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9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory

1 .
Briefly explain how the three main areas of ethics (metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics) differ.
2 .
What is the purpose of a normative moral theory?
3 .
What are the three main approaches to normative ethics, and how do they differ?

9.2 Consequentialism

4 .
What are the ten doctrines of Mohism?
5 .
Why is the concept of “benefit” important in Mohism?
6 .
Bentham believed that pleasures only differ quantitatively. Mill, in contrast, believed that pleasure differ both quantitatively and qualitatively. What are the different qualities of pleasure that Mill identifies?
7 .
For utilitarians, which consequences must be considered when determining the rightness of an action?
8 .
What is the main difference between act and rule utilitarianism?

9.3 Deontology

9 .
Why do deontologists like Kant argue that consequences are not morally relevant?
10 .
Why is good will important in Kant’s ethics?
11 .
Why does Kant distinguish between categorical imperatives and hypothetical imperatives?
12 .
Contrast Kant’s and Ross’s view of moral rules.
13 .
Why did Ross think classic utilitarians and deontologists oversimplified morality?

9.4 Virtue Ethics

14 .
Why is the exemplary person important in virtue ethics?
15 .
Why is the concept of li (ritual and practice) important in Confucianism? Why role does li play in a person’s virtuous development?
16 .
Explain why Confucians believe relationships and social roles shape people’s moral responsibilities and structure moral life.
17 .
Why did Aristotle think virtuous development is important for achieving eudaimonia, or a flourishing life?
18 .
In Aristotle’s view, why are perfect friendships an important part of a good or flourishing life?

9.5 Daoism

19 .
How is the dao in Daoism different from the dao in Confucianism?
20 .
Explain why Daoism is thought to offer a naturalistic approach.
21 .
Explain the practice of wu wei.
22 .
Why does practicing wu wei result in a soft style of action rather than a hard style of action?

9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics

23 .
Why is the concept of femininity a social construct?
24 .
How has the treatment of the normal human in traditional ethics ignored the perspective of women?
25 .
In care ethics, why is the caring relationship treated as the ethical paradigm?
26 .
Carol Gilligan identified the perspective of justice and the perspective of care. How do these perspectives differ?
27 .
Explain why some feminists have highlighted the important role intersectionality plays in social relations and argue it must be accounted for if we want to end inequality and correct identity-based oppression and discrimination.
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