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burden sharing
the distribution among group members of the costs a group incurs
civil society
organizations working for the common good outside the control of government or business interests
collective goods
goods available to all, regardless of individual contribution
collective security
a broad alliance of states for the purpose of jointly opposing outside aggression
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
the organ of the United Nations responsible for forming and coordinating state policies on economic and social issues
European Union (EU)
a treaty-backed organization of European states that promotes policy coordination, trade, and peaceful relations
a theory of political integration based on the assumption that interstate cooperation on technical issues builds a foundation for cooperation and unification on larger, more complex issues
General Assembly
the main deliberative body of the United Nations; each member country has one vote
an intentional and systematic attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part
global governance
the bringing together of state and non-state actors to coordinate collective action for the purpose of providing global public goods such as peace and security, economic prosperity, conflict mediation, human rights, and environmental protection
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
organizations whose members are state governments
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
the judicial body of the United Nations that hears cases between states; also called the World Court
International Criminal Court (ICC)
a permanent court established to try individuals accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity
international law
the rules, drawn from treaties and customs, that govern the way states interact with each other
League of Nations
a global intergovernmental organization established after World War I; predecessor to the United Nations
multinational corporations (MNCs)
companies based in one state but with operations in other states
national identity groups
groups that share a common language, ancestry, and culture and that seek political independence
nongovernmental organization (NGO)
a transnational group or entity whose members are private citizens working together on a common interest
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a US-led military alliance with Western European states, originally formed in 1949 to deter Soviet military aggression
Permanent 5 (P5)
the five states that have permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council: the United States, United Kingdom, Russia, China, and France
regional economic organization (REO)
an intergovernmental organization with a mission to improve economic coordination, trade, and development in a region
religious non-state actors (RNAs)
transnational organizations or entities that promote a certain religion and engage in international politics on behalf of or in accordance with that religion’s views
responsibility to protect (R2P)
a principle that states have a responsibility to protect all people, whether they are citizens of their own state or of other states, from genocide and crimes against humanity
the administrative and bureaucratic organ of the United Nations, headed by the Secretary-General
chief administrative officer of the United Nations and head of the Secretariat
Security Council
the organ of the United Nations responsible for peace and security, with 5 permanent members and 10 rotating members
sustainable development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
the use of violence by non-state actors against civilians in order to achieve a political goal
terrorist organizations
non-state organizations that use terrorism to achieve political goals
tragedy of the commons
the depletion of common resources when the incentives for states to act selfishly are greater than the incentives to cooperate to achieve a collective good
interactions across state boundaries
transnational organized crime (TOC)
groups that employ violence and corruption in for-profit criminal activity that crosses state boundaries
UN peacekeepers
international troops operating under the auspices of the United Nations that can be deployed into conflict zones to help create conditions that favor lasting peace
United Nations (UN)
a global intergovernmental organization established after World War II and comprised of nearly every state in the world
weak states
states that have difficulty fulfilling basic tasks such as managing the economy and enforcing laws
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