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the entity (person or institution) holding legitimate power in a specific realm
the process of negotiating with the goal of reaching agreement
civil liberties
human freedoms with which the government may not interfere
civil rights
opportunities to which all humans are entitled that governments must act to protect
collective action problem
a collective dilemma in which the group would benefit if its members cooperated, but they have incentives not to do so, and these incentives ultimately harm not only the group but the individuals themselves
collective dilemmas
problems that arise when multiple individuals interact with one another to make a group decision
in bargaining over a single issue, each participant agrees to move in the direction of those they are bargaining with (for example, the car seller lowers the price and the car buyer increases what they are willing to pay)
disagreements between individuals, groups, institutions, or states regarding the allocation of resources or the determination of values
a collection of the most basic principles of a country (or state)
a populated geographic area with a sovereign government
an institution for resolving disputes
a system of government in which citizens elect their leaders
empirical political science
the systematic study of political behavior, generally based on developing hypotheses and testing whether these hypotheses are supported based on the evidence
the persons responsible for leading an institution
something that is true because it can be verified by evidence
the set of institutions that make and implement decisions for a political collective, most often for a specific geographic area
human rights
liberties and opportunities that humans have by virtue of their humanity
a tentative explanation for a reality that can be tested
organizations with a set of rules and practices that inform their members about their relationships with one another and how they should interact
an institution composed of individuals who have the power to propose, deliberate, adopt, and alter the laws of a state
authority used in ways that are true to the rules
a population connected by history, culture, and beliefs that generally lives in a specific area
normative political science
the systematic study of ideal goals, principles, and behaviors in politics; also called political philosophy
political ideology
a set of beliefs (or a systematic set of concepts) that helps individuals determine how they see the proper roles of citizens and their governments
political science
the systematic study of political phenomena using empirical or philosophical methods
“who gets what, where, when, and how”—the process for resolving disputes and allocating scarce resources
the ability to compel someone to do something they would not otherwise choose to do
public interest
that which benefits a state and those who reside there
public opinion
in empirical political science, the sum of individual opinions on the question being asked
public policy
any decision by a government, such as a law, regulation, or ruling, that attempts to guide human behavior
the world as it is, as verified by observations and measurements
instructions regarding what behaviors are required, forbidden, or allowed
scientific method
the processes used to conduct empirical research
the entity (person or institution) that holds supreme authority over a domain
a defined geographic area with unified political authority
status quo
the existing state of affairs
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