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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index
Altruism
the selfless care for others’ well-being.
Anti-realism
the philosophical position that argues that morality is subjective, not objective.
Arête
the ancient Greek word for virtue. It can also be translated as “excellence.”
Ataraxia
the goal of Epicurus’s hedonism: tranquility, or freedom from mental, emotional, and physical pain.
Categorical imperative
Kant’s concept of moral reasoning and action. “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law” (Kant [1785] 1998, 31). This means you know an action is moral if can be universal for everyone.
Cognitivism
the philosophical position that values are cognitive and express statements about properties of things or states of events.
Compassion
the ability to care or share in others’ suffering.
Conscience
an individual’s inner sense of right and wrong.
Descriptive claims
statements that describe matters of fact or how the world is.
Divine command theory
the philosophical position that uses God as the principle for morality. What is good is determined by God’s commands.
Emotivism
a branch of non-cognitivism that argues that value judgments only express emotion.
Empathy
the ability to share others’ feelings.
Ethical naturalism
the philosophical position that argues that moral values are based on natural facts about the world, not individuals’ subjective feelings or beliefs.
Eudaimonia
the ancient Greek term for “happiness” or “human flourishing.” It literally means “good” (eu) “spirit” (daimon).
Euthyphro problem
a challenge to theistic ethical systems. It asks whether something is good because God commands it or if God commands it because it is good.
Evaluative claims
statements that express a judgment about something’s value or how the world ought to be.
Everyday aesthetics
an approach to aesthetic theory that focuses on aesthetically meaningful experiences in people’s ordinary day-to-day lives.
Experience machine
a thought experiment in which the possibility is raised that a person might lead a pleasurable life by being plugged into a machine stimulating pleasurable experiences in their brain.
Extrinsic value
the quality of being valued for the sake of something else.
Fact-value distinction
the distinction between what is the case (facts) and what people think ought to be the case (values) based on beliefs about what is good, beautiful, important, etc.
Faith
beliefs that are not or cannot be proven.
Fallacy
an error in logical reasoning—for example, jumping to a conclusion without proper evidence.
Feminist care ethics
an ethical theory that proposes that morality is based on caring for others and that caring for others arises out of women’s experiences as caregivers.
Foundation
a principle, concept, or assumption on which a philosophical position is founded.
Fundamentality
the issue of foundations, the philosophical inquiry into the basis for an idea or system of ideas.
Hedonism
a philosophical approach to moral theory based on the idea that pleasure dictates what is good and pain dictates what is bad.
Ikigai
reason for being; what makes life meaningful in an intuitive way.
Incommensurability
when there is no standard of evaluation between two or more goods or values.
Intentional fallacy
the faulty argument that the intention of the artist determines the meaning of the work of art.
Intrinsic value
the quality of being valued for its own sake.
Intuition
cognition that seems completely self-evident and impossible to deny.
Is-ought problem
problem that asserts the challenge of moving from statements of fact (something is) to statements of value (something ought to be).
Kingdom of ends
Kant’s hypothetical, ideal society in which every individual is treated as an end and no one is treated as a means to an end. It is an idea that can be used to judge the morality of an action.
Metaethics
branch of philosophy that focuses on moral reasoning and foundational questions that explore the assumptions related to moral beliefs and practice.
Monism
theory that argues that there is only one fundamental intrinsic value that forms the foundation for all other values.
Moral realism
the philosophical position that morality is objective, not subjective.
Moral relativism
the philosophical position that there are multiple moral frameworks that are equally valid because values are relative to individuals, communities, and cultures.
Moral skepticism
the philosophical position that morality is not objective.
Natural law theory
an ethical position that asserts that morals are objective and derived from nature.
Naturalistic fallacy
an error in reasoning that assumes one can derive values (what people ought to do) from facts about the world (what is the case).
Non-cognitivism
the philosophical position that values are not cognitive because they do not necessarily make statements about properties of things or states of events and have more to do with a psychological state of mind.
Ontology of value
the study of the being of values.
Open-question argument
G. E. Moore’s argument against the naturalistic fallacy, which he sees as trying to derive non-natural properties from natural properties. For Moore, arguing that something is “good” (a non-natural property) based on natural properties is circular and leaves an open question.
Perfectionism
an approach to ethics that bases morality on the highest attainable good for an individual, human nature, or society.
Pluralism
theory that argues that there are multiple fundamental intrinsic values rather than one.
Realism
the philosophical position that asserts that ethical values have some basis in reality and that reasoning about ethical matters requires an objective framework or foundation.
Reason
a methodical way of thinking that uses evidence and logic to draw conclusions, or the capacity to think this way.
Satisfactionism
a philosophical position that defines well-being as satisfying desires.
Telos
the purpose, end, or goal of something.
Utilitarianism
an ethical theory that bases morality on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.
Value theory
the philosophical investigation of values. In its narrow sense, it refers to metaethical concerns. In its broader sense, it addresses a variety of values (ethical, social, political, religious, aesthetic, etc.)
Values
beliefs and evaluations about morality, politics, aesthetics, and social issues. They often express a judgment about what people think ought to be the case.
Virtue ethics
a philosophical approach to ethics based on the examination of different virtues.
Well being
concept referring to what is good for a person, not simply what is good in an abstract sense.
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