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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index

9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory

1.
Briefly explain how the three main areas of ethics (metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics) differ.
2.
What is the purpose of a normative moral theory?
3.
What are the three main approaches to normative ethics, and how do they differ?

9.2 Consequentialism

4.
What are the ten doctrines of Mohism?
5.
Why is the concept of “benefit” important in Mohism?
6.
Bentham believed that pleasures only differ quantitatively. Mill, in contrast, believed that pleasure differ both quantitatively and qualitatively. What are the different qualities of pleasure that Mill identifies?
7.
For utilitarians, which consequences must be considered when determining the rightness of an action?
8.
What is the main difference between act and rule utilitarianism?

9.3 Deontology

9.
Why do deontologists like Kant argue that consequences are not morally relevant?
10.
Why is good will important in Kant’s ethics?
11.
Why does Kant distinguish between categorical imperatives and hypothetical imperatives?
12.
Contrast Kant’s and Ross’s view of moral rules.
13.
Why did Ross think classic utilitarians and deontologists oversimplified morality?

9.4 Virtue Ethics

14.
Why is the exemplary person important in virtue ethics?
15.
Why is the concept of li (ritual and practice) important in Confucianism? Why role does li play in a person’s virtuous development?
16.
Explain why Confucians believe relationships and social roles shape people’s moral responsibilities and structure moral life.
17.
Why did Aristotle think virtuous development is important for achieving eudaimonia, or a flourishing life?
18.
In Aristotle’s view, why are perfect friendships an important part of a good or flourishing life?

9.5 Daoism

19.
How is the dao in Daoism different from the dao in Confucianism?
20.
Explain why Daoism is thought to offer a naturalistic approach.
21.
Explain the practice of wu wei.
22.
Why does practicing wu wei result in a soft style of action rather than a hard style of action?

9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics

23.
Why is the concept of femininity a social construct?
24.
How has the treatment of the normal human in traditional ethics ignored the perspective of women?
25.
In care ethics, why is the caring relationship treated as the ethical paradigm?
26.
Carol Gilligan identified the perspective of justice and the perspective of care. How do these perspectives differ?
27.
Explain why some feminists have highlighted the important role intersectionality plays in social relations and argue it must be accounted for if we want to end inequality and correct identity-based oppression and discrimination.
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