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bully pulpit
the national podium presidents have to speak on issues they believe are important and from which they can attempt to gain support for their position
an institution that is hierarchal in nature and exists to formulate, enact, and enforce public policy in an efficient and equitable manner
formal groups of advisors to the chief executive
coalition government
within a parliamentary regime, a government in which two or more parties have aligned together to rule
confidence vote
a procedural move in a parliamentary regime in which ministers vote on whether to continue to support the prime minister; sometimes called a “no confidence vote”
formal powers
powers specifically granted an executive by statute or by the country’s constitution
formalized rules
established regulations within a bureaucracy, often called standard operating procedures (SOP)
a stalemate between competing parties that prevents governments from passing major legislation
head of government
performed by a country’s leader, a political role in which the individual leads the country’s government
head of state
performed by country’s leader, a ceremonial role in which the individual symbolically represents the country
hierarchical authority
the chain of command that exists within a bureaucracy; officials at the top have authority over those in the middle, who have authority over those at the bottom
within bureaucracies, treating individuals fairly, equally, and impartially
informal powers
powers that emerge through tradition or custom or are inherent in the office
iron triangle
the relationship among bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and Congress that works to fashion public policy; focuses on the shared interest the members have and protecting that interest
issue networks
relationships among varied actors—policy experts, bureaucrats, and media—that form to address an issue and affect public policy; unlike iron triangles that form around a shared interest, issue networks form around an issue and attempt to address the issue through public policy
job specialization
the explicit definition of job responsibilities within bureaucratic organizations; also referred to as division of labor
kitchen cabinet
an informal group of advisors to a chief executive
majority government
within a parliamentary regime, when one party holds a clear majority and forms the government
merit system
the hiring and promotion of individuals based upon formal, competitive examination
neutral competence
the idea that bureaucrats are policy experts who follow set procedures and do not consider personal, political, or professional loyalties in performing their responsibilities
parliamentary regimes
democratic government systems in which the chief executive is selected by the legislative body and is a member of that legislature
the hiring and promotion of individuals based upon political loyalty
plurality voting
a voting system in which the winning candidate is the one who receives the most votes even if the candidate does not receive more than 50 percent of the vote; also known as “first-past-the-post”
political approach that uses emotional appeals to promise the masses a political voice in a system that has been perceived to be run by elites
presidential regimes
democratic governments in which the chief executive is selected separately from the legislative body and there exists a separation of powers between the presidency and the legislature
prime minister
the chief executive and head of government in a parliamentary regime
semi-presidential regimes
democratic government systems in which executive power is split between a prime minister (selected by the legislature) and a president (directly elected by the citizenry)
single-member districts
electoral districts in which only a single individual is elected to represent an area
spoils system
primarily used in the 1800s, this system filled government positions based on party loyalty; see patronage
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