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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index
act utilitarianism
a utilitarian approach that proposes that people should apply the greatest happiness principle on a case-by-case basis
applied ethics
a branch of ethics that focuses on the application of moral norms to determine the permissibility of specific actions
care ethics
an approach to ethics that emphasizes the importance of subjective factors, specifics of concrete situations, and the relationships of individuals
categorical imperative
a moral law that individuals have a duty to follow and that is rationally devised through Kant’s four formulations
Confucianism
a normative moral theory that arose in ancient China during the Warring States period that proposes the development of individual character is key to the achievement of an ethical and harmonious society
consequentialism
a moral theory that looks at an action’s outcome or consequences to determine whether it is morally right
dao
in Confucianism, ethical principles or path by which to live life; in Daoism, the natural way of the universe and all things
Daoism
a belief system developed in ancient China that encourages the practice of living in accordance with the dao, the natural way of the universe and all things
deontology
a moral theory that focuses on duties or rules to determine the rightness of an action
essentialism
a view that a set of characteristics makes something what it is
ethics
the field of philosophy that investigates morality
eudaimonia
the flourishing life, which ancient Greek philosophers (e.g., Aristotle, the Stoics, and Epicurus) set as the aim of life
femininity
a social construct that categorizes specific traits as female and establishes society’s expectation of women
feminism
a political and philosophical movement that aims to end sexism and promote social justice for women
gender binarism
the view that each person can be categorized by one of two genders (male or female)
good will
the capacity to be a good person
greatest happiness principle
a principle that holds that actions are right when they produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
higher pleasures
pleasures associated with the exercise of a person’s higher faculties (e.g., the use of higher cognitive faculties and/or participation in social/cultural life)
humanity formulation
a rational method of devising moral laws that specifies that each person be treated as an end, never merely as a means
hypothetical imperative
a rule that needs to be followed in order to achieve some (proposed) end
incidental friendship
casual relationships that are based on utility or pleasure
intersectionality
different aspects of identity (e.g., gender, race, sexuality, and class) that intersect in a person’s identity and define or influence their lived experience
junzi
in Confucianism, a person who is an exemplary ethical figure and lives according to the dao
Li
ritual and practice that develop a person’s ethical character as they interact with others
lower pleasures
pleasures associated with the exercise of a person’s lower faculties (e.g., basic sensory pleasures)
metaethics
a branch of ethics that focuses on foundational questions and moral reasoning
Mohism
a type of consequentialism established in ancient China by Mozi (ca. 430 BCE) during the Warring States period
naturalism
a belief that ethical claims can be derived from nonethical ones
normative ethics
a branch of ethics that focuses on establishing norms and standards of moral conduct
perfect friendship
relationships that foster individual virtue as they are based on love and the wish that another flourishes rather than the expectation of personal gain
pluralism
an approach to normative ethical theory that suggests a more complex, complete account of morality that provides for conflicting rules
prima facie duties
duties that are obligatory, other things being equal, or so long as other factors and circumstances remain the same
principle of utility
a principle that holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote pleasure and diminish pain
ren
a central concept in Confucianism that is used to mean either someone with complete virtue or to refer to specific virtues
rule utilitarianism
a utilitarian approach that proposes that people should use the greatest happiness principle to test possible moral rules to determine whether a given rule would produce greater happiness if it were followed
skepticism
a philosophical position that claims people do not know things they ordinarily think they know
trolley problems
classic thought experiments that use difficult ethical dilemmas to examine moral reasoning and deliberation
universal law formulation
a rational method of devising moral laws that proposes that a moral law must be applied universally to the whole of society
utilitarianism
a type of consequentialism introduced by Jeremy Bentham and developed by John Stuart Mill
virtue ethics
an approach to normative ethics that focuses on character
Warring States period
a period of widespread conflict, suffering, and social unrest in Chinese history that gave rise to highly influential philosophical approaches, including Mohism, Confucianism, and Daoism
wu wei
a natural way of acting—also called nonaction—that is spontaneous or immediate, one in which a person’s actions are in harmony with the flow of nature or existence
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