Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Bellah, Robert N. 1967. “Civil Religion in America.” Dædalus 96 (1): 1–21.

Blainey, Marc G. (2010). “Deciphering Ancient Maya Ethno-metaphysics: Conventional Icons Signifying the ‘King-as-Conduit’ Complex.” Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture 3 (3): 267–289.

Confucius. 2015. The Analects of Confucius: An Online Teaching Translation. Translated by Robert Eno. Self-published, IUScholarWorks.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mark. 2020. “Confucius.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Summer 2020 ed.

Dübgen, Franziska, and Stefan Skupien. 2019. Paulin Hountondji: African Philosophy as Critical Universalism. Cham: Palgrave Pivot.

Eno, Robert, trans. 2010. Daodejing. Self-published, IUScholarWorks.

Eno, Robert, trans. 2019. Zhuangzi: The Inner Chapters. Self-published, IUScholarWorks.

Fasola, Awo Fategbe Fatunmbi. 2014. The Holy Odu: A Collection of Verses from the 256 Odu Ifa with Commentary. Self-published, CreateSpace.

Forbes, Jack D. 2001. “Indigenous Americans: Spirituality and Ecos.” Dædalus 130 (4): 283–300.

Foster, Lynn V. (2002) 2005. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fraser, Chris. 2020a. “Mohism.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Winter 2020 ed.

Fraser, Chris. 2020b. “Mohist Canons.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Winter 2020 ed.

Fung Yu-lan. 1952. A History of Chinese Philosophy. Translated by Derk Bodde. Vol. 1, The Period of the Philosophers (from the Beginnings to circa 100 BC). London: George Allen & Unwin.

Goldin, Paul R. 2018. “Xunzi.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2018 ed.

Hallen, Barry. 2002. A Short History of African Philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Hansen, Chad. 2020. Language and Logic in Ancient China. Socorro: Advanced Reasoning Forum.

Herbjørnsrud, Dag. 2020. “The Untold History of India’s Vital Atheist Philosophy.” Blog of the APA, American Philosophical Association. June 16, 2020.

Huang, Yong. 2013. Confucius: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Bloomsbury.

Jaspers, Karl. 1953. The Origin and Goal of History. Translated by Michael Bullock. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Jojola, Ted. 2004. “Notes on Identity, Time, Space, and Place.” In American Indian Thought: Philosophical Essays, edited by Anne Waters, 87–96. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Knapp, Keith N. 2009. “Three Fundamental Bonds and Five Constant Virtues.” In Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, edited by Linsun Cheng, 2252–2255. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire.

Li Feng. 2013. Early China: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maffie, James. 2013. Aztec Philosophy: Understanding a World in Motion. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

Nkulu Kabamba, Olivier, and Louis Mpala Mbabula, eds. 2017. Stefano Kaoze: La sagesse bantu et l’identité négro-africaine; Mélanges offerts à l’abbé Stefano Kaoze à l’occasion du centième anniversaire de son ordination sacerdotale. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Nkulu-N’Sengha, Mutombo. 2005. “African Philosophy.” In Encyclopedia of Black Studies, edited by Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama, 45–53. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Norton-Smith, Thomas M. 2010. The Dance of Person and Place: One Interpretation of American Indian Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Okafor, Stephen O. 1982. “Bantu Philosophy: Placide Tempels Revisited.” Journal of Religion in Africa 13 (2): 83–100.

Olúwọlé, Sophie B. 2015. Socrates and Ọ̀rúnmìlà: Two Patron Saints of Classical Philosophy. Rev. ed. Lagos: Ark.

Parpola, Asko. 2015. The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pradhan, Basant. 2015. “Yoga: Original Concepts and History.” In Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: A Clinical Guide, 3–36. Cham: Springer.

Presbey, Gail M. 2017. “Oruka and Sage Philosophy: New Insights in Sagacious Reasoning.” In The Palgrave Handbook of African Philosophy, edited by Adeshina Afolayan and Toyin Falola, 75–96. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Presbey, Gail M. 2020. “Sophie Olúwọlé’s Major Contributions to African Philosophy.” Hypatia 35 (2): 231–242.

Purcell, Sebastian. 2020. “How the Mayan Philosophy of Time Can Teach You to Recover Daily Joys.” Medium. September 3, 2020.

Rice, Prudence M. 2008. “Time, Power, and the Maya.” Latin American Antiquity 19 (3): 275–298.

Riegel, Jeffrey K. 1986. “Poetry and the Legend of Confucius’s Exile.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1): 13–22.

Rodrigues, Hillary Peter. 2018. “The Self in Hindu Philosophies of Liberation.” In Global Psychologies, edited by Suman Fernando and Roy Moodley, 99–118. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rutherford, Ian. 2016. “Ancient Greek and Egyptian Interactions.” OUPblog, Oxford University Press. April 14, 2016.

Sharer, Robert J., and Loa P. Traxler. 2006. The Ancient Maya. 6th ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Showkeir, Maren S., and James D. Showkeir. 2013. Yoga Wisdom at Work: Finding Sanity off the Mat and on the Job. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Smith, Justin E. 2016. The Philosopher: A History in Six Types. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Stewart, Georgina Tuari. 2020. Maori Philosophy: Indigenous Thinking from Aotearoa. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Tang, Didi. 2013. “5,000-Year-Old Primitive Writing Generates Debate in China.” NBC News. July 11, 2013.

Van Norden, Bryan. 2019. “Mencius.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2019 ed.

Waters, Anne. “Language Matters: Nondiscrete Nonbinary Dualism.” In American Indian Thought: Philosophical Essays, edited by Anne Waters, 97–115. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Witzel, Michael. 1997. “The Development of the Vedic Canon and Its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu.” In Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts: New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas; Proceedings of the International Vedic Workshop, Harvard University, June 1989, edited by Michael Witzel, 257–348. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies.

Yucatan Times. 2019. “Maya Codices: Invaluable Cultural Heritage Burned by the Inquisition in 1562.” November 28, 2019.

Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Dec 19, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.