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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index

Harris, John. 1993. “Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?” Bioethics 7 (2–3): 178–187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.1993.tb00283.x.

Marquis, Don. 1989. “Why Abortion Is Immoral.” The Journal of Philosophy 86 (4): 183–202. https://doi.org/10.2307/2026961.

Rachels, James. 1975. “Active and Passive Euthanasia.” New England Journal of Medicine 292 (2): 78–80. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm197501092920206.

Thomson, Judith Jarvis. 1976. “A Defense of Abortion.” In Biomedical Ethics and the Law, edited by James M. Humber and Robert F. Almeder, 39–54. Boston: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2223-8_5.

Berry, Thomas. 1987. “The Dream of the Earth: Our Way into the Future.” CrossCurrents 37 (2/3): 200–215. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24459049.

Carson, Rachel. 1962, Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rasmussen, Larry L. 1996. Earth Community Earth Ethics. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Taylor, Paul W. 2011. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bringsjord, Selmer, and Naveen Sundar Govindarajulu. 2018. “Artificial Intelligence.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. Summer 2020 ed. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2020/entries/artificial-intelligence/.

Freeman, R. Edward. 1998. “A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation.” In The Corporation and Its Stakeholders: Classic and Contemporary Readings, edited by Max B. E. Clarkson, 125–138. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442673496-009.

Friedman, Milton. 2007. “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.” In Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, edited by Walther Ch. Zimmerli, Klaus Richter, and Markus Holzinger, 173–78. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70818-6_14.

Radin, Tara J., and Patricia H. Werhane. 2003. “Employment-at-Will, Employee Rights, and Future Directions for Employment.” Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2): 113–130.

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