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cluster sampling
when researchers divide the overall population into clusters, based on characteristics such as shared cities or schools, then randomly select people to poll from within those clusters
politically speaking, an individual who generally does not believe in government intervention and tends to maintain that governmental control means fewer individual freedoms
convenience sample
a sample based on convenience rather than probability
eligible voters
voters who meet the requirements of their localities or states to cast a ballot in an election
elite opinion
the opinion not of the broader public but of business, political, and other cultural elites
the manipulation of voting districts in order to favor candidates from one party over another
interviewer bias
when individual characteristics such as the race or gender of the interviewer affect a person’s survey response
issue publics
small segments of the overall public that express interest or vote based on a single issue
Jim Crow laws
a set of laws enforced mostly in the southern United States from the late 1800s until 1965 that legalized discrimination based on race, preventing Black Americans from enjoying fundamental rights such as equal access to education and voting
politically speaking, an individual who supports government intervention and social welfare programs
majority opinion
the opinion of the majority of those polled
measurement error
limitations in response validity due to survey design problems
opinion leaders
individuals who can affect the opinions of other individuals, whether through their prominence, influence, or experience
political ideology
a set of beliefs, principles, or doctrines that guide one’s views of how government should work
political participation
activities that express opinions on public officials and public policy; the ways in which people can influence political outcomes
probability sampling
when researchers choose samples at random from the larger population
public opinion
views that individuals are willing to express openly at a specific point in time
question wording effects
when the wording of the questions on a survey affects how individuals respond
random digit dialing
a survey method that selects people for involvement by generating telephone numbers at random
response bias
when respondents to a survey inaccurately report their true opinions for one reason or another
a group selected by researchers to represent the characteristics of the entire population
sampling errors
errors that occur in a statistical analysis due to the unrepresentativeness of the sample
selection bias
when the method by which a sample is chosen causes the sample to be unrepresentative of the population being studied
when the people of a given country are the ones who grant the power to govern that country, through either direct or indirect representation
social capital
the effects of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively
social desirability bias
when respondents answer survey questions in a manner intended to cause them to be viewed favorably by others
the right to vote in political elections
voter fatigue
feelings of apathy that the electorate can experience under certain circumstances—for example, when they are required to vote too often or are exposed to too much political information or negative news
voter suppression
discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting in order to alter the outcome of an election
voter turnout
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
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