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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Introduction to Political Science
    1. 1 What Is Politics and What Is Political Science?
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Defining Politics: Who Gets What, When, Where, How, and Why?
      3. 1.2 Public Policy, Public Interest, and Power
      4. 1.3 Political Science: The Systematic Study of Politics
      5. 1.4 Normative Political Science
      6. 1.5 Empirical Political Science
      7. 1.6 Individuals, Groups, Institutions, and International Relations
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  3. Individuals
    1. 2 Political Behavior Is Human Behavior
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 What Goals Should We Seek in Politics?
      3. 2.2 Why Do Humans Make the Political Choices That They Do?
      4. 2.3 Human Behavior Is Partially Predictable
      5. 2.4 The Importance of Context for Political Decisions
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 3 Political Ideology
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Classical Origins of Western Political Ideologies
      3. 3.2 The Laws of Nature and the Social Contract
      4. 3.3 The Development of Varieties of Liberalism
      5. 3.4 Nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Authoritarianism
      6. 3.5 Contemporary Democratic Liberalism
      7. 3.6 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Left
      8. 3.7 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Right
      9. 3.8 Political Ideologies That Reject Political Ideology: Scientific Socialism, Burkeanism, and Religious Extremism
      10. Summary
      11. Key Terms
      12. Review Questions
      13. Suggested Readings
    3. 4 Civil Liberties
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 The Freedom of the Individual
      3. 4.2 Constitutions and Individual Liberties
      4. 4.3 The Right to Privacy, Self-Determination, and the Freedom of Ideas
      5. 4.4 Freedom of Movement
      6. 4.5 The Rights of the Accused
      7. 4.6 The Right to a Healthy Environment
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 5 Political Participation and Public Opinion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 What Is Political Participation?
      3. 5.2 What Limits Voter Participation in the United States?
      4. 5.3 How Do Individuals Participate Other Than Voting?
      5. 5.4 What Is Public Opinion and Where Does It Come From?
      6. 5.5 How Do We Measure Public Opinion?
      7. 5.6 Why Is Public Opinion Important?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  4. Groups
    1. 6 The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Political Socialization: The Ways People Become Political
      3. 6.2 Political Culture: How People Express Their Political Identity
      4. 6.3 Collective Dilemmas: Making Group Decisions
      5. 6.4 Collective Action Problems: The Problem of Incentives
      6. 6.5 Resolving Collective Action Problems
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    2. 7 Civil Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Civil Rights and Constitutionalism
      3. 7.2 Political Culture and Majority-Minority Relations
      4. 7.3 Civil Rights Abuses
      5. 7.4 Civil Rights Movements
      6. 7.5 How Do Governments Bring About Civil Rights Change?
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    3. 8 Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Elections
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 What Is an Interest Group?
      3. 8.2 What Are the Pros and Cons of Interest Groups?
      4. 8.3 Political Parties
      5. 8.4 What Are the Limits of Parties?
      6. 8.5 What Are Elections and Who Participates?
      7. 8.6 How Do People Participate in Elections?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  5. Institutions
    1. 9 Legislatures
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 What Do Legislatures Do?
      3. 9.2 What Is the Difference between Parliamentary and Presidential Systems?
      4. 9.3 What Is the Difference between Unicameral and Bicameral Systems?
      5. 9.4 The Decline of Legislative Influence
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 10 Executives, Cabinets, and Bureaucracies
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Democracies: Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Regimes
      3. 10.2 The Executive in Presidential Regimes
      4. 10.3 The Executive in Parliamentary Regimes
      5. 10.4 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Challenges of Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes
      6. 10.5 Semi-Presidential Regimes
      7. 10.6 How Do Cabinets Function in Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes?
      8. 10.7 What Are the Purpose and Function of Bureaucracies?
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 11 Courts and Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 What Is the Judiciary?
      3. 11.2 How Does the Judiciary Take Action?
      4. 11.3 Types of Legal Systems around the World
      5. 11.4 Criminal versus Civil Laws
      6. 11.5 Due Process and Judicial Fairness
      7. 11.6 Judicial Review versus Executive Sovereignty
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 12 The Media
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Media as a Political Institution: Why Does It Matter?
      3. 12.2 Types of Media and the Changing Media Landscape
      4. 12.3 How Do Media and Elections Interact?
      5. 12.4 The Internet and Social Media
      6. 12.5 Declining Global Trust in the Media
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
  6. States and International Relations
    1. 13 Governing Regimes
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Contemporary Government Regimes: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority
      3. 13.2 Categorizing Contemporary Regimes
      4. 13.3 Recent Trends: Illiberal Representative Regimes
      5. Summary
      6. Key Terms
      7. Review Questions
      8. Suggested Readings
    2. 14 International Relations
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 What Is Power, and How Do We Measure It?
      3. 14.2 Understanding the Different Types of Actors in the International System
      4. 14.3 Sovereignty and Anarchy
      5. 14.4 Using Levels of Analysis to Understand Conflict
      6. 14.5 The Realist Worldview
      7. 14.6 The Liberal and Social Worldview
      8. 14.7 Critical Worldviews
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 15 International Law and International Organizations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Problem of Global Governance
      3. 15.2 International Law
      4. 15.3 The United Nations and Global Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
      5. 15.4 How Do Regional IGOs Contribute to Global Governance?
      6. 15.5 Non-state Actors: Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
      7. 15.6 Non-state Actors beyond NGOs
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 16 International Political Economy
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 The Origins of International Political Economy
      3. 16.2 The Advent of the Liberal Economy
      4. 16.3 The Bretton Woods Institutions
      5. 16.4 The Post–Cold War Period and Modernization Theory
      6. 16.5 From the 1990s to the 2020s: Current Issues in IPE
      7. 16.6 Considering Poverty, Inequality, and the Environmental Crisis
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  7. References
  8. Index
adverse selection
the concept, borrowed from economic theory, that voters cannot fully educate themselves on everything they must vote on and that this information asymmetry can often benefit the candidate or issue group that controls the distribution of information
agricultural groups
economic interest groups that work on behalf of agricultural interests
ballot initiative
a mechanism by which voters can directly introduce pieces of legislation and vote to enact them
business group
an economic interest group that works on behalf of business interests
candidate-centered campaign
the idea that the declining influence of political parties and their decreased ability to mobilize voters’ opinions and actions has set voters politically adrift and that candidates themselves have stepped in to fill the power vacuum
civil rights groups
noneconomic interest groups that work to promote and defend the civil rights of a particular group
collective goods
goods or services that all members of a group can share
congressional district method
a method of allocating electoral votes, used in Maine and Nebraska, where the winner of each congressional district is awarded one electoral vote and the winner of the statewide vote is awarded the state’s two remaining electoral votes
dark money
money received by super PACs from shell corporations or donors who do not disclose their identities
direct democracy
a democratic system in which citizens make direct policy choices rather than leaving them to elected officials
disturbance theory
a political theory that suggests that interest groups form in response to the changing complexity of government and society
economic bias
a system in which interests that may be very narrow or seemingly obscure enjoy considerable influence the more socially, monetarily, or institutionally resourced they are
economic groups
interest groups that focus on economic issues such as wages, industry protections, job creation, and profit maximization
Election Day holiday
where voting day is a national holiday or voters vote on a weekend
elections
formal group decision-making processes that elect individuals to public office or, in certain states and countries, allow citizens to select among policy preferences
Electoral College
the system of electors, based on the total number of United States Senators, House members, and electors from Washington, DC, by which the president of the United States is chosen
electoral districts
in the United States, districts of roughly equal population size in which Americans vote
eligible voters
those United States citizens who are aged 18 and older and meet state residency requirements and rules for voting
factionalism
when groups of individuals work collectively to promote a narrow, shared interest, possibly at the expense of the majority
free rider problem
the phenomenon that occurs when individual members of an interest group benefit from the group’s activities even if they do not personally participate
golden parachutes
exit bonuses that reward executives leaving private companies upon entering federal government positions
grassroots lobbying
lobbying that involves groups utilizing public pressure to force governmental action; also called outside lobbying or indirect lobbying
ideological group
a noneconomic interest group that focuses on promoting interests that align with a particular ideology
indirect lobbying
lobbying that involves groups utilizing public pressure to force governmental action; also called outside lobbying or grassroots lobbying
inside lobbying
lobbying in which interest groups cultivate contacts and relationships within government in order to seek to influence a political outcome
interest group
a group of people who organize in order to seek to influence a political outcome
interest group liberalism
the theory that officials respond to well-organized groups not because they are good for society, but because well-organized interests simply do a better job of demanding governmental action
labor groups
economic interest groups that work on behalf of workers’ interests
lobbying
the attempt by a group to influence a political outcome
majority rule
a system in which candidates for statewide office must win at least 50 percent of the vote to win an election
moral hazard
the risk a voter takes that a chosen candidate may not, once elected, act in the way the voter hopes
multiparty system
a system of government where multiple political parties take part in national elections
noneconomic groups
interest groups that work to advance noneconomic issues such as the environment or education
outside lobbying
lobbying that rallies public support in order to pressure political actors to consider a cause; also known as indirect or grassroots lobbying
patronage
the act of hiring or using state resources in a partisan manner in order to reward political support
pluralist theory
a political theory that posits that multiple and diverse interests compete for attention and resources and that political power is distributed among these various interests
plurality rule
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins an election
political action committee (PAC)
an interest group’s official fundraising arm
political parties
groups that organize around a shared political ideology, with the primary goal of electing party members to positions in government
populism
the appeal on the part of public leaders to the belief of ordinary people that established elite groups disregard their concerns
professional groups
economic interest groups that work in the interests of a particular profession
proportional representation
an electoral system in which votes cast by the electorate are reflected by the same proportions within the governing body
public interest group
a group that benefits a narrow constituency or policy issue (such as the American Association of Retired People) and works to achieve benefits for the larger population, not just for their own members
recall
an election in which voters decide whether or not to end the term of an elected official
referendum
an election in which voters decide whether to overturn existing law or policy
registered voters
voters who have fulfilled the necessary requirements set by the government in order to be able to cast a vote
single-issue groups
groups that focus their work on a single issue in order to acquire or maintain benefits for their members (for example, the National Rifle Association)
single-party system
an electoral system where one party makes up the government
snap election
in Britain, an election the prime minister can call at any time
social capital
relationships forged in political and other social networks, resulting from citizen mobilization, that help citizens resolve collective problems
super PACs
independent political action committees that can raise unlimited funds in order to campaign for candidates but are barred from directly coordinating with either candidates or parties
transaction theory
a political theory, espoused by Robert H. Salisbury, that argues that political actors are not influenced by groups that have mobilized to enact change so much as they are responding to the interests of narrowly focused elites, and that the relationship between interest groups and government is that of an exchange
two-party system
an electoral system where two main parties control power in government
vote of no confidence
a way for a legislative body to indicate that they no longer support the leader of the government (such as a prime minister) and their cabinet
voter fatigue
a phenomenon in which the demands of multiple elections leave voters feeling apathetic or disengaged
voter registration requirements
a set of conditions voters must meet and be able to prove in order to be eligible to vote
voter suppression
a strategy or in some instances local laws that work to prohibit certain groups from voting
voter turnout
the number of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
voting eligible population (VEP)
the population that is eligible to vote, regardless of registration status, not including persons that are not eligible to vote, such as noncitizens and, in certain US states, convicted felons
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