” American Political Science Review 113, no. 2 (May 2019): 372–384,
70. “Does Ownership Matter in Local Television News?,” Pew Research Center, April 29, 2003,
71. Elda Brogi et al., Monitoring Media Pluralism in the Digital Era: Application of the Media Pluralism Monitor in the European Union, Albania and Turkey in the Years 2018–2019 (Fiesole, Italy: European University Institute, 2020),
72. European Federation of Journalists, Media Power in Europe: The Big Picture of Ownership (Brussels: International Federation of Journalists, 2005), 4,
73. Sue Gardner, Public Broadcasting: Its Past and Its Future (Miami: Knight Foundation, 2017), 3,
74. Ibid., 6–7.
75. Katerina Eva Matsa, “Across Western Europe, Public News Media Are Widely Used and Trusted Sources of News,” Pew Research Center, June 8, 2018,
76. Simeon Djankov et al., “Who Owns the Media?,” Journal of Law & Economics 46, no. 2 (October 2003): 341–382,
77. Jeffrey Gottfried, Michael Barthel, and Amy Mitchell, Trump, Clinton Voters Divided in Their Main Source for Election News (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, January 2017),
78. Howard Dean, “Howard Dean’s Remarks to His Supporters,” New York Times, January 19, 2004,
79. Jack Holmes, “The Dean Scream: An Oral History,” Esquire, January 29, 2016,
80. Joshua Gunn, “On Speech and Public Release,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 13, no. 2 (Summer 2010): 1–41,
81. Shanto Iyengar, Media Politics: A Citizen’s Guide, 3rd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2016), 2.
82. Jeffrey M. Jones, “Americans Feel Informed about the Presidential Election—but Are Lukewarm on Media Coverage,” Knight Foundation, October 28, 2020,
83. Thomas E. Patterson, “News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Primaries: Horse Race Reporting Has Consequences,” Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, July 11, 2016,
84. “2020 State Primary Election Dates,” National Conference of State Legislatures, accessed August 17, 2021,
85. “Parliamentary Elections,” Elections Department Singapore, Government of Singapore, last updated February 16, 2021,
86. Denise-Marie Ordway, “The Consequences of ‘Horse Race’ Reporting: What the Research Says,” The Journalist’s Resource, Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, September 10, 2019,
87. Susan Banducci and Chris Hanretty, “Comparative Determinants of Horse-Race Coverage,” European Political Science Review 6, no. 4 (November 2014): 621–640.
88. Joel Meares, “Jay Rosen in Oz: Horse-Race Journalism an ‘International Phenom,’” Columbia Journalism Review, August 18, 2010,
89. Jesper Strömbäck and Daniela V. Dimitrova, “Political and Media Systems Matter: A Comparison of Election News Coverage in Sweden and the United States,” International Journal of Press/Politics 11, no. 4 (Fall 2006): 131–147.
90. Thomas E. Patterson, “News Coverage of the 2016 General Election: How the Press Failed the Voters,” Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, December 7, 2016,
91. Agnieszka Dobrzynska, André Blais, and Richard Nadeau, “Do the Media Have a Direct Impact on the Vote? The Case of the 1997 Canadian Election,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 15, no. 1 (March 2003): 27–43.
92. Martin Fackler, “The Silencing of Japan’s Free Press,” Foreign Policy, May 27, 2016,
93. Azam Ahmed, “Using Billions in Government Cash, Mexico Controls News Media,” New York Times, December 25, 2017,
94. Ibid..
95. Stephen Ansolabehere, Roy Behr, and Shanto Iyengar, “Mass Media and Elections: An Overview,” American Politics Quarterly 19, no. 1 (January 1991): 109.
96. Jacques Gerstlé and Alessandro Nai, “Negativity, Emotionality and Populist Rhetoric in Election Campaigns Worldwide, and Their Effects on Media Attention and Electoral Success,” European Journal of Communication 34, no. 4 (August 2019): 431,
97. Neil T. Gavin, “Media Definitely Do Matter: Brexit, Immigration, Climate Change and Beyond,” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 20, no. 4 (November 2018): 827–845,
98. Nicholas Confessore, “Cambridge Analytica and Facebook: The Scandal and the Fallout So Far,” New York Times, April 4, 2018,
99. James Walker, “Trump Almost Doubles Biden's Facebook Spending after Signing Social Media Order,” Newsweek, July 2, 2020,
100. Domenico Montanaro, “Presidential Campaign TV Ad Spending Crosses $1 Billion Mark in Key States,” NPR, October 13, 2020,
101. R. Spencer Oliver, “The Danish Way of Elections,” Hill, September 16, 2011,
102. Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, “In German Election, Campaign Posters Are More Important Than TV Ads,” Parallels, NPR, September 23, 2017,
103. Fred Wertheimer, “TV Ad Wars: How to Cut Advertising Costs in Political Campaigns,” in Points of View: Readings in American Government and Politics, edited by Robert E. DiClerico and Allan S. Hammock, 11th ed. (Boston: McGraw- Hill, 2009), 90.
104. Stephen Ansolabehere and Shanto Iyengar, Going Negative: How Political Advertisements Shrink and Polarize the Electorate (New York: Free Press, 1997), 112.
105. Kim Fridkin Kahn and Patrick J. Kenney, “Do Negative Campaigns Mobilize or Suppress Turnout? Clarifying the Relationship between Negativity and Participation,” American Political Science Review 93, no. 4 (December 1999): 877–889,
106. Michael D. Martinez and Tad Delegal, “The Irrelevance of Negative Campaigns to Political Trust: Experimental and Survey Results,” Political Communication 7, no.1 (1990): 25–40.
107. Richard R. Lau, Lee Sigelman, and Ivy Brown Rovner, “The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: A Meta-Analytic Reassessment,” Journal of Politics 69, no. 4 (November 2007): 1176–1209,; Robert A. Jackson, Jeffery J. Mondak, and Robert Huckfeldt, “Examining the Possible Corrosive Impact of Negative Advertising on Citizens’ Attitudes toward Politics,” Political Research Quarterly 62, no. 1 (March 2009): 55–69,; Richard R. Lau and Ivy Brown Rovner, “Negative Campaigning,” Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009): 285–306,
108. Gina M. Garramone, “Voter Responses to Negative Political Ads,” Journalism Quarterly 61, no. 2 (June 1984): 250–259; Neal J. Roese and Gerald N. Sande, “Backlash Effects in Attack Politics,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 23, no. 8 (1993): 632–653.
109. Gene R. Laczniak and Clarke L. Caywood, “The Case for and against Televised Political Advertising: Implications for Research and Public Policy,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 6 (1987): 16–32,
110. Jana Garanko, “Top 10 Most Popular Politicians on Social Media,” The SEO, SEM, PPC and Content Marketing Blog, Semrush, February 21, 2020,
111. Another way to understand this is through Metcalfe’s law, which states that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system.
112. “Top Online News Sites,” University Library Subject & Course Guides, Washington and Lee University Library, Summer 2015,
113. Jessica Stillman, “New Survey Shows Twice as Many Kids Want to Be YouTubers as Astronauts. Here’s Why That’s Terrifying,” Inc., August 8, 2019,
114. Charli d’Amelio (@charlidamelio), TikTok,
115. Jethro Nededog, “The 20 Most-Watched TV Show Finales of All Time, Ranked,” Business Insider, May 16, 2017,
116. Brian D. Loader et al., “Campus Politics, Student Societies and Social Media,” Sociological Review 63, no. 4 (November 2015): 837.
117. Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2008).
118. Clay Shirky, “The Political Power of Social Media: Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change,” Foreign Affairs 90, no.1 (January/February 2011): 30.
119. Jose Antonio Vargas, “Spring Awakening,” New York Times, February 17, 2012,
120. See Wael Ghonim, Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People Is Greater Than the People in Power (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012).
121. Emily Parker, Now I Know Who My Comrades Are: Voices from the Internet Underground, (New York: Sarah Crichton Books, 2014), 7.
122. Ibid., 6.
123. Kiran Garimella et al., “Political Discourse on Social Media: Echo Chambers, Gatekeepers, and the Price of Bipartisanship,” in WWW ’18: Proceedings of the 2018 World Wide Web Conference (Geneva: International World Wide Web Conference Committee, 2018), 913–922,
124. Cass R. Sunstein, 2.0 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 13.
125. Pablo Barberá, “Social Media, Echo Chambers, and Political Polarization,” in Social Media and Democracy: The State of the Field and Prospects for Reform, edited by Nathaniel Persily and Joshua A. Tucker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020), 34–55.
126. Anatoliy Gruzd and Jeffrey Roy, “Investigating Political Polarization on Twitter: A Canadian Perspective,” Policy & Internet 6, no. 1 (March 2014): 28–45.
127. Alexander Hanna et al., “Partisan Alignments and Political Polarization Online: A Computational Approach to Understanding the French and US Presidential Elections,” in PLEAD ’13: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Politics, Elections and Data (New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2013), 15–22,
128. Max Grömping, “‘Echo Chambers’: Partisan Facebook Groups during the 2014 Thai Election,” Asia Pacific Media Educator 24, no. 1 (June 2014): 39–59,
129. Frank Newport, “The Impact of Increased Political Polarization,” Gallup, December 5, 2019,
130. Peter Van Aelst et al., “Political Communication in a High-Choice Media Environment: A Challenge for Democracy?,” Annals of the International Communication Association 41, no. 1 (2017): 12,
131. David Schkade, Cass R. Sunstein, and Reid Hastie, “What Happened on Deliberation Day?,” California Law Review 95, no. 3 (June 2007): 915–940,
132. James Andrew Lewis, “A Short Discussion of the Internet’s Effect on Politics,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, January 29, 2021,
133. Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral, “The Spread of True and False News Online,” Science 359, no. 6380 (March 2018): 1146–1151,
134. Shannon Bond, “Just 12 People Are Behind Most Vaccine Hoaxes on Social Media, Research Shows,” Untangling Disinformation, NPR, updated May 14, 2021,; The Disinformation Dozen: Why Platforms Must Act on Twelve Leading Online Anti-Vaxxers (Center for Countering Digital Hate, 2021),
135. Christina Nemr and William Gangware, Weapons of Mass Distraction: Foreign State-Sponsored Disinformation in the Digital Age (Park Advisors, March 2019),
136. Lianne Chin-Fook and Heather Simmonds, “Redefining Gatekeeping Theory for a Digital Generation,” McMaster Journal of Communication 8 (2011): 7–34,
137. Yariv Tsfati and Gal Ariely, “Individual and Contextual Correlates of Trust in Media across 44 Countries,” Communication Research 41, no. 6 (August 2014): 760–782,
138. Tien-Tsung Lee, “Why They Don’t Trust the Media: An Examination of Factors Predicting Trust,” American Behavioral Scientist 54, no. 1 (September 2010): 8–21,
139. Zacc Ritter, “How Much Does the World Trust Journalists?,” Gallup, December 27, 2019,
140. Anne E. Wilson, Victoria A. Parker, and Matthew Feinberg, “Polarization in the Contemporary Political and Media Landscape,” Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 34 (August 2020): 226,
141. Meredith Conroy, “Why Being ‘Anti-Media’ Is Now Part of the GOP Identity,” FiveThirtyEight, ABC News, April 5, 2021,
142. Indicators of News Media Trust: A Gallup/Knight Foundation Survey (Washington, DC: Gallup, 2018), 1,
143. Amy Mitchell et al., Political Polarization & Media Habits: From Fox News to Facebook, How Liberals and Conservatives Keep Up with Politics (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, October 2014),
144. See Meredith Conroy.
145. Lee H. Hamilton, “We Need an Informed Citizenry,” Journal of Civic Literacy 2, no. 1 (2015): 2,
146. Mohamed A. El-Erian, “Why Retaining Trust in Institutions Matters,” World Economic Forum, October 9, 2017,
147. John Sands, “Public Confidence in the Media Is Sliding, but Newsrooms Can Win It Back,” Knight Foundation, September 15, 2020,
148. Typically, guests who discuss issues on television or the radio who do not engage in journalistic practices that result in unbiased or fact-based reporting
149. Elizabeth Jensen, “Looking to the Future: Restoring Public Trust in the Media,” NPR Public Editor, NPR, May 15, 2017,
150. Best practices, journalistic expertise, type of work, citations and references, methods, local sourcing, diverse voices, and actionable feedback
151. The Trust Project, accessed November 2, 2021,
152. Johannes von Dohnanyi and Christian Möller, The Impact of Media Concentration on Professional Journalism (Vienna: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 2003),
153. Steven Waldman, “How to Fix the Media Ownership Debate,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 20, 2012,
154. “About,” First Draft, accessed November 2, 2021,

13 Governing Regimes

1. Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York: Routledge, 2009).
2. Weber, Essays in Sociology.
3. Individual government officials may have an incentive to break these rules. Former president Richard Nixon, for electoral reasons, among others, broke the law and so acted without authority. His illegal actions were discovered, and he resigned before being impeached and removed from office by Congress. See Frank O. Bowmann III, High Crimes and Misdemeanors: A History of Impeachment for the Age of Trump, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019. Donald Trump also faced allegations that he was driven by considerations of electoral advantage to break federal laws, and he was impeached (but not removed from office) twice on that basis. For a recent survey of the range of allegations of unlawful behavior during Trump’s presidency designed to enhance his reelection prospects, see a 2021 report by Henry Kerner of the Office of the Special Counsel, who asserts there was a “concerted willful effort to violate the law by the most senior officers in the White House” during Trump’s presidency. US Office of Special Counsel, Investigation of Political Activities by Senior Trump Administration Officials during the 2020 Presidential Election, November 9, 2021, The Trump administration denied any legal wrongdoing in these matters. Andrea Shalal, “Federal Watchdog Probing Trump Campaign’s Use of White House – Lawmaker,” Reuters, November 25, 2020,
4. Mark P. Keightley, “Why Subsidize Homeownership? A Review of Rationales,” Congressional Research Service, September 6, 2019,; Laurie S. Goodman and Christopher Meyer, “Homeownership and the American Dream,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 32, no. 1 (2018): 31–58; Kim R. Manturuk, Mark Lindblad, and Roberto G. Quercia, A Place Called Home: The Social Dimensions of Homeownership (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), xii–xvii.
5. Ulrik Boesen, “Sugar Taxes Back on the Menu,” Tax Foundation, February 18, 2021,
6. Eyder Peralta, “Obama Goes It Alone, Shielding up to 5 Million Immigrants from Deportation,” NPR, November 20, 2014,
7. Christina Bobb of the far right One America Network, for example, asserts that “we can all now see that Joe Biden is not a legitimate president.” “OAN Host: Joe Biden Is Not a Legitimate President and We Do Not Have a Legitimate Executive Branch in Power Right Now,” Media Matters for America, April 26, 2021,
8. Bobb, for example, goes on to say that Biden and his supporters “devised an evil [and illegal] scheme to steal our election.” Media Matters, “Joe Biden Is Not a Legitimate President.”
9. “Far Too Little Vote Fraud to Tip Election to Trump, AP Finds,” US News & World Report, December 14, 2021,
10. “Election Integrity: 62% Don’t Think Voter ID Laws Discriminate,” Rasmussen Reports, April 13, 2021,
11. France, La Constitution du 4 octobre 1958, Const. Art. 16,; Loi n° 55-385 du 3 avril 1955 relative à l’état d’urgence,
12. Loi n° 55-385 du 3 avril 1955 relative à l’état d’urgence,
13. France, La Constitution du 4 octobre 1958, Const. Art. 16,
14. In 2020, France also declared a state of emergency to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.
15. Basic Law Art. 139(c); The Minerva Center for the Rule of Law under Extreme Conditions, Law and Emergencies: A Comparative Overview, January 2016,
16. Basic Law Art. 139(c); Minerva Center, Law and Emergencies.
17. Law and Administration Ordinance Art. 9(a), 1 Laws of the State of Israel [Laws St. Isr.] 7 (1948) (enacted May 19, 1948); Minerva Center, Law and Emergencies.
18. Minerva Center, Law and Emergencies.
19. “Defense (Emergency) Regulations,” The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories,
20. “Declaring a State of Emergency,” The Knesset,; Ahaz Ben Ari and Meir Elran, “States of Emergency: Legal Aspects and Implications for the Corona Crisis in Israel,” INSS Insight, no. 1292, April 5, 2020,; “Knesset Extends State of Emergency in Israel by Another Year,” Knesset News, August 3, 2021,; “Defense (Emergency) Regulations,” Israeli Information Center.
21. Myriam Feinberg, “States of Emergency in France and Israel—Terrorism, ‘Permanent Emergencies,’ and Democracy,” Z Politikwiss 28 (2018): 495–506.
22. “The Makings of a ‘Constitutional Dictator,’” Martial Law Museum,
23. “Constitutional Dictator,” Martial Law Museum.
24. “Declaration of Martial Law,” Official Gazette,
25. “Philippine Constitutions,” Official Gazette,; “1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines,” Official Gazette,; Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Philippines: Martial Law,”
26. “Constitutional Dictator,” Martial Law Museum (emphasis in original).
27. “A History of the Philippine Political Protest,” Official Gazette,; Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Philippines: Martial Law.”
28. National Institutes of Health, “Underage Drinking: Possession/Consumption/Internal Possession,” Alcohol Policy Information System,
29. Kim Lane Scheppele, “Law in a Time of Emergency: States of Exception and the Temptations of 9/11,” Journal of Constitutional Law 6, no. 5 (2004): 1–75, 3.
30. Joseph Ellis has recently argued that not much more than a general notion that America should be independent of the British Empire united the American revolutionaries, who disagreed over why independence was necessary and what an independent America should look like. Joseph Ellis, The Cause: The American Revolution ad Its Discontents, 1773–1783 (New York: Liveright, 2021).
31. Weber, Essays in Sociology.
32. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Ruhollah Khomeini,”; Ghulam-Rida A’wani, The Wine of Love, Mystical Poetry of Imam Khomeini (Morrisville, NC: Lulu Press),
33. Vanessa Martin, Creating the Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran (London: I. B. Tauris, 2003).
34. Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufactured Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon, 2002). Herman and Chomsky focus on the work of media elites to shape the population’s sentiments, but the term can be broadened to refer to the state’s attempt to do the same.
35. “Monopolizing the Media and Information Flows,” Human Rights Watch,
36. Paval Usau, “Ideology of Belarusian State Propaganda Mechanisms,” in Belarusian Society, 2007: Hopes, Illusions, Perspectives, ed. Marta Pejda (Madison, WI: East European Democratic Centre of the University of Wisconsin, 2007), 40–45; “Freedom on the Net 2021: Belarus,” Freedom House,
37. “Belarus: More Media Censorship and Control with New Amendments of the Media Law,” European Federation of Journalists,
38. Artyom Shraibman, The House That Lukashenko Built: The Foundation, Evolution, and Future of the Belarusian Regime (Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center, 2018),
39. Lothar Brock, Hans-Hendrik Holm, Georg Sorenon, and Michael Stohl, Fragile States (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2012).
40. Mujib Mashal, “How the Taliban Outlasted a Superpower: Tenacity and Carnage,” The New York Times, January 15, 2021,
41. Ignacio Fuente Cobo, Somalia: Picturing a Fragile State. The Existential Crisis of the Somali State (II) (Spanish Institute of Strategic Studies, 2015),
42. Kenneth R. Rutherford, Humanitarianism under Fire: The US and U.N. Intervention in Somalia (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008).
43. “Somalia Postpones Long-Delayed Election,” France 24, July 25, 2021,
44. This distinction has been drawn by scholars for several decades. Edwin A. Winckler, “Institutionalization and Participation on Taiwan: From Hard to Soft Authoritarianism?” The China Quarterly 99 (1984): 481–499.
45. “Global Democracy Has a Very Bad Year,” The Economist, February 2, 2021,
46. “Demands for Democratic Reform Surge in Thailand,” NPR, August 17, 2020,
47. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Arab Spring,”
48. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Morocco,”; Tarik El Barakah, “Parties Campaign Ahead of Morocco’s Pivotal Elections,” AP News, September 7, 2021,
49. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Morocco”; Morocco’s Constitution of 2011, trans. Jefri J. Ruchti (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co., 2012),
50. Anour Boukhars, Politics in Morocco: Executive Monarchy and Enlightened Authoritarianism (Abingdon, England: Routledge, 2011).
51. “2017 Human Rights Report Communiqué,” US Embassy & Consulates in Morocco, March 3, 2017,
52. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Kim Il-Sung,”
53. Sung Chul Yang, The North and South Korean Political Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis, 2019), 270.
54. Korea North: Energy Policy, Laws and Regulations Handbook, Volume 1: Strategic Information and Developments (Alexandria, VA: International Business Publications, 2018), 71.; “Freedom in the World 2018: North Korea,” Freedom House,
55. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “North Korea: Local Government,”
56. Heonik K. Kwon and Byung-Ho Chung, North Korea: Beyond Charismatic Politics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012).
57. Eleanor Albert, “North Korea’s Power Structure,” Council on Foreign Relations, June 17, 2020,; Kongdan Oh and Ralph Hassig, North Korea in a Nutshell: A Contemporary Overview (Lanhan, MD; Rowman and Littlefield, 2021).
58. William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis, 2018),; “Pilgrimage to Karbala,” PBS, March 26, 2007,; Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Twelver Shi‘ah,”
59. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Iran: Government and Society,”; “The Structure of Power in Iran,” Frontline,; Karim Sadjadpour, “The Supreme Leader,” The Iran Primer, October 2, 2010,
60. Martin, Creating the Islamic State; Abbas Milani calls the Iranian regime “paradoxical” due to its combination of institutions meant to ensure strict religious rule and more democratic branches of government. Abbas Milani, “The Authoritarian Resurgence: Iran’s Paradoxical Regime,” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 2 (2015): 52–60.
61. Gunes Murat Tezcur, “Democratic Struggles and Authoritarian Responses in Iran in Contemporary Perspective” in Middle Eastern Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran, eds. Steven Heydermann and Reinold Leenders (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013).
62. Wolfgang Renzsch, “German Federalism in Historical Perspective: Federalism as a Substitute for a National State,” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 19, no. 4 (1989): 17–33.
63. Arthur B. Gunlicks, Comparing Liberal Democracies: The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the European Union (Bloomington, IN; iUniverse, 2011).
64. S. E. Finer, The History of Government from the Earliest Times, 3 vols. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999).
65. “The Knesset,” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs,; Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Israel: Government of Israel,”
66. “Elections for the Knesset,” The Knesset,; Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, “Knesset”
67. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Knesset.”
68. “Israeli Democracy-How Does It Work,” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
69. “Israeli Elections: Electoral History,” Jewish Virtual Library,; “Twentieth Knesset,” The Knesset,
70. “Israel Election Results: Most Ultra-Orthodox Leaders Declare They Will Back Netanyahu for Prime Minister,” Haaertz, March 28, 2021,; “Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Community in Israel: Facts and Figures,” Jewish Virtual Library,
71. Guy Grossman and Devorah Manekin, “An Islamist Party Is Part of Israel’s New Coalition Government. How Did That Happen?” Washington Post, June 7, 2021,
72. Thomas West, The Political Theory of the American Founding: Natural Rights, Public Policy, and the Moral Conditions of Freedom (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017).
73. “The Mexican Electoral System,” Instituto Nacional Electoral,; Matthew C. Ingram and Diane Kapiszewki, Beyond High Courts: The Justice Complex in Latin America (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2019),
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78. Paul Krugman, “Hungary’s Constitutional Revolution,” The New York Times, December 19, 2011,
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81. Nicholas Kulish, “Foes of Hungary’s Government Fear ‘Demolition of Democracy,’” The New York Times, 21 December 2011,
82. Prabhash K Dutta, “‘Love Jihad’ Undefined, Yet States Rushing with Anti-Conversion Laws,” India Today, November 18, 2020,; Ghazala Jamil, “India’s ‘Love Jihad’ Anti-Conversion Laws Aim to Further Oppress Minorities, and It’s Working,” The Conversation, September 3, 2021,
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86. Harrison Atkins, Policy Update: Pakistan’s Blasphemy Law (Washington, DC: United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, 2019),
87. “Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws,” BBC.

14 International Relations

1. L. Yoon, “North Korea’s Share of Military Expenditure in GDP 2018–2020,” Statista, Accessed February 4, 2022.
2. Darrell M. West and Christian Lansang, “Global Manufacturing Scorecard: How the US Compares to 18 Other Nations,” Brookings, July 10, 2018,
3. Guorui Fan and Jiaxin Zou, “Refreshing China’s Labor Education in the New Era: Policy Review on Education through Physical Labor,” ECNU Review of Education 3, no. 1 (2020): 169–78. doi:10.1177/2096531120903878.
4. “U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua, 1911/1912,” US Department of State,
5. Suzanne Maloney, “1979: Iran and America,” Brookings, January 24, 2019,
6. Gary Pruitt, “Putin Says Russia Didn’t Meddle in US Vote, despite Evidence,” AP News, April 20, 2021,
7. “U.S. Relations with Taiwan.” US Department of State, August 31, 2018,
8. “Support of Taiwan Independence Could Spark U.S. Military Conflict with China—Chinese Ambassador,” Reuters, January 28, 2022,
9. Douglas Holt, John Quelch, and Earl L. Taylor, “How Global Brands Compete,” Harvard Business Review, September 1, 2004,
10. Salman Ahmed and Alexander Bick, Trump’s National Security Strategy: A New Brand of Mercantilism? (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2017),
11. René Grotenhuis, Nation-Building as Necessary Effort in Fragile States (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2016),
12. Martin Gelin, “Japan Radically Increased Immigration—and No One Protested,” Foreign Policy, Accessed February 4, 2022,
13. Adeed Dawisha, “Nation and Nationalism: Historical Antecedents to Contemporary Debates,” International Studies Review 4, no. 1 (2002): 3–22.
14. Roha Yousaf, “Colonialism in Asia,” Abstract, 2021,
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16. Warren Coats, “The Future of the International Monetary Fund,” Economic and Political Weekly 43, no. 35 (2008): 72–73.
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18. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations, 1948,
19. “Top International Official in Bosnia Bans Denial of Genocide,” AP News, July 23, 2021,
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21. “Rigging the System: Government Policies Co-Opt Aid and Reconstruction Funding in Syria,” Human Rights Watch, June 28, 2019,; Natasha Hall, “How the Assad Regime Systematically Diverts Tens of Millions in Aid,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, October 2021,
22. Silviya Lechner, “Anarchy in International Relations,” in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2017),
23. Andrew Rudalevige, “If the Iran Deal Had Been a Senate-Confirmed Treaty, Would Trump Have Been Forced to Stay In? Nope,” Washington Post, May 9, 2018,; “Iran Nuclear Deal: What It All Means,” BBC News, November 23, 2021,; Kali Robinson, “What Is the Iran Nuclear Deal?” Council on Foreign Relations, Updated August 18, 2021,
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38. Robert Jervis, “Realism, Neoliberalism, and Cooperation: Understanding the Debate,” International Security 24, no. 1 (1999): 42–63.
39. Michael W. Doyle, “Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Part 2,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 12, no. 4 (1983): 323–53.
40. Jervis, “Realism, Neoliberalism, and Cooperation.”
41. Brian Frederking, “Constructing Post-Cold War Collective Security,” The American Political Science Review 97, no. 3 (2003): 363–78.
42. Waheeda Rana, “Theory of Complex Interdependence: A Comparative Analysis of Realist and Neoliberal Thoughts,” International Journal of Business and Social Science 6, no. 2 (2015): 8.
43. René Grotenhuis, Nation-Building as Necessary Effort in Fragile States (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2016),
44. Robert Maxwell Morrison, “An Analysis: Complex Interdependence and the Chinese-United States Cyber Relationship” (master’s thesis, Virginia Tech, 2018), 86.
45. “US Diplomats to Boycott 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics,” BBC News, December 7, 2021,
46. Alexander Wendt, “Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics” International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 391–425; Maja Zehfuss, Constructivism in International Relations: The Politics of Reality (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
47. Robin Wright, “Russia and China Unveil a Pact Against America and the West,” The New Yorker, February 7, 2022,; Brandon K. Yoder, “Theoretical Rigor and the Study of Contemporary Cases: Explaining Post-Cold War China-Russia Relations,” International Politics 57 (2020): 741–59,; Elizabeth Wishnick, “In Search of the ‘Other’ in Asia: Russia–China Relations Revisited,” The Pacific Review 30, no. 1 (2017): 114–32, DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2016.1201129.
48. Wright, “Russia and China.”
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50. Vendulka Kubálková and Albert Cruickshank, Marxism-Leninism and Theory of International Relations (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980).
51. Miguel Reyes Hernández and Miguel Alejandro López, “Dependency Theory in Latin American History,” in Oxford Bibliographies Online, Updated January 15, 2019,
52. Christopher Chase-Dunn and Marilyn Grell-Brisk, “World-System Theory,” in Oxford Bibliographies Online, Updated November 26, 2019,
53. Diana Thornburn, “Feminism Meets International Relations,” SAIS Review 20, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 2000): 1-10.
54. Alise Coen, “Can’t Be Held Responsible: Weak Norms and Refugee Protection Evasion,” International Relations 35, no. 2 (June 2021): 341–62.
55. “Maya Sen,” Harvard University, Accessed December 14, 2021.

15 International Law and International Organizations

1. Salifa Karapetyan, “How Much Tuna? Seychelles, IOTC Meets on Sustainability of Vital Industry,” Seychelles News Agency, March 9, 2021,
2. “What Is Global Governance?” Global Challenges Foundation, accessed January 25, 2022,
3. Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162, no. 3859 (December 1968): 1243–1248, DOI: 10.1126/science.162.3859.1243; see also Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity.
4. “United Nations Treaty Collection,” accessed January 25, 2022,
5. “Law of the Sea,” Audiovisual Library of International Law, United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,; John Norton Moore, “Navigational Freedom: The Most Critical Common Heritage,” International Law Studies 93 (2017): 251–260.
6. “Genocide,” United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, accessed January 25, 2022,
7. “What Are Human Rights?” United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, accessed January 25, 2022,
8. “What Is R2P?” Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, accessed January 25, 2022,
9. “Responsibility to Protect,” United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, accessed January 25, 2022,
10. Giavanna O’Connell, “How China Is Violating Human Rights Treaties and Its Own Constitution in Xinjiang,” Just Security, August 19, 2020,; “World Court Rules Against Myanmar on Rohingya,” Human Rights Watch, January 23, 2020,
11. Louise Kettle, “A New World Order: The Importance of the 1991 Gulf War,” Ballots & Bullets, School of Politics & International Relations, University of Nottingham, January 19, 2016,
12. “List of All Cases,” International Court of Justice, accessed January 25, 2022,
13. “ICC Situations and Cases,” Coalition for the International Criminal Court, accessed January 25, 2022,
14. “The US-ICC Relationship,” International Criminal Court Project, accessed January 25, 2022,
15. Heath Pickering, “Why Do States Mostly Obey International Law?” E-International Relations, February 4, 2014,
16. “Member States,” United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,
17. “Members and Observers,” World Trade Organization, accessed January 25, 2022,
18. “Countries Not in the United Nations,” World Population Review, accessed January 25, 2022,
19. “United Nations Charter: Preamble,” United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,
20. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,
21. “Women Who Shaped the Universal Declaration,” United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,,Universal%20Declaration%20of%20Human%20Rights.
22. “The UN System Organizations,” United Nations Global Marketplace, accessed January 25, 2022,
23. Quoted in “ECOSCO 75: Taking Action for a More Sustainable World,” United Nations, July 13, 2021,
24. “Sustainable Development,” United Nations, accessed January 25, 2022,
25. United Nations, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines. New York: United Nations, 2008,
26. “Our History,” United Nations Peacekeeping, accessed January 25, 2022,
27. “Triple Billion Dashboard,” World Health Organization, accessed January 25, 2022,,measurement%20and%20a%20policy%20strategy.
28. “Who We Are,” The World Bank, accessed January 25, 2022,
29. “Themes/Topics,” International Development Association, The World Bank Group, accessed January 25, 2022,
30. Amitava Chandra, “Ending Extreme Poverty and Promoting Shared Prosperity,” The World Bank, April 19, 2013,
31. “The WTO,” World Trade Organization, accessed January 25, 2022,
32. “The WTO’s 25 Years of Achievement and Challenges,” World Trade Organization, January 1, 2020,
33. “Scale of Assessments, 1946–2021,” United Nations,; “How We Are Funded,” United Nations Peacekeeping, accessed January 25, 2022,
34. “Space Law: Resolutions,” United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, accessed January 25, 2022,
35. Aaron Maasho, “African Union Suspends Egypt,” Reuters, July 5, 2013,
36. “Global Military Expenditure Sees Largest Annual Increase in a Decade—Says SIPRI—Reaching $1917 Billion in 2019,” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, April 27, 2020,,growth%20in%20spending%20since%202010.
37. “The North Atlantic Treaty,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, last updated April 10, 2019,
38. “A Short History of NATO,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, accessed January 25, 2022,
39. Seth Johnston, “NATO’s Lessons from Afghanistan,” Parameters 49, no. 3 (Autumn 2019): 11–26,
40. “The Warsaw Declaration on Transatlantic Security,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, last updated July 9, 2016,
41. Jonathan Masters, “The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),” Council on Foreign Relations, last updated May 6, 2021,
42. John Haltiwanger, “Trump Keeps Criticizing NATO Allies over Spending. Here’s How NATO’s Budget Actually Works,” Business Insider, last updated December 2, 2019,
43. Rodrigo Tavares, Regional Security: The Capacity of International Organizations, New York: Routledge, 2010.
44. “United Nations Shares Responsibility for Peace with Regional Organizations, Says Secretary-General, Opening All-Day Security Council Debate,” UN Security Council, August 18, 2015, accessed January 25, 2022,
45. “Factsheet: What Is the OSCE?” Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, December 5, 2019,,that%20makes%20a%20lasting%20difference.
46. “The African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA),” African Union, last updated October 2, 2012,
47. “Aims and Values,” European Union, accessed January 25, 2022,
48. “EUR-Lex: Access to European Law,” European Union,
49. Étienne Bassot, Ten Issues to Watch in 2021 (Brussels: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2021),
50. “Subject Dossier: Tensions within the European Union,” Institute for the World Economy, accessed January 25, 2022,
51. Kristin Archick, “The European Union: Ongoing Challenges and Future Prospects,”, October 27, 2015–December 3, 2018,
52. Javier Solana, “European Foreign Policy and Its Challenges in the Current Context,” in The Search for Europe: Contrasting Approaches (Madrid: BBVA, 2015),
53. “The 10 Major Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economy,” Institute for Cultural Relations Policy, September 13, 2020,
54. Sarah DiLorenzo, “Mercosur Trade Bloc Suspends Venezuela on Democracy Concerns,” AP News, August 5, 2017,
55. Irene Mia, “The Pacific Alliance at 10: What’s Next?” International Institute for Strategic Studies, September 30, 2021,
56. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,
57. “Battle-Related Deaths in State-Based Conflicts, 1946 to 2016” Our World in Data,
58. “Regional Intergovernmental Organizations Pledge to Support Cultural Sector,” UNESCO, April 21, 2020,
59. “The Yearbook of International Organizations,” Union of International Associations, accessed January 25, 2022,; “Human Rights Activism and the Role of NGOs,” Council of Europe, accessed January 25, 2022,
60. Tom Esslemont, “Exclusive: Which Aid Relief Charities Spend the Most on Fundraising?” Reuters, July 14, 2015,
61. “Figures at a Glance,” UNHCR,
62. “Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs),” USAID, last updated December 9, 2019,
63. “Global Assault on NGOs Reaches Crisis Point as New Laws Curb Vital Human Rights Work,” Amnesty International, February 21, 2019,
64. Peter Willetts, “The Role of NGOs in Global Governance,” World Politics Review, September 27, 2011,
65. “About,” Committee of Religious NGOs at the United Nations, accessed February 3, 2022,
66. Jeffery Huffines, “The Role of N.G.O.S in U.S. Ratification of Human Rights Treaties,” ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law 3, no. 641 (1997): 641-652,
67. “NGOs and the United Nations: Comments for the Report of the Secretary General,” Global Policy Forum, June 1999,,documents%20in%20Resolution%201996%2F31.
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69. Peter Willetts, “The Role of NGOs in Global Governance,” World Politics Review, September 27, 2011,
70. Sarah Stroup, NGOs’ Interactions with States (New York: Routledge, 2019),
71. Billy Cheung, “What Countries Are Most Multinational Corporations Based In?” Investopedia, last updated August 13, 2020,
72. In Song Kim and Helen V. Milner, “Multinational Corporations and Their Influence through Lobbying on Foreign Policy,” in Global Goliaths: Multinational Corporations in the 21st Century, eds. C. Fritz Foley, James R. Hines, Jr., and David Wessel (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2021), 497–536.
73. Parag Khanna, “These 25 Companies Are More Powerful Than Many Countries,” Foreign Policy, March/April 2016,
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75. Alex Gray, “These Are the World’s 10 Biggest Corporate Giants,” World Economic Forum, January 16, 2017,
76. Cheung, “What Countries.”
77. Parag Khanna, “These 25 Companies Are More Powerful Than Many Countries,” Foreign Policy, March/April 2016,
78. Song Kim and Helen V. Milner, “Multinational Corporations and Their Influence through Lobbying on Foreign Policy,” forthcoming in Multinational Corporations in a Changing Global Economy (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution),
79. Jonas Borgmeier, “Addressing the Global Governance Deficit—Contributions of Corporate Social Responsibility and the UN Global Compact,” November 16, 2020,
80. United Nations Global Compact,
81. Ryan Griffiths, “60 or So Secessionist Movements around the World Want Independence in 2020. Guess Which One Might Succeed.” Washington Post, January 3, 2020,
82. German Kim, “Irredentism in Disputed Territories and Its Influence on the Border Conflicts and Wars,” The Journal of Territorial and Maritime Studies 3, no. 1 (2016): 87–101.
83. “The Global Religious Landscape,” Pew Research Center, December 18, 2012,
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97. United Nations Security Council,

16 International Political Economy

1. United Nations, “UN Climate Change Conference UK 2021,” October 2021,
2. “#cop26,” Instagram hashtag,
3. Joseph E. Uscinski, “When Does the Public’s Issue Agenda Affect the Media’s Issue Agenda (and Vice-Versa)? Developing a Framework for Media-Public Influence,” Social Science Quarterly 90, no. 4 (December 2009): 796–815,
4. Jonathan Watts, “Key Cop26 Pledges Could Put World 9% Closer to 1.5C Pathway,” The Guardian, November 11, 2021,
5. Antoine Dechezleprêtre and Misato Sato, “The Impacts of Environmental Regulations on Competitiveness,” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (July 1, 2017): 183–206,; Timothy J. Bartik, “Social Costs of Jobs Lost Due to Environmental Regulations,” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 9, no. 2: 179–197 (Summer 2015),; Eban Goodstein, Jobs and the Environment: The Myth of a National Trade-Off (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 1994),; Richard D. Morgenstern, William A. Pizer, and Jhih-Shyang Shih, “Jobs versus the Environment: An Industry-Level Perspective,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 43, no. 3 (May 2002): 412–36,
6. Emilia Barreto Carvalho, “Do Environmental Policies Enhance Environmental Quality?: An Examination of Policy Instruments and Outcomes,” in Environmental Philosophy, Politics, and Policy, ed. John A. Duerk (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2021), 205–20.
7. Branden B. Johnson and Adam M. Finkel, “Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution,” Risk Analysis 36, no. 6 (June 2016): 1148–70,
8. Fiona McGillivray, Privileging Industry: The Comparative Politics of Trade and Industrial Policy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).
9. Similar definitions of IPE are present in Thomas H. Oatley, International Political Economy, 6th ed. (New York & London: Routledge, 2019) and McGillivray, Privileging Industry.
10. McGillivray, Privileging Industry; Oatley, International Political Economy.
11. David R. Mayhew, Congress: The Electoral Connection, 2nd ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004).
12. Brawley defines this zero-sum game as a situation in which “if one country got more gold, that left less for all the others.” Mark R. Brawley, Turning Points: Decisions Shaping the Evolution of the International Political Economy (Peterborough, Ontario & Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press, 1998), 197.
13. Brawley, Turning Points, 177.
14. A mercenary is a soldier hired to fight in an army.
15. Brawley, Turning Points, 197.
16. David P. Levine, Wealth and Freedom: An Introduction to Political Economy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 37. The dangers Levine mentions relate to externalities, such as poverty, inequality, and environmental crisis, subjects discussed in Section 16.6: Considering Poverty, Inequality, and the Environmental Crisis.
17. Levine, Wealth and Freedom, 38.
18. Brawley, Turning Points, Chapter 10.
19. Brawley, Turning Points.
20. Sidney E. Rolfe and James Burtle, The Great Wheel: The World Monetary System, A Reinterpretation (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975).
21. Rolfe and Burtle, The Great Wheel.
22. Rolfe and Burtle, The Great Wheel.
23. Rolfe and Burtle, The Great Wheel.
24. Randall W. Stone, “The Scope of IMF Conditionality,” International Organization 62, no. 4 (October 2008): 589–620,
25. Adam Przeworski and James Raymond Vreeland, “A Statistical Model of Bilateral Cooperation,” Political Analysis 10, no. 2 (2002): 101–12,
26. Stone, “The Scope of IMF Conditionality.”
27. Joseph E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (New York: W. W. Norton, 2002).
28. Stone, “The Scope of IMF Conditionality.”
29. Strom C. Thacker, “The High Politics of IMF Lending,” World Politics 52, no. 1 (October 1999): 38–75,
30. The World Bank, “Explore History,”
31. The World Bank, “Explore History.”
32. N. Birdsall, “Population Growth and Poverty in the Developing World,” Population Bulletin 35, no. 5 (December 1980): 1–48.
33. The World Bank, “Explore History.”
34. William Easterly, “What Did Structural Adjustment Adjust?” Journal of Development Economics 76, no. 1 (February 2005): 1–22,; Jane Harrigan and Paul Mosley, “Evaluating the Impact of World Bank Structural Adjustment Lending: 1980–87,” Journal of Development Studies 27, no. 3 (April 1991): 63–94,; M. Rodwan Abouharb and David L. Cingranelli, “The Human Rights Effects of World Bank Structural Adjustment, 1981–2000,” International Studies Quarterly 50, no. 2 (June 2006): 233–62,
35. The World Bank, “Explore History.”
36. World Trade Organization, “The GATT Years: From Havana to Marrakesh,”
37. World Trade Organization, “The GATT Years.”
38. World Trade Organization, “The GATT Years.”
39. World Trade Organization, “Plurilaterals: Of Minority Interest,” World Trade Organization,
40. World Trade Organization, “The GATT Years.”
41. Brawley, Turning Points.
42. Seymour Martin Lipset, “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy,” American Political Science Review 53, no. 1 (March 1959): 69–105,
43. Barbara Geddes, “What Do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years?” Annual Review of Political Science 2, no. 1 (June 1999): 115–44,
44. James A. Robinson, “Economic Development and Democracy,” Annual Review of Political Science 9, no. 1 (June 1, 2006): 503–27,
45. Adam Przeworski, ed., Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990, Cambridge Studies in the Theory of Democracy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
46. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, James A. Robinson, and Pierre Yared. “Reevaluating the Modernization Hypothesis,” Journal of Monetary Economics 56, no. 8 (November 2009): 1043–58,
47. Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin, and Geoffrey Garrett, eds., The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Beth A. Simmons and Zachary Elkins, “The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy,” American Political Science Review 98, no. 1 (February 2004): 171–89,
48. Manuel Castells, Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development, UNRISD Discussion Paper No. 114 (Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, September 1999), 4,
49. David R. Cameron, “The Expansion of the Public Economy: A Comparative Analysis,” American Political Science Review 72, no. 4 (December 1978): 1243–61,; Peter J. Katzenstein, “Regionalism in Comparative Perspective,” Cooperation and Conflict 31, no. 2 (June 1996): 123–59,; Geoffrey Garrett, “Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle?” International Organization 52, no. 4 (1998): 787–824,
50. McGillivray, Privileging Industry.
51. Simmons, Dobbin, and Garrett, The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy; Marcelo Soto, Capital Flows and Growth in Developing Countries: Recent Empirical Evidence, Working Paper (OECD Development Center, July 2000); Simmons and Elkins, “The Globalization of Liberalization.”
52. McGillivray, Privileging Industry.
53. Torben Iversen and Thomas R. Cusack, “The Causes of Welfare State Expansion: Deindustrialization or Globalization?” World Politics 52, no. 3 (April 2000): 313–49,
54. Kenneth F. Scheve and Matthew J. Slaughter, “What Determines Individual Trade-Policy Preferences?” Journal of International Economics 54, no. 2 (August 2001): 267–92,
55. Martin Ardanaz, M. Victoria Murillo, and Pablo M. Pinto, “Sensitivity to Issue Framing on Trade Policy Preferences: Evidence from a Survey Experiment,” International Organization 67, no. 2 (April 2013): 411–37,
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62. The proletariat is the industrial working class. Marx is also discussed in other chapters, notably in Chapter 3.
63. Communism is an economic system in which the means of production would be owned and operated for the benefit of every individual in a society.
64. Jeffrey D. Sachs, “Foreword,” in The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time, ed. Bono Vox (New York: Penguin Press, 2005), XVII.
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