9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
Briefly explain how the three main areas of ethics (metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics) differ.
What is the purpose of a normative moral theory?
What are the three main approaches to normative ethics, and how do they differ?
What are the ten doctrines of Mohism?
Why is the concept of “benefit” important in Mohism?
Bentham believed that pleasures only differ quantitatively. Mill, in contrast, believed that pleasure differ both quantitatively and qualitatively. What are the different qualities of pleasure that Mill identifies?
For utilitarians, which consequences must be considered when determining the rightness of an action?
What is the main difference between act and rule utilitarianism?
Why do deontologists like Kant argue that consequences are not morally relevant?
Why is good will important in Kant’s ethics?
Why does Kant distinguish between categorical imperatives and hypothetical imperatives?
Contrast Kant’s and Ross’s view of moral rules.
Why did Ross think classic utilitarians and deontologists oversimplified morality?
9.4 Virtue Ethics
Why is the exemplary person important in virtue ethics?
Why is the concept of li (ritual and practice) important in Confucianism? Why role does li play in a person’s virtuous development?
Explain why Confucians believe relationships and social roles shape people’s moral responsibilities and structure moral life.
Why did Aristotle think virtuous development is important for achieving eudaimonia, or a flourishing life?
In Aristotle’s view, why are perfect friendships an important part of a good or flourishing life?
How is the dao in Daoism different from the dao in Confucianism?
Explain why Daoism is thought to offer a naturalistic approach.
Explain the practice of wu wei.
Why does practicing wu wei result in a soft style of action rather than a hard style of action?
9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
Why is the concept of femininity a social construct?
How has the treatment of the normal human in traditional ethics ignored the perspective of women?
In care ethics, why is the caring relationship treated as the ethical paradigm?
Carol Gilligan identified the perspective of justice and the perspective of care. How do these perspectives differ?
Explain why some feminists have highlighted the important role intersectionality plays in social relations and argue it must be accounted for if we want to end inequality and correct identity-based oppression and discrimination.