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Understanding Economic Systems and Business

1. “Mercer 2017 Quality of Life Rankings,”, May 15, 2017.
2. Rob Fahey, “Sony’s Entire Future Now Rests on PlayStation,”, July 1, 2016.
3. “Quick Facts about Nonprofits,” National Center for Charitable Statistics,, accessed May 15, 2017; Brice S. McKeever, “The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2015,” Urban Institute,, accessed May 15, 2017.
4. Julia Halperin, “As a Generation of Directors Reaches Retirement, Fresh Faces Prepare to Take Over US Museums,” The Art Newspaper,, June 2, 2015; “Museum Succession in America: Onwards and Upwards,” The Economist,, May 9, 2015.
5. Kerry A. Dolan, “Forbes 2017 Billionaires List: Meet the Richest People on the Planet,” Forbes,, March 20, 2017.
6. Caroline Beaton, “Why Knowledge Workers Are Bad at Making Decisions,” Forbes,, January 23, 2017; Josh Zumbrun, “The Rise of Knowledge Workers Is Accelerating Despite the Threat of Automation,” The Wall Street Journal,, May 4, 2016.
7. Environmental Defense Fund, “Seven Years Later: What’s Ahead for the Gulf,”, accessed May 15, 2017; “Oil Spills Fast Facts,” CNN,, February 9, 2017; Steven Mufson, “BP’s Big Bill for the World’s Largest Oil Spill Reaches $61.6 Billion,” Washington Post,, July 14, 2016; Debbie Elliott, “5 Years after BP Oil Spill, Effects Linger and Recovery Is Slow,” NPR,, April 20, 2015.
8. Melissa Healy, “Speed Up Drug Approvals at FDA? It’s Already Faster Than Europe’s Drug Agency,” Los Angeles Times,, April 6, 2017.
9. Hamza Shaban, “Google for the First Time Outspent Every Other Company to Influence Washington in 2017,” Washington Post,, January 23, 2018; Saleha Mohsin, “Silicon Valley Cozies Up to Washington, Outspending Wall Street 2–1,” Bloomberg,, October 18, 2016.
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11. Richard Fry, “Millennials Overtake Baby Boomers as America’s Largest Generation,” Pew Research Center,, April 25, 2016.
12. Ashley Lutz, “Everything You Know about Millennial Spending Is about to Change,” Business Insider,, October 1, 2016.
13. Geoff Gross, “5 Ways to Effectively Market to Baby Boomers,” Entrepreneur,, June 1, 2016.
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15. “Why Move to the Cloud? 10 Benefits of Cloud Computing,”, accessed May 15, 2017; Jim Rock, “How Robots Will Reshape the U.S. Economy,” Tech Crunch,, March 21, 2016.
16. “What the Future Holds for U.S.–Cuba Relations,” Knowledge@Wharton,, April 11, 2017.
17. France Accountants, “French Tax Summary 2017,”, accessed May 15, 2017; “2017 Tax Brackets,”, accessed May 15, 2017.
18. Simon Kennedy, “Brexit Timeline: From the Referendum to Article 50,” Bloomberg,, March 20, 2017.
19. Maggie McGrath, “Unemployment Rate Holds Steady at 4.1% as U.S. Adds 148,000 Jobs in December,” Forbes,, January 5, 2018; Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Spotlight on Statistics: The Recession of 2007–2009,”, accessed May 15, 2017.
20. Marcus Bensasson, “Youth Unemployment Shows Euro-Area Recovery Not Working for All,” Bloomberg Markets,, April 3, 2017; Dorota Bartyzel and Konrad Krasuski, “Brexit Flight to Shift 30,000 Jobs to Poland, Minister Says,” Bloomberg Politics,, January 23, 2017.
21. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Employees in Motor Vehicle and Parts Industry,”, data extracted on May 19, 2017; Christina Rogers, “Ford Aims to Cut Global Workforce by Roughly 10%,” The Wall Street Journal,, May 15, 2017.
22. “Historical Inflation Rates: 1914–2017,”, accessed May 19, 2017.
23. Trading Economics, “Inflation Rate by Country,”, accessed May 19, 2017.
24. Binyamin Appelbaum, “Fed Raises Interest Rates for Third Time Since Financial Crisis,” The New York Times,, March 15, 2017; Lauren Lyons Cole, “How the Fed’s Interest-Rate Hike Affects Consumers,” Consumer Reports,, March 15, 2017.
25. Mike Patton, “U.S. Government Deficit Is Rising Again,” Forbes,, April 28, 2016.
26. “Quantifying the National Debt,”, accessed May 23, 2017; “U.S. National Debt Clock: U.S. Total Interest Paid,”, accessed May 23, 2017.
27. Kimberly Amadeo, “Hurricane Katrina Facts: Damage and Costs,” The Balance,, February 9, 2017.
28. “18-Month Average Retail Price Chart (2015–2017),”, accessed May 23, 2017; JPMorgan Chase Institute, “How Falling Gas Prices Fuel the Consumer,” https://www.jpmorganchase, accessed May 23, 2017.
29. “The Retirement Problem: What Will You Do with All That Time?” Knowledge@Wharton,, January 14, 2016.
30. Michael Zimmerman, “Millennials in the Workforce: What They Want, and How to Manage Them,”, January 11, 2017; Kathy Gurchiek, “What Motivates Your Workers? It Depends on Their Generation,” Society for Human Resource Management,, May 9, 2016.
31. Tom Anderson, “Employers Offer Older Workers Flexible Retirement,” CNBC,, August 21, 2016.
32. Blaze Stutes, “The State of US Workforce Diversity in 14 Statistics,”, December 1, 2016; Vivian Hunt, Dennis Layton, and Sara Prince, “Why Diversity Matters,” McKinsey & Company,, January 2015.
33. Global Energy Statistical Yearbook 2016, “Oil Products Domestic Consumption,”, accessed May 23, 2017; Joe Carroll, “Big Oil Heads for Back-to-Back Profit Triumphs as Fortunes Turn,” Bloomberg Markets,, April 28, 2017.
34. U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Frequently Asked Questions about Petroleum Imports and Exports,”, accessed May 23, 2017; European Commission, “Energy: Supplier Countries,”, accessed May 23, 2017.
35. Kenneth Rapoza, “Russia’s Gazprom Doubling Down on ‘Anti-Ukraine’ Baltic Pipeline,” Forbes,, March 14, 2017; Nataliya Vasilyeva, “Ukraine Stops Buying Russian Gas, Closes Airspace,” USA Today,, November 25, 2015.
36. “U.S. Shale Is Turning Up the Heat on OPEC,”, May 20, 2017; Matt Egan, “Oil Milestone: Fracking Fuels Half of U.S. Output,” CNN Money,, March 24, 2016; Ed Crooks, “The US Shale Revolution,” Financial Times,, April 24, 2015.
37. Kavita Kumar, “Target Sharpens Edge Through Partnerships with Harry’s and Bevel Razor Companies,” Minneapolis Star Tribune,, April 15, 2017; Daphne Howland, “Target to Sell Harry’s Men’s Grooming Products,” Retail Dive,, August 4, 2016.

Making Ethical Decisions and Managing a Socially Responsible Business

1. Renae Merle, “‘Pharma Bro’ Martin Shkreli Goes on Trial, Where He Finds Another Kind of Limelight,” Washington Post,, June 27, 2017.
2. Arthur Schwartz, “The 5 Most Common Unethical Behaviors in the Workplace,” Philadelphia Business Journal,, January 26, 2015; Marianne Moody Jennings, Case Studies in Business Ethics, 2nd edition (St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1996), pp. xx–xxii.
3. “Top 10 Crooked CEOs,” TIME,, accessed June 23, 2017; Jena McGregor, “More CEOs Are Getting Forced Out for Ethics Violations,” Washington Post,, May 15, 2017; Adam Hartung, “Wells Fargo CEO Stumpf Is Gone: Is This the Beginning of Wholesale Leadership Change?” Forbes,, October 13, 2016.
4. Dori Meinert, “Creating an Ethical Workplace,” Society for Human Resource Management,, accessed June 23, 2017; Jeff Kauflin, “The World’s Most Ethical Companies 2017,” Forbes,, March 14, 2017.
5. “The 2017 100 Best Corporate Citizens,” Corporate Responsibility,, accessed June 23, 2017; Karsten Strauss, “America’s 100 Best Corporate Citizens in 2017,” Forbes,, May 11, 2017.
6. “Starbucks 2016 Global Social Impact Report,”, accessed June 23, 2017; “Celebrating Volunteerism at Deloitte and in Our Communities,”, accessed June 23, 2017; Linda Novick O’Keefe, “CSR Grows in 2016 as Companies Embrace Employees’ Values,” The Huffington Post,, December 15, 2016; Kia Kokalitcheva, “These 8 Employers Will Pay You to Volunteer,” Forbes,, March 21, 2016.
7. John Ewoldt, “Better Business Bureau Revokes MyPillow Accreditation over Ad Dispute,” Minneapolis Star Tribune,, January 4, 2017; Herb Weisbaum, “Full of Fluff? MyPillow Ordered to Pay $1M for Bogus Ads,” NBC News,, November 3, 2016.
8. “REI Co-op Gives Back Nearly 70 Percent of Profits to the Outdoor Community after Year of Record Revenues in 2016,”, March 15, 2017.
9. “The 100 Best Companies to Work For 2017,” Fortune,, accessed June 23, 2017; “Genentech Perks and Programs,”, accessed June 23, 2017.
10. Sarah Landrum, “Millennials Driving Brands to Practice Socially Responsible Marketing,” Forbes,, March 17, 2017.
11. “Why B Corps Matter,”, accessed June 27, 2017; Suntae Kim, Matthew J. Karlesky, Christopher G. Meyers, and Todd Schifeling, “Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations,” Harvard Business Review,, June 17, 2016.
12. Becky May, “Creating One Toyota,” American Builders Quarterly,, accessed June 23, 2017; Jessica Lyons Hardcastle, “Toyota Headquarters Will Use 100% Renewable Energy,” Environmental Leader,, June 10, 2016.
13. “Charitable Giving Statistics,” National Philanthropic Trust,, accessed June 23, 2017.
14. “American Express Company Corporate Social Responsibility: Philanthropy 2016,”, accessed June 23, 2017.
15. Ryan Scott, “How Hurricane Katrina Changed Corporate Social Responsibility Forever,” The Huffington Post,, accessed June 23, 2017; Del Jones, “Corporate Giving for Katrina Reaches $547 Million,” USA Today,, September 12, 2005.
16. Nellie S. Huang, “7 Great Socially Responsible Mutual Funds,” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance,, accessed June 23, 2017.
17. Per-Ola Karlsson, DeAnne Aquirre, and Kristin Rivera, “Are CEOs Less Ethical Than in the Past?” Strategy + Business,, accessed June 27, 2017; Emily C. Bianchi and Aharon Mohliver, “CEOs Who Began Their Careers During Booms Tend to Be Less Ethical,” Harvard Business Review,, May 12, 2017.
18. “The 50 Best Workplaces for Giving Back,” Fortune,, February 9, 2017.
19. Andie Burjek, Lauren Dixon, Geri Anne Fennessy, and Sarah Fister Gale, “The New Employer-Employee Contract,” Talent Economy,, May 8, 2017.
20. “Global Sustainability: Improving Factory Working Conditions,”, accessed June 23, 2017; “Gap Inc. Joins Global Brands That Publish Factory List,” Human Rights Watch,, accessed June 23, 2017.

Competing in the Global Marketplace

1. International Trade Administration: US Department of Commerce Website, accessed August 1, 2017.
2. “In the Stock Market, International Is Actually First,” New York Times, May 21, 2017, Page BU6.
3. “Starbucks Coffee International,”, accessed June 20, 2017; Trefis Team, “How Starbucks Plans to Grow Its International Operations,” Forbes,, January 18, 2016.
4. “Market Share by Manufacturer, October 2016 Data,”, accessed June 25, 2016.
5. “Trade (% of GDP),”, accessed June 26, 2017.
6. “The Impact of Trade on U.S. and State Level Employment,”, accessed June, 26, 2017.
7. “Small Business Key Players in International Trade,”, June 26, 2017.
8. “Globalization took hits in 2016; will 2017 lead to more?”, January 1, 2017.
9. “How Venezuela Ruined Its Oil Industry”,, May 7, 2017.
10. Daniel Workman, “Top 10 Major Export Companies,”, accessed July 4, 2017.
11. “U.S. Exports and Imports,”, accessed June 26, 2017.
12. “What We Investigate: International Property Theft/Piracy,”, accessed June 26, 2017.
13. “International Economic Accounts,”, accessed July 17, 2017.
14. “Fact Sheet: Commerce Finds Dumping and Countervailable Subsidies of Imports of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip from the People’s Republic of China,”, accessed June 26, 2017.
15. Danielle Paquette, “Trump Said He Would Save Jobs at Carrier. The Layoffs Start July 20,” The Washington Post,, May 24, 2017.
16. “Jobs Overseas Statistics,”, accessed June 26, 2017.
17. Mike Collins, “The Pros and Cons of Globalization,” Forbes,, May 6, 2015.
18. Wendy Wu, “China Upset at High U.S. Tariffs on Steel Imports,” South China Morning Post,, February 4, 2017.
19. “Commodities Subject to Import Quotas,”, accessed June 25, 2017.
20. “Members and Observers,”, accessed June 25, 2017.
21., accessed June 25, 2017.
22. “WTO Technical Notes,”, accessed July 17, 2017.
23. “EC and Certain Member States—Large Civil Aircraft,”, accessed June 25, 2017.
24. “Facts about NAFTA: Statistics and Accomplishments,”, July 7, 2017.
25. “Mexico Nominal Hourly Wages in Manufacturing,”, accessed June 25, 2017; Julie Hirschfeld Davis, “Trump Sends NAFTA Renegotiation Notice to Congress,” The New York Times,, May 18, 2017; Kate Linthicum, “What Happened When Factory Jobs Moved from Warren, Ohio, to Juarez, Mexico,” Los Angeles Times,, February 17, 2017.
26., June 25, 2017.
27. “Brexit: All You Need to Know About the UK Leaving the EU,” BBC, ( June 26, 2017),, June 26, 2017.
28. “Is Europe Outperforming the US?” World Economic Forum,, October 30, 2015.
29. Mark Scott, “Google Fined $2.7 Billion in E.U. Antitrust Case,” The New York Times,, June 26, 2017.
30. “EU Makes Coke Throw Open Fridges,” BBC,, June 22, 2005.
31., accessed June 25, 2017.
32. “McDonald’s Sells Control of China Business to Citic, Carlyle,” Bloomberg News,, January 9, 2017.
33. “Famous Failures in China,”, February 2, 2016.
34. General Motors website,, accessed July 17, 2017.
35. Wuling Sunshine,, accessed June 27, 2017.
36. “Walmart 2017 Annual Report,”, accessed June 27, 2017.
37. Ellen Proper, “Dutch See Red Over Foreign Bid For Paint Giant,” Bloomberg News,, March 10, 2017.
38. Source: “The World’s Largest Corporations,” Fortune,, accessed June 30, 2017.
39. Vijay Govindarajan and Gunjan Bagla, “Understanding the Rise of Manufacturing in India,” Harvard Business Review, September 18, 2015.
40. “As IMF Says, India Should Be One Of World’s Largest Economies, Only Bad Policy Has Prevented It,” Forbes,, April 28, 2017.

Forms of Business Ownership

1. Tara Siegel Bernard, “Building a Luxury Retail Business on the Web,” The Wall Street Journal-Small Business, July 12, 2005, p. B4; Pearl Paradise corporate website, (August 17, 2017); Jeremy Shepherd, “My Journey From Flight Attendant To CEO Of A $20 Million Company,” The Blog, Huffington Post, November 1, 2010 (accessed August 17, 2017); Syl Tang , "Rarest of pearls face a less than golden future," Financial Times,, accessed August 17, 2017.
2. “LLC vs. S Corp.: What’s the Best Setup for Your Startup?” Young Upstarts,, August 28, 2017; “Be Careful! Structuring Your Business as an LLC Is Not a Guarantee of Liability Protection,” allBusiness,, accessed September 30, 2017; Linda Ravden, based on personal interview on May 25, 2006.
3. “Fortune 500 Companies 2017,” Fortune,, accessed March 31, 2018; “America’s Top Public Companies in 2017: A Buffett Buy List”, Forbes,, accessed March 31, 2018; Alex Gray, “These Are the World's 10 Biggest Corporate Giants,” World Economic Forum,, January 16, 2017.
4. “Measuring the Size and Scope of the Cooperative Economy: Results of the 2014 Global Census on Co-operatives,” prepared by Dave Grace and Associates for the United Nation’s Secretariat Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Social Policy and Development, April 2014.
5. “Ace Hardware Reports Second Quarter 2017 Results,”, accessed August 17, 2017.
6. “7 Cooperative Principles,” San Luis Valley REC,; “Co-operative Principles,” International Co-operative Alliance,; and “The Principles of Cooperation,” Daman Prakash,
7. Joyce Lee, “Hyundai Motor to Begin Production at Fifth China Factory in August,” Thomson Reuters, July 18, 2017; Jin, Hyunjoo, and Samuel Shen, “Hyundai Motor to Build Two New Plants in China Instead of One: Sources," Thomson Reuters, accessed August 17, 2017; Seon-Jin Cha, “Hyundai Forms China Joint Venture,” The Wall Street Journal, June 22, 2005, p. B4.
8. “About Us,”, accessed August 17, 2017; Megan Barnett, “Size up a Ready-Made Business,” U.S. News & World Report, August 2, 2004, p. 69.
9. “The Economic Impact of Franchised Businesses in the United States,” International Franchise Association,; "FAQs about Franchising." FAQs about Franchising | International Franchise Association, (August 17, 2017).
10. “2017 New Franchises,” Entrepreneur,, accessed August 17, 2017; “2017 Fastest Growing Franchises,” Franchise Gator,, August 17, 2017; Mosquito Joe, “About MoJo,”, accessed August 17, 2017.
11. Thomas Content, “With acquisition of Tyco, Johnson Controls will become global 'one-stop shop' for building controls,” Journal Sentinel, January 25, 2016,, (accessed August 17, 2017); Johnson Control Media Center, (accessed August 17, 2017); Brian Steinberg, “AT&T Opens New Advertising Unit in Advance of Time Warner Merger,” Variety, August 4, 2017, (August 6, 2017).
12. Christina Mercer, “We List the Most Notable Tech Acquisitions of 2017, So Far," ComputerworldUK,, December 12, 2017.
13. Gemma Acton, “Number of Global M&A Deals Tumbles in Q1 2017 While Overall Value Rises,” CNBC,, accessed August 6, 2017.
14. Harry R. Webber, “UPS to Buy Trucking Company Overnight for $1.25 Billion to Expand Its Freight Business,” USA Today, May 17, 2005, p. 6B.
15. Kevin J. Delaney, “Google to Buy Urchin Software, Provider of Data for Advertisers,”Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2005, p. B4.
16. Koh Gui Qing and Greg Roumeliotis, “Apollo Global Braves LBO Rout with $7 Billion ADT Deal,” Reuters,, accessed August 6, 2017.
17. Laurie J. Flynn, “Oracle Acquiring Another Big Rival,” San Diego Union–Tribune, September 13, 2005, p. C1.
18. Joe McDonald, “Yahoo Buys Stake in China’s No. 1 Web Shopping Firm,” Associated Press, San Diego Union- Tribune, August 12, 2005, p. C1.
19. Greg Petro, “Amazon's Acquisition of Whole Foods Is About Two Things: Data and Product,” Forbes,, accessed March 31, 2018; Kate Taylor, “Here Are All the Changes Amazon Is Making to Whole Foods,” Business Insider,, March 2, 2018.
20. Tom Hals and Jessica DiNapoli, “Brookfield Business Partners to Buy Westinghouse for $4.6 Billion,” Reuters,, January 4, 2018.
21. Brad Gevurtz, “’Fasten Your Seat Belt’: There's Going to Be a Dealmaking Bonanza in 2017,” Business Insider,, accessed August 6, 2017.
22. “Personal-Care Businesses Franchises,” Entrepreneur,, accessed August 6, 2017; “IHRSA—Consumer Research,” IHRSA – Home, 2017, accessed August 6, 2017; Jeanette Borzo, “Follow the Money: More Businesses Are Starting to Cater to an Affluent—and Discriminating—’Mature Market’,” Wall Street Journal, September 26, 2005. p. R9; and Sara Wilson, “All the Rage,’ ” Entrepreneur, January 2005,
23. Home Instead corporate website,, accessed August 17, 2017; "Cost Analysis," Care Advantage, 2017 (August 17, 2017)
24. “Cost Comparisons,”, accessed August 17, 2017; “Sarah Adult Day Services,” Franchise Zone, (May 31, 2006).
25. Judy Kneiszel, “Millennials’ Next Frontier: Franchising,” QSR,, accessed March 31, 2018); Danny Rivera, “The Impact of Millennials on the Franchise Industry,” International Franchise Association,, accessed March 31, 2018.
26. Stephanie Clifford, “What You Need To Know Now,” Inc. Magazine, September 2005, p. 27.
27. Laura Shin, “Why the New Retirement Involves Working Past 65,” Forbes,, accessed August 17, 2017.
28. “M&A Statistics,” Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions, and Alliances,, accessed August 17, 2017.
29. “Expenditures by Foreign Direct Investors for New Investment in the United States, 2014–2016,” Bureau of Economic Analysis, July 12, 2017.
30. James K. Jackson,U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues,” Congressional Research Services Report,, accessed August 17, 2017.

Entrepreneurship: Starting and Managing Your Own Business

1. Shannon McMahon, “Stepping into a Fortune,” San Diego Union-Tribune, April 5, 2005, p. C4.
2. Dashel Pierson, “10 Things You Should Know about Surfing in the Olympics,” Surfline,, August 5, 2016.
3. Steve Chapple, “Reef Brand’s Co-founder Eyes the Horizon,” San Diego Union Tribune,, December 13, 2013.
4. Andrew Morse, “An Entrepreneur Finds Tokyo Shares Her Passion for Bagels,” The Wall Street Journal, October 18, 2005, p. B1.
5. Barbara Farfan, “’s Mission Statement”, The Balance. April 15, 2018,
6. “About StartupNation,”, accessed February 1, 2018; Jim Morrison, “Entrepreneurs,” American Way Magazine, October 15, 2005, p. 94.
7. Martha Irvine, “More 20-Somethings Are Blazing Own Paths in Business,” San Diego Union-Tribune, November 22, 2004, p. C6.
8. Keith McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick,” Inc. 500, October 19, 2005,
9. Ibid.
10. U.S. Small Business Administration, “Make Sure You Meet SBA Size Standards,”, accessed February 1, 2018.
11. “Who We Are,”, accessed February 1, 2018; “Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation,”, accessed February 1, 2018.
12. “Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs,”, accessed February 1, 2018.
13. “The Kauffman Index,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
14. Adapted from “They’ve Founded Million Dollar Companies and They’re not Even 30,”
15. McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick.”
16. “The Kauffman Index,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
17. Andrew Blackman, “Know When to Give Up,” The Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2005, p. R9.
18. Michelle Prather, “Talk of the Town,” Entrepreneur Magazine, February 2003,
19. Forbes, “Ten Best Cities for Entrepreneurs”
20. Don Debelak, “Rookie Rules,” Business Start-Ups Magazine,, March 2, 2006.
21. McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick.”
22. Much of the statistical information for the SBA section is from the Small Business Administration website at
23. “SBA Lending Activity in FY 2017 Shows Consistent Growth,”, October 13, 2017.
24. “Small Business Profile: 2016,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
25. “The State of Women-Owned Businesses: 2017,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
26. Ibid.
27. Steve Strauss, “Boomers’ Role in Entrepreneurship Is, Well, Booming,” USA Today,, August 25, 2017.
28. Scott Hanson, “Baby Boomers Are Rewriting Retirement History,” Kiplinger,, January 3, 2018.
29. “SBA Lending Activity in FY 2017 Shows Consistent Growth.”
30. SBA Office of Advocacy, “Annual Report of the Office of Economic Research: 2016,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
31. Lora Kolodny, “This Start-up Fled the High Cost of Silicon Valley to Help Non-Tech Workers Get an Education,” CNBC,, September 6, 2017.
32. Tamara Chuang, “4 Silicon Valley Venture Firms Invest $21 Million in Denver’s Guild Education,” The Denver Post,, September 6, 2017.
33. PwC/CB Insights, “MoneyTree Report Q3 2017,”, accessed February 2, 2018.
34. Ibid.

Management and Leadership in Today's Organizations

1. Source: US DOT Form 41 via BTS, Schedules P12 and T2.
2. Matthew C. Klein, “Traders Appreciate United Airlines Commitment to ‘Cost Efficiency Targets’,” Financial Times,, April 10, 2017; Robert Silk, “UPDATED: JetBlue Founder Neeleman Working on New Company,” Travel Weekly,, July 31, 2017; Karsten Strauss, “When CEOs Get Demoted (By Companies They Founded),” Forbes,, March 28, 2013.
3. I-Chun Chen, “Sketchers Hires Former Disney and Mattel Exec as CFO,” L. A. Biz,, November 15, 2017.
4. Christina Cheddar, “Famed Retailer Mickey Drexler Leaving CEO Job at J. Crew,” CNBC,, June 5, 2017; John Kell, “J. Crew CEO Mickey Drexler Steps Down,” Fortune,, June 5, 2017; Vanessa Friedman and Julie Creswell, “Mickey Drexler Steps Down as Chief of J. Crew, Ending an Era,” The New York Times,, June 5, 2017; Steven Solomon, “J. Crew Struggles with Its ‘Great Man’ Dilemma,” The New York Times,, June 10, 2015; Julia Boorstin. “Mickey Drexler’s Second Coming,” Fortune, May 2, 2005, p. 101.
5. Boorstin, “Mickey Drexler’s Second Coming.”
6. Hallie Busta, “Q&A: Former Autodesk CEO Carol Bartz on the Past, Present and Future of Construction Tech,”, March 29, 2017; David Bank, “Autodesk Stages Revival,” Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2005, p. B3.
7. Richard Levick, “Crisis Contingency Planning, Risk Assessment Vitally Important in Today’s Climate,” Forbes,, November 16, 2017.
8. Trip Advisor website,, accessed November 15, 2017.
9. San Juan Marriott website,, accessed November 15, 2017.
10. Jeffery Garten, “Jack Welch: A Role Model for Today’s CEO,” Business Week (September 10, 2001).
11. Ghazal Hashemipour, “A.G. Lafley: A Look Back at the Career of the Most Successful CEO in P&G History,” Chief Executive,, June 13, 2016; Jennifer Reingold, “P&G Chairman A.G. Lafley Steps Down—For Good, This Time?” Fortune,, June 1, 2016; Nancy Brumback, “6. A.G. Lafley, Chairman and CEO, Procter & Gamble Company,” Supermarket News, July 25, 2005.
12. Linda Hill, Greg Brandeau, Emily Truelove, and Kent Linebeck, Collective Genius (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2015).
13. Carol Hymowitz, “Middle Managers Are Unsung Heroes on Corporate Stage,” Wall Street Journal, September 19, 2005, p. B1.
14. Andrew S. Grove 1936-2016, Intelcom,, accessed September 16, 2017.)
15. “How the Best Are Measured,” Great Place to Work,, accessed October 30, 2017.
16. Oscar Raymundo, “5 Reasons Googlers Think It’s the Best Place to Work,” Inc.,, accessed November 11, 2017.
17. “Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For 2017,”,, accessed October 30, 2017.
18. Megan Bruneau, “Overcome ‘Analysis Paralysis’ and Execute on Your Idea: 5 Tips from Ollie Cofounder Gabby Slome,” Forbes, https:, November 19, 2017.
19. Elliot Mest, “6 Ways That Hotels Can Prevent, Prepare for Crisis Situations,” Hotel Management,, November 15, 2017.
20. Rajiv Joseph, “More Than the Usual Opening Night Jitters,” The New York Times,, November 26, 2017.
21. Ibid.
22. This section is adapted from Vivian Giang, “The 7 Types of Power That Shape the Workplace,” Business Insider,, July 31, 2013.
23. Andrew White, “Put Data and Analytics at the Heart of Your Digital Business,” Gartner Blog Network,, November 20, 2017,
24. David J. Parnell, “Robert Romanoff of Levenfeld Pearlstein: Real Change Requires Leadership, Not Consensus,” Forbes,, November 6, 2017; “Matthew W. Schuyler,”, accessed September 16, 2017.
25. Richard Lewis, “How Different Cultures Understand Time,” Business Insider,, June 1, 2014.

Designing Organizational Structures

1. “2016 Annual Report,”, accessed July 18, 2017.
2. “ITT 2016 Fact Sheet V2,”, accessed July 18, 2017.
3. “Our Business,”, accessed July 18, 2017.
4. “Pixar Animation Studios,” The Disney Wiki,, accessed July 18, 2017; Bob Gower, “Want a Creative Culture? Pixar Says Do These 3 Things,” Inc.,, August 9, 2016.
5. “Corporate Overview,”, accessed July 18, 2017.
6. “Corporate Structure,”, accessed July 18, 2017.
7. Herman Vantrappen and Frederic Wirtz, “Making Matrix Organizations Actually Work,” Harvard Business Review,, March 1, 2016.
8. “Executive Committee and Organizational Structure,”, accessed July 19, 2017.
9. Ethan Chazin, “Self-Managed Teams: The Future of Employee Engagement,” LinkedIn,, July 19, 2017.
10. Jennifer Reingold, “How a Radical Shift Left Zappos Reeling,” Fortune,, March 4, 2016.
11. Christian Wissmuller, “String Theory: Prominent Suppliers Discuss the Electric Guitar and Bass String Market,” Musical Merchandise Review,, June 14, 2017; Alan Deutschman, “The Fabric of Creativity,” Fast Company,, December 1, 2004.
12. “Morning Star’s Success Story: No Bosses, No Titles, No Structural Hierarchy,” Corporate Rebels,, November 14, 2016.
13. Justin Young, “Unilever’s Organizational Structure for Product Innovation,” Panmore Institute,, February 21, 2017; “Unilever UK Gets Its House in Order,” Grocer, February 12, 2005; “From Rivalry to Mergers: Anglo-Dutch Companies,” The Economist, February 12, 2005, p. 61.
14. Steve Lohr, “Microsoft to Cut Up to 4,000 Sales and Marketing Jobs,” The New York Times,, July 6, 2017.
15. “Fortune 2017 100 Best Companies to Work For: #52 W.L. Gore & Associates,” Fortune,, accessed July 19, 2017.
16. “I Heard It Through the Grapevine,” American Management Association,, accessed July 19, 2017.
17. “Key Outsourcing Trends from Deloitte’s 2016 Global Outsourcing Survey,”, accessed July 19, 2017.
18. Patrick Gillespie, “Intuit: Gig Economy Is 34% of US Workforce,” CNN Money,, May 24, 2017.
19. Missy Chaiet, “6 Steps to Creating Better Strategic Outsourcing Partnerships,”, July 1, 2016.
20. Allan Steinmetz, “Seven Steps for Cultural Integration During a Merger or Acquisition,”, accessed July 21, 2017.

Managing Human Resources and Labor Relations

1. Maria M. Perotin, “New Alcon Soft Lens Solutions Approved,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, October 13, 2005, p. 2c.
2. Kate Taylor and Dennis Green, “Best Buy’s CEO Led the Retailer in an Incredible Turnaround,” Business Insider,, March 25, 2018.
3. Ibid.
4. “About Carbone Smolan Agency,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
5. “The Wonderlic Personnel Tests,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
6. “Yankee Candle Improves Performance by 40% with the Predictive Index®,”, accessed February 8 2018; Eric Krell, “Personality Counts,” HR Magazine, vol. 50 (November 2005), pp. 46–52.
7. Carolyn Murray LinkedIn Profile, accessed February 15, 2018,; “Gore-Tex,” Fast Company, January, 1999, p. 160.
8. “Work, Environment & Culture,”, accessed February 8, 2018; Stephanie Oferman, “Mentors without Borders,” HR Magazine, vol. 49 (March 2004), pp. 83–86.
9. “How America’s Top Railroad Learns to Fly,”, December 5, 2017; Eric Krell, “Budding Relationships,” HR Magazine, vol. 50 (June 2005), pp. 114–118.
10. “MillerCoors Hourly Pay,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
11. Jacob Morgan, “The Top 10 Factors for On-the-Job Employee Happiness,” Forbes,, December 15, 2014.
12. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary,”, January 19, 2018; Megan Dunn and James Walker, “Union Membership in the United States,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 2016.
13. Jill Lawrence, “Union’s Break off from AFL-CIO,” USA Today, July 26, 2005, pp. 5A and 6A.
14. “About Us,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
15. Alisa Priddle and Brent Snavely, “UAW-Ford Deal Passes, and New Era Begins for Detroit 3,” Detroit Free Press,, November 21, 2015.
16. Reuters, “Alcoa Locks Union Workers Out of Canada Smelter as Contract Expires,”, January 11, 2018.
17. Danielle Paquette, “The Gender Wage Gap Just Shrank for the First Time in a Decade,” The Washington Post,, September 15, 2017; Barry Reece and Monique Reece, “Effective Human Relations: Interpersonal and Organizational Applications, 13e (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2017), p. 356.
18. Kristen Bialik, “7 Facts about Americans with Disabilities,” Pew Research Center,, July 27, 2017.
19. Barry Reece and Monique Reece, Effective Human Relations: Interpersonal and Organizational Applications, 13e (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2017), p. 362.
20. Alexia Elejalde-Ruiz, “Ford Settles Sexual, Racial Harassment Claims at Chicago Plants for $10 Million,” Chicago Tribune,, August 17, 2017.
21. Taylor H. Cox and Stacy Blake, “Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness,” Academy of Management Executive 5(3): 45–56, 1991.
22. United States Postal Service, “Workforce Diversity and Inclusiveness,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
23. Robert Steyer, “CBS Taps Fidelity Investments as Record Keeper for 401(k) Plan,” Pensions & Investments,, August 10, 2017.
24. Ruth Umoh, “Want to Score a Job at Microsoft, Facebook, IBM or Amazon? Here Are Top Tips from Their HR Executives,” CNBC,, November 29, 2017.
25. “About SEIU,”, accessed February 8, 2018; Ira Boudway, “Union Booster Mary Kay Henry,” Bloomberg Businessweek,, October 19, 2016.
26. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupations with the Most Job Growth: 2016–2026,”, accessed February 8, 2018.
27. “Victory! Hundreds of ResCare Workers Unionize to Join SEIU 721,”, accessed February 8, 2018.

Motivating Employees

1. “Wegmans Food Markets #2,” Fortune,, accessed October 30, 2017; “20th Year in a Row: Fortune Names Wegmans One of 2017 Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For, Ranking #2,”, March 9, 2017; Claire Zillman, “Secrets from Best Companies All Stars,” Fortune,, March 9, 2017; Matthew Boyle, “The Wegmans Way,” Fortune, January 24, 2005, pp. 62–68.
2. Ibid.
3. “Genencor Named One of America’s Best Places to Work,” Dupont Industrial Biosciences,, accessed October 30, 2017; Robert H. Mayer,, accessed October 30, 2017.
4. “Sony Names Kazuo Hirai as President and CEO; Sir Howard Stringer to Become Chairman of the Board of Directors” (press release),, February 1, 2012; Brent Schlender, “Inside the Shakeup at Sony: The Surprising Selection of Howard Stringer as Sony’s CEO was a Classic Boardroom Tale of Executive Intrigue and Dashed Ambitions,” Fortune, April 4, 2005, p. 94.
5. Michael Sasso, “Delivery Services Getting High Marks for the Holidays,” Boston Globe,, December 28, 2017.
6. Suzanna Kim, “Urban Outfitters Asks Employees to Volunteer for Weekend Shift in ‘Team Building Activity,’” ABC News,, October 9, 2015.
7. Catey Hill, “6 Jobs Where Workers Get a Flexible Schedule—and Easily Make $100,000,” Moneyish,, accessed January 12, 2018; “2017 Employee Benefits: Remaining Competitive in a Challenging Talent Marketplace,” Society for Human Resource Management,, accessed November 16, 2017.
8. Ibid.
9. “Piloting the Part-Time Team Initiative,”, accessed January 13, 2018; “2017 Employee Benefits,” Society for Human Resource Management,, accessed November 16, 2017; Karen Turner, “Amazon Is Piloting Teams with a 30-hour Workweek,” The Washington Post,, accessed November 16, 2017; David Morris, “Amazon Tests 30-Hour Work Week,” Fortune,, accessed November 16, 2017; Theresa Agovino, “Is It Time to Kill the 40-Hour Workweek?,” Society for Human Resource Management,, accessed November 16, 2017; Stephan Aarstol, “What Happened When I Moved My Company to a 5-Hour Workday,” Fast Company,, accessed November 16, 2017.
10. Jacquelyn Pawela-Crew,, accessed October 30, 2017; Dan Enloe,, accessed October 30, 2017; Susan Caminiti, “A Champion of Change,” Fortune, September 20, 2004, p. S10.
11. Ibid.
12. Ricardo Semler, “What Happens When You Run a Company with (Almost) No Rules?” TED Radio Hour,, accessed January 14, 2018; Mallen Baker, “Ricardo Semler: The Radical Boss Who Proved That Workplace Democracy Works,” Mallen Baker’s Respectful Business Blog,, accessed January 14, 2018; Stacy A. Teicher, “On the Frontier of Flexibility; Slowly, Companies Are Offering Flexible Schedules—a Key Demand of Workers,” The Christian Science Monitor, June 7, 2004, p. 13.
13. Maria Lamagna, “Job Sharing Might Be the Answer to Avoiding Burnout,” New York Post,, accessed January 14, 2018; Maria Lamagna, “Is Job-Sharing a Cop-Out or the Way to Avoid Burnout?” MarketWatch,, accessed January 14, 2018; Vivian Wagner, “Take This Job and Share It,” AARP,, accessed January 14, 2018; “Work Muse in the News!”, accessed January 14, 2018.
14. Paige Magarrey, “The Motley Fool’s Awesome Employee Engagement Tactics,” Workopolis,, accessed January 15, 2018; Ashley Bell, “33 Thoughtful Employee Recognition & Appreciation Ideas for 2018,” SnackNation,, accessed January 15, 2018; Lindsay Tigar, “6 Job Perks that Actually Inspire Employee Happiness,” Ladders,, accessed January 15, 2018; “Our Mission: Helping the World Invest — Better,” The Motley Fool,, accessed January 15, 2018.
15. “Why Employees at Apple and Google Are More Productive,” Fast Company,, accessed January 15, 2018; Robert Shaw, “At Netflix, Autonomy above All Else,” Business Management Daily,, accessed January 15, 2018; Aimee Groth, “This Company Trusts Its Employees So Much It Has a ‘No Limits’ Expense Policy,” Quartz,, accessed January 15, 2018; Janko Roettgers, “How Netflix Ticks: Five Key Insights from the Company’s New Corporate Culture Manifesto,” Variety,, accessed January 15, 2018; Timothy Stenovec, “One Reason for Netflix’s Success —It Treats Employees Like Grownups,” Huffington Post,, accessed January 15, 2018; “Netflix Culture,”, accessed January 15, 2018.
16. Alan Deutschman, “Can Google Stay Google?” Fast Company,, accessed January 14, 2018; Joseph Blasi, “Tech Companies Are Shutting Employees Out of the Stock Market’s Boom,” Fortune,, accessed January 14, 2018.
17. Katie Hafner, “New Incentive for Google Employees: Awards Worth Millions,” The New York Times,, accessed January 14, 2018; Paul Petrone, “Google Found Out That Giving Its Employees Trips to Hawaii Is Better Than $1M Awards,” LinkedIn Talent Blog,, accessed January 14, 2018; Quentin Hardy, “Close to the Vest,” Forbes,, accessed January 14, 2018; Greg Linden, “Google Cuts Founders’ Awards,” Geeking with Greg,, accessed January 14, 2018; James E. McWhinney, “Raise vs. Bonus for Your Small Business Employees?” Investopedia,, accessed January 14, 2018; Jeff D. Opdyke, “Getting a Bonus Instead of a Raise: More Companies Link Pay to Performance for Broad Range of Employees,” The Wall Street Journal, December 29, 2004, p. D1, D2.
18. Paul Davidson, “Got a Small Raise? The Rest May Be in Your Bonus,” USA Today,, accessed January 14, 2018.
19. Jena McGregor, “Elon Musk’s Pay Deal Could Be Worth $55.8 Billion—But He Could Also Get Nothing,” The Washington Post,, January 28, 2018.
20. “Despite Surge in Job Growth, Pay Raises and Bonuses for U.S. Workers Unlikely to Rise in 2018,” Aon Media Center,, accessed January 14, 2018; Jena McGregor, “Your Chances of Getting a Bigger Raise or Bonus in 2018 Just Went Down,” The Washington Post,, accessed January 14, 2018.
21. “A Statistical Profile of Employee Ownership,” National Center for Employee Ownership,, accessed January 15, 2018; “ESOPs by the Numbers,” National Center for Employee Ownership,, accessed January 15, 2018; OverHeadWatch Team, “What Is an ESOP? 3 Reasons Why You Should Consider It,”, accessed January 20, 2018; “The Pros and Cons of Employee Stock Ownership Plans,”, accessed January 20, 2018.
22. Ibid.
23. “Research on Employee Ownership, Corporate Performance, and Employee Compensation,” National Center for Employee Ownership,, accessed January 15, 2018; “A Statistical Profile of Employee Ownership,” National Center for Employee Ownership,, accessed January 15, 2018; George Erb, “At Northwest Firms with ESOPs, Employees Act Like They Own the Place,” The Seattle Times,, accessed January 15, 2018; OverHeadWatch Team, “What Is an ESOP? 3 Reasons Why You Should Consider It,”, accessed January 15, 2018.
24. Tony Bartelme, “Stickin’ with the Pig: A Tale of Loyalty and Loss,” The Post and Courier,, accessed January 14, 2018; “Piggly Wiggly Parent’s Shares Virtually Worthless: Report,” Progressive Grocer,, accessed January 14, 2018; Warren L. Wise, “Judge Tosses Some Claims, Leaves Others in Piggly Wiggly Carolina Federal Lawsuit,” The Post and Courier,, accessed January 14, 2018; “Grapevine: Charleston Judge Tells Both Sides in Piggly Wiggly Suit to Sit Down, Talk It Out,” The Post and Courier,, accessed January 20, 2018; “Three Lessons from the Failure of Piggly Wiggly,”, accessed January 20, 2018; Loren Rodgers, “Former Employee Ownership 100 Company: Stock Now Essentially Worthless,”, accessed January 20, 2018; Warren L. Wise, “Former Piggly Wiggly Employees Told Stock Values Plummet to Near Zero,” The Post and Courier,, accessed January 14, 2018.
25. Brena Swanson, “Are Employee Stock Ownership Plans the Key to Healthier Mortgage Finance Companies?” HousingWire,, accessed January 20, 2018; Rob Chrisman, “Jobs vs Rates; Zillow, CFPB, & RESPA in the Spotlight?” Mortgage News Daily,, accessed January 20, 2018; Loren Rodgers, “The Employee Ownership Update,”, accessed January 20, 2018; Rob Chrisman, “ESOP Ownership, Retail & Wholesale Jobs,”, accessed January 20, 2018; “Axia Home Loans Unveils Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP),”, accessed January 20, 2018; “ESOP Attracts Top Management,”, accessed January 20, 2018; Gellert Dornay, “ESOPs: An Attractive Exit Strategy,” Mortgage Banking July 1, 2016.
26. Ibid.
27. David Burkus, “Research Shows That Organizations Benefit When Employees Take Sabbaticals,” Harvard Business Review,, accessed January 21, 2018; Jeanne Sahadi, “These Workplace Benefits Are Slowly Fading Away,” CNN Money,, accessed January 21, 2018; “2017 Employee Benefits Remaining Competitive in a Challenging Talent Marketplace,” Society for Human Resource Management,, accessed January 21, 2018; David Burkus, “The Surprising Benefit of Work Sabbaticals,” Forbes,, accessed January 21, 2018.
28. Kathy Gurchiek, “4 Winning Workflex Strategies,” HR Magazine,, accessed January 21, 2018; “Morris Financial Concepts,”, accessed January 21, 2018; Kathy Gurchiek, “Winning with Workflex,” HR Magazine,, accessed January 21, 2018; Cassidy Solis, “2017 When Work Works Award Winners Announced,”, accessed January 21, 2018; SHRM Online Staff, “When Work Works Winners Honored for Effective Workplace Practices,”, accessed January 21, 2018.
29. Kathryn Vassal, “This Company Just Started Offering 6-Week Sabbaticals,” CNN Money,, accessed January 22, 2018; Valerie Bolden-Barrett, “Zillow to Offer Six-Week, Half-Paid Sabbaticals to Some Employees,” HR Dive,, accessed January 22, 2018; Mary Shacklett, “Why More Tech Workers Should Take Sabbaticals,” TechRepublic,, accessed January 22, 2018; Kara Stiles, “Why Zillow Rewards Mid-Career Staff with Six-Week Sabbaticals,” Forbes,, accessed January 22, 2018; Amanda Pressner Kreuser, “One Underused Perk That Keeps Top Talent Happy and Productive at Work,” Inc.,, accessed January 22, 2018.
30. Kathy Gurchiek, “Fill Skills Gaps Using Learning Sabbaticals,”, accessed January 22, 2018; Hailley Griffis, “Why This Company Implemented a Learning Sabbatical for Its Employees,” Fast Company,, accessed January 22, 2018; Hailley Griffis, “Learning Sabbatical: How Existing Employees Are Developing New Skills for Different Roles,” Buffer,, accessed January 22, 2018.
31. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “2017 Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey,”, accessed January 23, 2018; “2016 Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey,”, accessed January 23, 2018; Jean Folger, “The Causes and Costs of Absenteeism,” Investopedia,, accessed January 23, 2018; Stephanie Martin Velez, “When Employees Call Off Work, You Lose Money (This is how much..),” LinkedIn,, accessed January 23, 2018; Ashley Handy, “The Cost of Absenteeism in the Workplace and How to Control It,”, accessed January 23, 2018; Nettime Solutions Staff, “Minimize Employee Absenteeism with Time & Attendance Software,”, accessed January 23, 2018; Bill Cushard, “The Impact of Absenteeism,”, accessed January 23, 2018; Caron Beesley, “Absenteeism in the Workplace: 7 Ways to Resolve This Bottom Line Killer,”, accessed January 23, 2018.
32. Ibid.
33. “Increased Number of Workers Calling in Sick When They Aren’t, Finds CareerBuilder’s Annual Survey,”, accessed January 23, 2018; “CareerBuilder Survey: More Workers Calling in Sick When They Aren’t,” Fox 5,, accessed January 23, 2018; Melissa Wylie, “More Staffers Calling in Sick—Even if They’re Not,” Bizwomen,, accessed January 23, 2018; Aimee Picchi, “The Worst Excuses for Taking a Sick Day,” MoneyWatch,, accessed January 23, 2018.
34. Folger, “The Causes and Costs of Absenteeism”; Martin Velez, “When Employees Call Off Work, You Lose Money”; “How to Reduce Absenteeism in the Workplace,” GTM Business Blog,, accessed January 23, 2018; “Absence Management: Three Ways to Reduce Employee Absenteeism,”, accessed January 23, 2018; Patricia Lotich, “4 Tips for Reducing Absenteeism in the Workplace,” The Thriving Small Business,, accessed January 23, 2018.
35. Brandon Carter, “2017 Employee Engagement & Loyalty Statistics,” Access Perks Blog,, accessed January 24, 2018; “Job Seeking & Hiring Statistics,” Statistic Brain,, accessed January 24, 2018; Brandon Carter, “Employee Engagement & Loyalty Statistics: The Ultimate Collection,” Access Perks Blog,, accessed January 24, 2018; Marcel Schwantes, “Why Do Employees Really Quit Their Jobs? Research Says It Comes Down to These Top 8 Reasons,” Inc.,, accessed January 24, 2018.
36. Bernard Marr, “Why Great Employees Quit,” CNBC,, accessed January 24, 2018; Marcel Schwantes, “Why Do People Quit Their Jobs, Exactly? Here’s the Entire Reason, Summed Up in 1 Sentence,” Inc.,, accessed January 24, 2018; Jack Altman, “Don’t Be Surprised When Your Employees Quit,” Forbes,, accessed January 24, 2018; “Why Employees Quit, According to New Glassdoor Economic Research,”, accessed January 24, 2018; Phil Albinus, “The Real Reason Employees Leave Their Employer,” Employee Benefit News (Online),, accessed January 24, 2018; Joyce Maroney, “Stay or Go? Employees Say Job Satisfaction Matters Most,” Workforce Institute,, accessed January 24, 2018.

Achieving World-Class Operations Management

1. Soyoung Kim, “New Water Bottling Plant in Los Lunas Brings Jobs, But Also Concerns,” KRQE News,, November 17, 2016.
2. Brandon Loomis, “What drought? Nestle Plans $35 million plant to bottle water in Phoenix,” The Republic,, May 19, 2016.
3. Lydia DePillis, “Cities Try to Lure Amazon, But Want to Keep the Details Secret,” CNN,, October 19, 2017.
4. Mike Colias and William Mauldin, “GM Expects to Move 600 Supplier Jobs from Mexico to Texas,” The Wall Street Journal,, June 16, 2017.
5. Christian Davenport, “Is $48 Too Much for the Federal Government to Pay for a Hammer?” The Washington Post,, June 25, 2014.
6. “Army Awards FedBid Contract to Provide Reverse Auction Acquisition Solution,” Business Wire,, May 31, 2017.
7. Aaron Huff, “Will Blockchain Extend or Disrupt Your Business?” Commercial Carrier Journal,, December 19, 2017.
8. Claudia Infante,“Value Stream Mapping Boosts Productivity for Awning Maker,” Finance New Mexico,, October 9, 2016.
9. “Best of the Best” Win U.S. National Excellence Honor: 2017 Baldrige Award Goes to 5 Outstanding Organizations,”, November 16, 2017.
10. National Association of Manufacturers, “Top 20 Facts About Manufacturing,”, accessed February 20, 2018.
11. Ibid.
12. Matt Hourihan and David Parkes, “AAAS Appropriations Roundup,”, September 16, 2016.
13. World Bank, “High-Technology Exports,”, accessed February 20, 2018.
14. National Association of Manufacturers, “Manufacturers Strive to Close Skills Gap,”, accessed February 20, 2018.
15. Benjamin Brandell, “What Is Business Process Management? A Really Simple Introduction,” Business 2 Community,, August 18, 2016.
16. Dave Blanchard, “Dell Reinvents Its Supply Chain,” Industry Week,, December 16, 2010.
17. “Business Value of Process Standards,”, accessed February 20, 2018.

Creating Products and Pricing Strategies to Meet Customers' Needs

1. “Lexus Rises to the Top in Customer Satisfaction,” Automotive News,, August 25, 2015.
2. “What Is Customer Retention?” Customer Insight Group,, April 20, 2017.
3. Anna Nicolaou, “How Streaming Saved the Music Industry,” Financial Times,, January 16, 2017.
4. Catalin Zorzini, “Infographic: An Analysis of Online Shopping Habits of Men & Women,”, accessed October 8, 2017.
5. “Nielsen Announces Launch of National Television Out-of-Home Measurement Service,”, October 24, 2016.
6. Gary Hamel and Nancy Tenant, “The Five Requirements of a Truly Innovative Company,” Harvard Business Review,, April 27, 2015.
7. Drake Baer and Jay Yarrow, “22 of the Most Epic Product Failures in History,” Business Insider,, July 31, 2014.
8. Eugene Kim, “Amazon’s Prime Membership Is Eating into Costco and Sam’s Club’s Territory,” Business Insider,, September 26, 2016.
9. Glenn Taylor, “More than 90% of Consumers Use Smartphones While Shopping in Stores,” Retail Touch Points,, August 20, 2015.
10. Daniel Boffey, “Google Price Comparison Site to Compete with Rivals for Top Search Slot,” The Guardian,, September 27, 2017.

Distributing and Promoting Products and Services

1. Jessica Dyer, “Albuquerque Lands a Big Catch in Retailing,” Albuquerque Journal,, July 14, 2016; Stephen Singer, “Cabela’s Touted as a Tourist Destination,” Deseret News,, October 28, 2007.
2. Dan Orlando, “Kraft Heinz, Oprah Announce Retail Food Line,” Supermarket News,, August 11, 2017.
3. “Stunt Marketing or No, Dominos Has Refurbished Their Brand,” University of Maryland website, December 1, 2016,
4. Edmundas Jasinskas et al, “Impact of Hotel Service Quality on the Loyalty of Customers,” Economic Research, 29(1): 559–572, 2016.
5. “Low fares. Nothing to hide: Transfarency,”, accessed March 21, 2018; S. Carey, “Southwest Airlines Launches ‘Transfarency’ Campaign,” The Wall Street Journal,, October 8, 2015.
6. Lucia Moses, “A Look at Kids’ Exposure to Ads,” Ad Week,, March 11, 2014.
7. “US Ad Spending: The eMarketer Forecast for 2017,” eMarketer,, March 15, 2017.
8. “Global Ad Spending Growth to Double This Year,” eMarketer,, July 9, 2014.
9. Lara O’Reilly, “These Are the 10 Companies that Spend the Most on Advertising,” Business Insider,, July 6, 2015
10. “TV Universe Grows to 119.6 Million Homes for 2016-2017 Season,” Marketing Charts,, August 29, 2017.
11. Jim Tincher, “Your Moment of Truth,” Customer Think,, August 30, 2016.
12. “Coupon Statistics: The Ultimate Collection,” Access Development,, May 17, 2017.
13. Drew Hendricks, “5 Ways to Enhance Your SEO Campaign with Online Coupons,” Forbes,, May 13, 2015
14. Laurent Muzellec, “James Bond, Dunder Mifflin, and the Future of Product Placement,” Harvard Business Review,, June 23, 2016.
15. Josh Terry, “Unfunny Emoji Movie Is a Sad Echo of 2015’s “Inside Out,” Deseret News,, July 31, 2017.
16. Don Steinberg, “Science Affliction: Are Companies Cursed by Cameos in Blade Runner?” The Wall Street Journal,, September 25, 2017.
17. “Blog Posts Written Today,” WorldoMeter,, accessed August 30, 2017; Tumblr website,, accessed August 30, 2017.
18. Carly Botelho, “5 Impressive Brand Blogs and What They’re Doing Right,” Business 2 Community,, March 21, 2014.
19. Peter Kafka, “Podcast Network Gimlet Media Has Raised Another $5 Million—This Time from Ad Giant WPP,” Recode,, September 6, 2017.
20. “U.S. Pet Food Market Size & Share Is Expected to Reach USD 30.01 Billion in 2022: Zion Market Research,”, May 22, 2017; “How Purina Made Fetch Happen [Again],”,, April 5, 2017.
21. Stefany Zaroban and Fareeha Ali, “US Online Retail Posts Its Largest Gain in Five Years,” Internet Retailer,, August 17, 2017.
22. “Voice Echoes Outside the Warehouse,” DCVelocity,, September 5, 2017.
23. John Furth, “Amazon vs. Walmart Is Shaping Up to Be a Battle of the Mega-Retailers,” New York Daily News,, August 30, 2017.

Using Technology to Manage Information

1. Jason Compton, “Meet the Supercomputer Driving a Business Boom in the UK,” Forbes,, Junes 14, 2016.
2. Patrick Thibodeau, “U.S. To Have 200-Petaflop Supercomputer by Early 2018,”Computer World,, June 21, 2016.
3. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005) p. 8.
4. Bhavan Jaipragas, “Free Trade for Minnows: How Alibaba Gave Malaysia’s e-Hub Hopes a Boost,” This Week in Asia,, November 20, 2017.
5. Jason Newton and Jesse Gosselin, “VA Looks to Install WiFi after News 8 Story,” WTNH News 8,, February 20, 2017.
6. Toby Ward, “Technology, the Intranet, and Employee Productivity,” Prescient Digital Media,, accessed February 21, 2018.
7. John Quain, “Alexa, What Happened to My Car?” The New York Times,, January 25, 2018.
8. Michael Franco, “The Beginner’s Guide to VPN’s,” Life Hacker,, November 20, 2017.
9. Chris Preimesberger, “Why Cloud Services Became the New Normal in 2017,” eWeek,, January 4, 2018.
10. Bob Evans, “How Cloud Heavyweights Microsoft, Amazon and IBM Will Transform Cloud Computing in 2018,” Forbes, January 3, 2018,
11. “Global Managed IT Service Providers Market 2018-2021,” PR Newswire,, January 17, 2018.
12. Kathleen Hickey, “Data Warehouses Integrate Supply Chains,” World Trade, February 1, 2006, p. 42.
13. Sami Barry, “The Strategic Role of a Chief Knowledge Officer,” Helbling and Associates, Inc. Insights,, September 27, 2012.
14. Milon Gupta, “How Strategic Leaders Use Storytelling,” Strategic Thinking,, November 2, 2015.
15. Chris Low, “Information Security Policies Every Business Must Implement,” CIO,, August 16, 2017.
16. Steve Morgan, “Cyber Crime Costs Projected to Reach $2 Trillion by 2019,” Forbes,, January 17, 2016.
17. Sean Michael Kerner, “IDC Analysts Identify IT Security Trends at RSA,” eWeek,, April 22, 2015.
18. Ibid.
19. Jack Cloherty and Pierre Thomas, “Trojan Horse Bug Lurking in Vital US Computers Since 2011,” ABC News,, November 6, 2014.
20. “Effective Planning and Preparation Can Reduce Impact of 2018 Cyber Security Attacks, Data Breaches,” Yahoo Finance,, January 30, 2018.
21. Patrick Watson, “Why Bitcoin Has Inflation Risk,”,, January 13, 2018.
22. Kaveh Waddell, “CSI: Walmart,” The Atlantic,, April 3, 2017; Dave Smith, “Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 2013: New CFAA Draft Aims to Expand, Not Reform, the ‘Worst Law in Technology’,” International Business Times,, March 28, 2013.
23. “Remote Work is ‘the New Normal,’” Fast Company,, February 28, 2018.
24. Michael Guta, “3.9 Million Americans—including Freelancers—Now Work from Home at Least Half the Week,” Small Business Trends,, April 2, 2018.
25. Andrea Loubier, “Benefits of Telecommuting for the Future of Work,” Forbes,, July 20, 2017; Michelle Conlin, “The Easiest Commute of All,” Business Week, December 12, 2005, p. 78.
26. Paul Trujillo, “5 Reasons Small Businesses Need the Cloud,” B2C Community,, January 30, 2018.

Using Financial Information and Accounting

1. Sneha Shah, “10 Biggest Recent Accounting Scandals in America,”, March 27, 2017; Pat Wechsler, “This CEO Spent Nearly 7 Years in Jail. Now He’s Helping Ex-Cons,” Fortune,, February 16, 2016; Joseph Ax, “Ex-Accounting Executive Avoids Prison in Madoff Fraud Case,” Reuters,, July 9, 2015; Scott Cohn, “Former Enron Executive Jeffrey Skilling Moved to Minimum-Security Prison,” CNBC,, January 9, 2014.
2. “Accounting Industry in the U.S.,” Statista,, accessed August 10, 2017; “Accountants and Auditors,” Occupational Outlook Handbook,, accessed August 10, 2017.
3. Raymond Doherty, “Deloitte Overtakes PwC as World’s Largest Firm,”, accessed August 10, 2017.
4. “About the AICPA,”, accessed August 10, 2017.
5. Eric Krell, “What Triggers Financial Restatements?” Business Finance magazine,, accessed August 10, 2017.
6. “A Guide to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act,”, accessed August 11, 2017; Ken Tysiac, “Companies Spending More Time on SOX Compliance,” Journal of Accountancy,, June 12, 2017.
7. “Fine-Tuning the SOX Compliance Process,”, accessed August 11, 2017.
8. “Key Developments in Standard-Setting for Private Companies,”, accessed August 10, 2017.
9. Henry Bell, “6 Accounting Trends to Watch Out for in 2017 (And How to Make the Most of Then),” The Receipt Bank Blog,, December 19, 2016; Samuel Edwards, “5 Trends Driving Disruption in the Accounting Industry,” Entrepreneur,, September 23, 2016.
10. Mary Ellen Biery, “3 Top Tech Trends for Public Accountants to Watch in 2017,”, February 15, 2017.
11. Sarah Ovaska-Few, “Technology Trends for Accounting Firm Leaders,” Journal of Accountancy,, June 14, 2017.

Understanding Money and Financial Institutions

1. “Currency in Circulation,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
2. “Money Stock and Debt Measures—H.6 Release,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
3. “The Federal Reserve Payments Study 2016,”, accessed September 7, 2017; Brad Kvederis, “The Paper Check Lives: Why the Check Decline Slowed in 2016,”, January 19, 2017.
4. “BLS Spotlight on Statistics: The Recession of 2007–2009,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
5. “Predatory Lending,” The Economist,, accessed September 7, 2017; Steve Denning, “Lest We Forget: Why We Had a Financial Crisis,” Forbes,, November 22, 2011.
6. Kimberly Amadeo, “What Is Too Big to Fail? With Examples of Banks,” The Balance,, accessed September 7, 2017; John Maxfield, “A Timeline of Bear Stearns' Downfall,” The Motley Fool,, accessed September 7, 2017.
7. Chris Isidore, “Fed Made $9 Trillion in Emergency Overnight Loans,” CNN Money,, accessed September 7, 2017.
8. Mark Koba, “Dodd-Frank Act: CNBC Explains,” CNBC,, accessed September 7, 2017.
9. James McBride, “The Role of the U.S. Federal Reserve,” Council on Foreign Relations,, accessed September 7, 2017; Donna Borak, “For the First Time, All U.S. Banks Pass Fed’s Stress Tests,” CNN Money,, June 28, 2017.
10. “Statistics at a Glance as of June 30, 2017,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
11. “FDIC-Insured Savings Institutions,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
12. “A Brief History of Credit Unions,” and “Industry at a Glance as of 3/31/17,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
13. “U.S. Public Pension Assets Rise to $3.396 Trillion in Q4—Census,”, March 30, 2017.
14. “Who Is the FDIC?”, accessed September 7, 2017.
15. James Passeri, “Citigroup Tops List of U.S. Banks with Exposure to China: Update,”, January 13, 2016.
16. “Assets and Liabilities of U.S. Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banks,”, accessed September 8, 2017.
17. Thomas Colson, “At Least 12 Banks Are Moving Some Operations from London to Dublin after Brexit,” Business Insider,, June 30, 2017; Peter S. Goodman, “Europe’s Economy, After 8-Year Detour, Is Fitfully Back on Track,” The New York Times,, April 29, 2016.
18. Julie Conroy, “Top 10 Trends in Retail Banking & Payments, 2017: Data Analytics Differentiate,”, accessed September 7, 2017.
19. Andre Bourque, “12 Top Fintech Companies to Watch,” Entrepreneur,, February 28, 2017.
20. Jim Marous, “Top 10 Retail Banking Trends and Predictions for 2017,” The Financial Brand,, accessed September 7, 2017.
21. Paul Maplesden, “8 PayPal Alternatives for Your Online Business,”, accessed September 7, 2017; “Pros and Cons of Mobile Check Deposit,” Consumer Reports,, accessed September 7, 2017.

Understanding Financial Management and Securities Markets

1. Danielle Kurtzleben, “While Trump Touts Stock Market, Many Americans Are Left Out of the Conversation,” NPR,, March 1, 2017.
2. Gary P. Pisano, “You Need an Innovation Strategy,” Harvard Business Review,, accessed October 10, 2017.
3. Panos Mourdoukoutas, “Corning Beats Apple,” Forbes,, July 9, 2017.
4. Janis O’Dwyer, “5 Accounts Receivable & Collection Statistics That Should Scare You,”, March 30, 2017.
5. Susan Kelly, “Credit Management Technology Plays Catch-Up,” Treasury & Risk,, March 20, 2017.
6. Jason Bramwell, “CFOs More Likely to Outsource Accounting and Finance Projects,” Accounting Web,, accessed October 10, 2017.
7. Joshua Kennon, “How to Calculate Inventory Turnover/Turns from the Balance Sheet,” The Balance,, February 28, 2017.
8. Peter McKay, “Why Going Public Doesn’t Make Sense Right Now,” Fortune,, September 13, 2017; Brandon Kochkodin, “Blue Apron Is the IPO Bust of the Decade,” Bloomberg,, August 10, 2017.
9. Chris Taylor, “The Best 11 Dividend Stocks for 2017,” Fortune,, December 2016.
10. Jessica E. Vascellaro, “Apple Pads Investor Wallets,” The Wall Street Journal,, accessed October 10, 2017.
11. Suzanne Woolley, “TD Ameritrade Jumps into Price War with Fidelity and Schwab,” Bloomberg,, February 27, 2017.
12. “US Bond Trading Volume” and “2016 Year in Review,”, accessed October 10, 2017.
13. “2016 Year in Review,”, accessed October 10, 2017.
14. “US Bond Market Issuance & Outstanding,”, accessed October 10, 2017.
15. “2016 Year in Review.
16. “2017 Investment Company Fact Book,”, accessed October 11, 2017.
17. Ibid.
18. “Markets Diary: Closing Snapshot,” The Wall Street Journal,, accessed October 11, 2017; “NYSE 2016 Year in Review,”, accessed October 11, 2017.
19. “Non-U.S. Issuers Data,”, accessed October 11, 2017.
20. John D’Antona, “The Reg NMS Debate Goes On and On,”, June 23, 2017.
21. “NASDAQ 2017/2016 Monthly Volumes,”, accessed October 11, 2017.
22. “NASDAQ’s Story,”, accessed October 12, 2017.
23. “NASDAQ’s Listing Markets,”, accessed October 12, 2017.
24. Jeff Desjardins, “Here Are the 20 Biggest Stock Exchanges in the World,” Business Insider,, April 11, 2017; Jeff Desjardins, “All of the World’s Stock Exchanges by Size,” Visual Capitalist,, February 16, 2016.
25. “Indian Sensex Stock Market Index” and “Indian GDP Annual Growth Rate,”, accessed October 12, 2017.
26. Zack Guzman and Mark Koba, “When Do Circuit Breakers Kick In? CNBC Explains,” CNBC,, January 8, 2016.
27. “The CFO’s Evolving Role,”, August 1, 2017; John Maxfield, “The Dodd-Frank Act Explained,” USA Today,, February 3, 2017.
28. Frank Chaparro, “A Merger Between 2 Stock Exchange Behemoths Makes a Lot of Sense,” Business Insider,, April 12, 2017.

Your Career in Business

1. Kristine Tucker, “The Importance of Interpersonal Skills in the Workplace,” Career Trend,, July 5, 2017.
2. Christina DesMarais, “How to Think on Your Feet Under Pressure: 6 Tips,” Inc.,, accessed November 14, 2017.
3. The Persuasion self-test was created by the authors and from the following sources: Persuade Others to Follow Your Way of Thinking,; Six Unique Ways to Persuade Others,; Strategies of Influence and Persuasion, Kendrick Cleveland,; Power Persuasion—How to Persuade People,; How to Persuade and Influence People, Wolf J. Rinke, Ph.D., CSP, #554 Innovative Leader, Volume 11, Number 6, June 2002,
4. The Office Politics scale was developed by the authors and from the following sources: Don’t Sabotage Your Success!—Make Office Politics Work, Karen Ginsburg Wood,; Play the Office Politics Game, Cynthia A. Broderick,; The Fairness of Office Politics . . . Integrity and Political Motivation! Edward B. Toupin,; Fly Under the Radar to Absorb Delicate Office Politics, Peter Vogt, MonsterTRAK Career Coach,; The New Office Politics: We’ve Seen the Enemy at Work, and Sometimes It’s Us, Audrey Edwards, Essence, March 2005,; Assessment—Office Politics, First Edition,; and Play Office Politics and Keep Your Soul,
5. Alison Davis, “15 Questions You Should Ask Every Time You Start a Project,” Inc.,, accessed November 19, 2017; Brett Harned, “10 Important Questions to Ask Your Client Before Your Project Starts,”, May 7, 2015.
6. The section on planning is adapted from: Investing in Your Future (Thomson South-Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation, 2007), pp. 1–10.
7. The material on Going to College is adapted from Abby Marks-Beale, Success Skills: Strategies for Study and Lifelong Learning (Thomson South-Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation, 2007).
8. The Time Management scale was created by the authors and from the following sources: Time Management Quiz,; Manage Your Time in Ten Steps,,1120,1-263,00.html; Time Management Quiz,; Stress Management, Better Health Channel, Stress Management Quiz,; Time Management,; and Time Management: Importance of Good Practice,
9. The Ability to Manage Money scale was created by your authors from the following sources: Quiz – Can You Manage Money?,; Money,; Psychology of Money Management,; Managing Your Money,; The Importance of Managing Money,; and How Do You Rate as a Money Manager?,
10. The self-quiz on How to Study was prepared by the authors and from the following sources: EDinformatics – Education for the Information Age,; The Manila Times, March 20, 2004,; Ten Traps of Studying—Improving Your Studying Skills—CAPS—UNC—Chapel Hill,; and Language Study Skills,
11. Peter Jones, “5 Ways to Make Your Career Dreams Come True,” The Job Network,, accessed November 19, 2017; Julie Griffin Levitt. Your Career: How to Make It Happen, 5th edition (Thomson South-Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation, 2006), pp. 2–4.
12. The Assertiveness test was prepared by the authors and from the following sources: Test Your Assertive Level,; Assertive Action Plan,; Assertiveness,; Perception of Assertiveness as a Function of Tag Questions,; and Assertion Training,
13. Brian Tracy, “Top 7 Qualities Employers Are Looking For in Candidates,” Undercover Recruiter,, accessed November 19, 2017; Liz Ryan, “12 Qualities Employers Look for When They’re Hiring,” Forbes,, March 2, 2016.
14. “25 Best Cities for Jobs 2017,” Glassdoor,, accessed November 19, 2017; Tony Merevick, “Here Are the 25 Best Cities in America to Find a Job This Year,” Thrillist,, September 15, 2017.
15. “Entry Level Resume Information,”, accessed November 19, 2017.
16. “How We Hire,”, accessed November 19, 2017.
17. “Top 15 Most Popular Job Websites: July 2017,” eBiz/MBA Guide,, accessed November 19, 2017.
18. Mary Brandel, “Tech Resume Makeover: How to Add Multimedia,” CIO,, accessed November 19, 2017.
19. Alison Doyle, “Resume Keywords and Tips for Using Them,” The Balance,, August 4, 2017.
20. Ibid.
21. Katharine Hansen, “College Students: You Simply Must Do an Internship (Better yet: Multiple Internships)!” Live Career,, accessed November 19, 2017.
22. “17 Clever Ways to Interview Like a Pro,” Undercover Recruiter,, accessed November 19, 2017; Alison Doyle, “Most Common Interview Mistakes,” The Balance,, October 9, 2017.
23. The Are You a Good Listener scale was created by the authors and from the following sources: American Management Association – Self-Test: Are You a Good Listener,; How To Be an Active Listener,; Are You a Good Listener?,; Are You a Good Listener?,; Productivity – Are You a Good Listener?,; Are You a Good Listener?—Listen and Profit, Mike Kelly,; Joan Lloyd at Work,; and Humanities 2000—Listening Skills,
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