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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Introduction to Political Science
    1. 1 What Is Politics and What Is Political Science?
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Defining Politics: Who Gets What, When, Where, How, and Why?
      3. 1.2 Public Policy, Public Interest, and Power
      4. 1.3 Political Science: The Systematic Study of Politics
      5. 1.4 Normative Political Science
      6. 1.5 Empirical Political Science
      7. 1.6 Individuals, Groups, Institutions, and International Relations
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  3. Individuals
    1. 2 Political Behavior Is Human Behavior
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 What Goals Should We Seek in Politics?
      3. 2.2 Why Do Humans Make the Political Choices That They Do?
      4. 2.3 Human Behavior Is Partially Predictable
      5. 2.4 The Importance of Context for Political Decisions
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 3 Political Ideology
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Classical Origins of Western Political Ideologies
      3. 3.2 The Laws of Nature and the Social Contract
      4. 3.3 The Development of Varieties of Liberalism
      5. 3.4 Nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Authoritarianism
      6. 3.5 Contemporary Democratic Liberalism
      7. 3.6 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Left
      8. 3.7 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Right
      9. 3.8 Political Ideologies That Reject Political Ideology: Scientific Socialism, Burkeanism, and Religious Extremism
      10. Summary
      11. Key Terms
      12. Review Questions
      13. Suggested Readings
    3. 4 Civil Liberties
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 The Freedom of the Individual
      3. 4.2 Constitutions and Individual Liberties
      4. 4.3 The Right to Privacy, Self-Determination, and the Freedom of Ideas
      5. 4.4 Freedom of Movement
      6. 4.5 The Rights of the Accused
      7. 4.6 The Right to a Healthy Environment
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 5 Political Participation and Public Opinion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 What Is Political Participation?
      3. 5.2 What Limits Voter Participation in the United States?
      4. 5.3 How Do Individuals Participate Other Than Voting?
      5. 5.4 What Is Public Opinion and Where Does It Come From?
      6. 5.5 How Do We Measure Public Opinion?
      7. 5.6 Why Is Public Opinion Important?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  4. Groups
    1. 6 The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Political Socialization: The Ways People Become Political
      3. 6.2 Political Culture: How People Express Their Political Identity
      4. 6.3 Collective Dilemmas: Making Group Decisions
      5. 6.4 Collective Action Problems: The Problem of Incentives
      6. 6.5 Resolving Collective Action Problems
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    2. 7 Civil Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Civil Rights and Constitutionalism
      3. 7.2 Political Culture and Majority-Minority Relations
      4. 7.3 Civil Rights Abuses
      5. 7.4 Civil Rights Movements
      6. 7.5 How Do Governments Bring About Civil Rights Change?
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    3. 8 Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Elections
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 What Is an Interest Group?
      3. 8.2 What Are the Pros and Cons of Interest Groups?
      4. 8.3 Political Parties
      5. 8.4 What Are the Limits of Parties?
      6. 8.5 What Are Elections and Who Participates?
      7. 8.6 How Do People Participate in Elections?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  5. Institutions
    1. 9 Legislatures
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 What Do Legislatures Do?
      3. 9.2 What Is the Difference between Parliamentary and Presidential Systems?
      4. 9.3 What Is the Difference between Unicameral and Bicameral Systems?
      5. 9.4 The Decline of Legislative Influence
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 10 Executives, Cabinets, and Bureaucracies
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Democracies: Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Regimes
      3. 10.2 The Executive in Presidential Regimes
      4. 10.3 The Executive in Parliamentary Regimes
      5. 10.4 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Challenges of Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes
      6. 10.5 Semi-Presidential Regimes
      7. 10.6 How Do Cabinets Function in Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes?
      8. 10.7 What Are the Purpose and Function of Bureaucracies?
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 11 Courts and Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 What Is the Judiciary?
      3. 11.2 How Does the Judiciary Take Action?
      4. 11.3 Types of Legal Systems around the World
      5. 11.4 Criminal versus Civil Laws
      6. 11.5 Due Process and Judicial Fairness
      7. 11.6 Judicial Review versus Executive Sovereignty
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 12 The Media
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Media as a Political Institution: Why Does It Matter?
      3. 12.2 Types of Media and the Changing Media Landscape
      4. 12.3 How Do Media and Elections Interact?
      5. 12.4 The Internet and Social Media
      6. 12.5 Declining Global Trust in the Media
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
  6. States and International Relations
    1. 13 Governing Regimes
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Contemporary Government Regimes: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority
      3. 13.2 Categorizing Contemporary Regimes
      4. 13.3 Recent Trends: Illiberal Representative Regimes
      5. Summary
      6. Key Terms
      7. Review Questions
      8. Suggested Readings
    2. 14 International Relations
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 What Is Power, and How Do We Measure It?
      3. 14.2 Understanding the Different Types of Actors in the International System
      4. 14.3 Sovereignty and Anarchy
      5. 14.4 Using Levels of Analysis to Understand Conflict
      6. 14.5 The Realist Worldview
      7. 14.6 The Liberal and Social Worldview
      8. 14.7 Critical Worldviews
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 15 International Law and International Organizations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Problem of Global Governance
      3. 15.2 International Law
      4. 15.3 The United Nations and Global Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
      5. 15.4 How Do Regional IGOs Contribute to Global Governance?
      6. 15.5 Non-state Actors: Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
      7. 15.6 Non-state Actors beyond NGOs
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 16 International Political Economy
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 The Origins of International Political Economy
      3. 16.2 The Advent of the Liberal Economy
      4. 16.3 The Bretton Woods Institutions
      5. 16.4 The Post–Cold War Period and Modernization Theory
      6. 16.5 From the 1990s to the 2020s: Current Issues in IPE
      7. 16.6 Considering Poverty, Inequality, and the Environmental Crisis
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  7. References
  8. Index
1.
In this type of regime, the head of government is selected by the legislature. The selection of the head of state, however, varies, and the head of state’s duties are largely ceremonial.
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
2.
In this type of regime, the head of government is selected by the legislature and the head of state is popularly elected for a fixed term.
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
3.
In this type of regime, the head of government is popularly elected and serves a fixed term. The head of government also serves as the head of state.
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
4.
As of 2018, which type of democratic regime is most numerous in the world?
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
5.
Which of the following best describes an event or function that the head of state might perform?
  1. Signing into law legislation that was passed by the legislature
  2. Selecting members of the chief executive’s cabinet and conducting meetings with that cabinet
  3. Responding to a crisis like COVID-19 and proposing policies to address the crisis
  4. Hosting a state dinner where leaders of other countries are in attendance
6.
True or False: Similar to the United States, presidents in all countries are term limited, can serve only two terms, and then are ineligible to be president again for life.
  1. True
  2. False
7.
Which of the following is typically seen as an element of populism?
  1. It uses rational arguments that appeal to elites.
  2. It supports established institutions and embraces mainstream politics.
  3. It uses emotional appeals directed at the masses.
  4. It was most relevant in the late 1800s and is rarely seen in the 21st century.
8.
According to political science scholars, which of the following provide(s) an opportunity for populism to arise within a country?
  1. Inefficient government
  2. Strong political parties
  3. Systemic inequities
  4. All of the above
  5. A and B but not C
  6. A and C but not B
9.
True or False: Populism is uniquely associated with politicians on the political right.
  1. True
  2. False
10.
True or False: Well-structured democracies with established political institutions have always been able to withstand any political threats populists have posed to the democratic system.
  1. True
  2. False
11.
This term or phrase refers to an informal power presidents have and suggests presidents are in a unique position to shape public opinion.
  1. Podium of ponderance and strategy
  2. Spin doctor
  3. Puppet master
  4. Bully pulpit
12.
According to political scientist Richard Neustadt, which of the following is possibly the president’s greatest power?
  1. The ability to declare war
  2. The power to persuade
  3. The power to appoint members to the cabinet
  4. The ability to sign legislation into law
13.
In a parliamentary regime, the prime minister is chosen by the legislature. Before being selected, what institution are prime ministers a member of?
  1. If the country has a monarchy, they are part of the royal family.
  2. When the citizens voted, they directly elected their prime minister.
  3. Before becoming prime minister, they served in the judiciary to learn the laws of the country.
  4. The prime minister is a member of parliament.
14.
Consider the following parties and the percent each party won in an election. In a parliamentary regime, which party would the prime minister be from?
  1. Conservative Party—25 percent
  2. Liberal Party—55 percent
  3. New Democratic Party—15 percent
  4. Green Party—5 percent
  5. From the information provided, it cannot be determined which party the prime minister would come from. The prime minister could come from any of the above parties or a party not listed.
15.
If no party gains a majority of the vote, then a __________ government is formed.
  1. majority
  2. coalition
  3. confederation
  4. merger
16.
True or False: Similar to presidential regimes, elections in parliamentary regimes are fixed term elections and happen every four years.
  1. True
  2. False
17.
This type of vote takes place when some members of the parliament no longer support the government.
  1. Confidence vote
  2. Retention vote
  3. Maintenance vote
  4. Recall vote
18.
Which of the following is considered an advantage of presidentialism?
  1. The government is unified, and policy is enacted quickly.
  2. The president can claim a mandate.
  3. There exists a clear line of policy making.
  4. Both the head of state and the head of government are the same person, increasing efficiency.
19.
Which of the following is considered an advantage in presidentialism?
  1. Lack of accountability means the president can never be blamed.
  2. The legislature and the presidency are assured to be held by the same party.
  3. Separation of powers may provide minority groups protection of their rights.
  4. Political parties and party discipline are very strong.
20.
Which of the following is considered an advantage in parliamentarianism?
  1. Coalition governments are possible, which means fewer elections due to more representation of groups in parliament.
  2. During a time of crisis, prime ministers can act much more quickly than presidents can.
  3. Prime ministers always enjoy majority support of the parliament.
  4. Frequently, minority parties are represented in the parliament.
21.
Which of the following is considered an advantage in parliamentarianism?
  1. Political parties and party discipline are very strong.
  2. Separation of powers is strong and includes an independent judiciary.
  3. Prime ministers can claim a mandate.
  4. Parliamentary regimes allow for far-reaching policy change from one government to the next.
22.
True or False: A country with a parliamentary system having frequent elections does not mean their political system is unstable.
  1. True
  2. False
23.
Generally, coalition governments ____________.
  1. are shorter-lived than majority governments
  2. are longer-lived than majority governments
  3. have about the same lifespan as majority governments
  4. are extremely rare
24.
When governments are unable to pass major legislation and stalemates between competing parties occur, this is known as ____________.
  1. politics as usual
  2. party polarization
  3. captive politics
  4. gridlock
25.
In presidential regimes, what type of voting is typically used and has the effect of supporting the development of a two-party system?
  1. Ranked-choice voting
  2. Plurality voting
  3. Instant-runoff voting
  4. Cumulative voting
26.
These types of regimes are viewed as a “hybrid” and include aspects of other regimes.
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
27.
True or False: In a semi-presidential regime, the head of government can be from one party and the president from another party.
  1. True
  2. False
28.
Of the following regimes, which one has the most countries categorized as “free” by Freedom House?
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
  3. Semi-presidential
  4. Authoritarian
29.
In France, what term describes the situation in which the president and prime minister are from different parties?
  1. Synchronicity
  2. Cohabitation
  3. Coexistence
  4. Co-occurrence
30.
Of the following countries, which one best represents the type of authoritarian rule that can emerge in a semi-presidential country?
  1. Burundi
  2. Nicaragua
  3. Thailand
  4. Russia
31.
This is the formal group of advisors to the head of government.
  1. Consulate
  2. Embassy
  3. Commission
  4. Cabinet
32.
In which regime are members of the cabinet also members of the legislature?
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
33.
In which regime would one be more likely to see the selection of a cabinet member based on political loyalty and ideological similarity to the head of government?
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
34.
In which regime are cabinet meetings rarer and tend to be ceremonial rather than substantive in nature?
  1. Parliamentary
  2. Presidential
35.
Chief executives often have an informal group of advisors. Collectively, this group is often referred to as ________.
  1. the advisory commissioners
  2. the specialty consultants
  3. the kitchen cabinet
  4. the portico leaders
36.
This characteristic of a bureaucracy suggests that all job positions should be explicitly defined and labor be divided.
  1. Hierarchical authority
  2. Job specialization
  3. Formalized rules
  4. Impersonality
  5. Maintenance of files and records
37.
This characteristic of a bureaucracy suggests there exists a “chain of command” in which officials at the top of a bureaucracy have authority over those in the middle, who in turn control those at the bottom.
  1. Hierarchical authority
  2. Job specialization
  3. Formalized rules
  4. Impersonality
  5. Maintenance of files and records
38.
This characteristic of a bureaucracy suggests that there are standardized operating procedures and established regulations by which a bureaucracy conducts its business.
  1. Hierarchical authority
  2. Job specialization
  3. Formalized rules
  4. Impersonality
  5. Maintenance of files and records
39.
This characteristic of a bureaucracy suggests people are to be treated fairly and impartially, without regard to a person’s social status or political party affiliation.
  1. Hierarchical authority
  2. Job specialization
  3. Formalized rules
  4. Impersonality
  5. Maintenance of files and records
40.
True or False: The bureaucracy only helps to enforce policy by ensuring people comply. The bureaucracy is never involved in the policy formation process.
  1. True
  2. False
41.
Under this bureaucratic system, government positions are filled based on political loyalty.
  1. The spoils system
  2. The merit system
  3. The civil service system
  4. The warrant system
42.
Under civil service or the merit system, what is the primary concept at work?
  1. The concept of established partisanship
  2. The concept of individual faithfulness
  3. The concept of detached devotion
  4. The concept of neutral competence
43.
The iron triangle is composed of what three groups?
  1. Congress, the presidency, and the bureaucracy
  2. Parliament, the crown, and interest groups
  3. The bureaucracy, interest groups, and nonprofits
  4. Congress, the bureaucracy, and interest groups
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