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singular codex; Maya books that transmitted the collective mathematical, scientific, historical, religious, and metaphysical knowledge of the Maya.
a normative moral theory developed in ancient China during the Warring States period that proposes that the development of individual character is key to the achievement of an ethical and harmonious society.
in Confucianism, ethical principles or a path by which to live; in Daoism, the natural way of the universe and all things.
a belief system developed in ancient China that encourages the practice of living in accordance with the dao, the natural way of the universe and all things.
a way of beholding the sacred or manifestations of the divine in Hindu thought.
the study of knowledge, involving questions such as how humans know what they know, what is the nature of true knowledge, and what are the limits to what humans can know.
the study of the philosophies of Indigenous peoples.
Filial piety
the ethical obligation of children to their parents.
Indigenous philosophy
the ideas of Indigenous peoples pertaining to the nature of the world, human existence, ethics, ideal social and political structures, and other topics also considered by traditional academic philosophy.
in Confucianism, a person who is an exemplary ethical figure and lives according to the dao.
rituals and practice that develop a person’s ethical character as they interact with others.
a way of thinking that rationally analyzes abstract concepts and phenomena independent of accepted belief systems.
a type of consequentialism established in ancient China by Mozi during the Warring States period.
a way of thinking that relies on the folk knowledge and narratives that often form part of the spiritual beliefs of a people.
in Hindu thought, matter; one of two elements that make up the universe.
in Hindu thought, pure, absolute consciousness; one of two elements that make up the universe.
a central concept in Confucianism that refers either to specific virtues or to someone with complete virtue.
a dualist approach in Hindu metaphysics that views the universe as composed of pure consciousness and matter, which undergoes an evolutionary process.
a philosophical position that claims people do not know things they ordinarily think they know.
Transformative model of identity
an understanding of social identity as spiraling both outward and inward through expanding and retracting influences over a certain area of land.
Hindu texts that contain the philosophical core of Hinduism.
the four oldest books within Hinduism, consisting of the Rigveda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda.
Virtue ethics
an approach to normative ethics that focuses on character.
a natural way of acting that is spontaneous or immediate, in which a person’s actions are in harmony with the flow of nature or existence.
Yin and yang
an explanation of natural phenomena through two fundamental forces, the male yin and the female yang.
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