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a style of government that enforces obedience to government authority by strongly limiting personal freedom
bill of rights
a list or summary of the fundamental rights guaranteed to the individual by the state; in the United States, the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution
civil liberties
guarantees of freedom from government interference
civil rights
guarantees of equal treatment by government without discrimination based on characteristics an individual shares with a particular subset of the population
describes a worldview that emphasizes the need for community and its values and the positive role that government plays in the lives of citizens; the idea that government exists to protect rights but also to form a political community to solve public problems
a group of people with shared interests and values, e.g., a family, a religion, or a political group
community responsibilities
an individual’s duties or obligations as a part of a community, including cooperation, respect, and participation; goes beyond thinking and acting as individuals to common beliefs about society’s order and the treatment of others
a framework, blueprint, or foundation for the operation of a government
a system of government with three elements: the rule of law, limited government, and an element of individualism
due process
a legal requirement that the government respect the rights of the people; a demonstration of the rule of law and the balancing of government power with individual rights
human rights
inherent rights that, philosophically, can be neither given nor taken away by any government; the basis for freedom, justice, and peace in the world
describes rights that are due to all persons and, philosophically, can be neither given nor taken away by any government
describes a minimalist government system wherein individuals take precedence
a system in which government actively protects individual rights
a system in which government exists to provide a means to assist individuals in achieving their private interests
negative rights
statements of individual rights that emphasize limitations on the government’s ability to infringe on those rights
positive rights
statements of individual rights that emphasize the government’s obligation to guarantee those rights
in a liberal democratic system, a space separate from public life where the individual has personal autonomy to think, speak, and behave without being monitored or surveilled by another person or the government
responsive communitarianism
a system that seeks to blend the common good with individual autonomy while not allowing either to take precedence over the other
rule of law
a philosophy of how society should be ordered in which all leaders are held accountable to the law; a higher law than majority rule
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