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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Use the Language of Algebra
    3. 1.2 Integers
    4. 1.3 Fractions
    5. 1.4 Decimals
    6. 1.5 Properties of Real Numbers
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Solving Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Use a General Strategy to Solve Linear Equations
    3. 2.2 Use a Problem Solving Strategy
    4. 2.3 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    5. 2.4 Solve Mixture and Uniform Motion Applications
    6. 2.5 Solve Linear Inequalities
    7. 2.6 Solve Compound Inequalities
    8. 2.7 Solve Absolute Value Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Graphs and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Graph Linear Equations in Two Variables
    3. 3.2 Slope of a Line
    4. 3.3 Find the Equation of a Line
    5. 3.4 Graph Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    6. 3.5 Relations and Functions
    7. 3.6 Graphs of Functions
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Systems of Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Solve Systems of Linear Equations with Two Variables
    3. 4.2 Solve Applications with Systems of Equations
    4. 4.3 Solve Mixture Applications with Systems of Equations
    5. 4.4 Solve Systems of Equations with Three Variables
    6. 4.5 Solve Systems of Equations Using Matrices
    7. 4.6 Solve Systems of Equations Using Determinants
    8. 4.7 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 5.2 Properties of Exponents and Scientific Notation
    4. 5.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 5.4 Dividing Polynomials
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Factoring
    1. Introduction to Factoring
    2. 6.1 Greatest Common Factor and Factor by Grouping
    3. 6.2 Factor Trinomials
    4. 6.3 Factor Special Products
    5. 6.4 General Strategy for Factoring Polynomials
    6. 6.5 Polynomial Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Rational Expressions and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Multiply and Divide Rational Expressions
    3. 7.2 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions
    4. 7.3 Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
    5. 7.4 Solve Rational Equations
    6. 7.5 Solve Applications with Rational Equations
    7. 7.6 Solve Rational Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Roots and Radicals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Simplify Expressions with Roots
    3. 8.2 Simplify Radical Expressions
    4. 8.3 Simplify Rational Exponents
    5. 8.4 Add, Subtract, and Multiply Radical Expressions
    6. 8.5 Divide Radical Expressions
    7. 8.6 Solve Radical Equations
    8. 8.7 Use Radicals in Functions
    9. 8.8 Use the Complex Number System
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Quadratic Equations and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Square Root Property
    3. 9.2 Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square
    4. 9.3 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula
    5. 9.4 Solve Quadratic Equations in Quadratic Form
    6. 9.5 Solve Applications of Quadratic Equations
    7. 9.6 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Properties
    8. 9.7 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Transformations
    9. 9.8 Solve Quadratic Inequalities
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Finding Composite and Inverse Functions
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Graph Exponential Functions
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Graph Logarithmic Functions
    5. 10.4 Use the Properties of Logarithms
    6. 10.5 Solve Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Conics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles
    3. 11.2 Parabolas
    4. 11.3 Ellipses
    5. 11.4 Hyperbolas
    6. 11.5 Solve Systems of Nonlinear Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. 12 Sequences, Series and Binomial Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sequences
    3. 12.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 12.3 Geometric Sequences and Series
    5. 12.4 Binomial Theorem
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  14. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  15. Index

5.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials

  • Monomial
    • A monomial is an algebraic expression with one term.
    • A monomial in one variable is a term of the form axm,axm, where a is a constant and m is a whole number.
  • Polynomials
    • Polynomial—A monomial, or two or more algebraic terms combined by addition or subtraction is a polynomial.
    • monomial —A polynomial with exactly one term is called a monomial.
    • binomial — A polynomial with exactly two terms is called a binomial.
    • trinomial —A polynomial with exactly three terms is called a trinomial.
  • Degree of a Polynomial
    • The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents of its variables.
    • The degree of a constant is 0.
    • The degree of a polynomial is the highest degree of all its terms.

5.2 Properties of Exponents and Scientific Notation

  • Exponential Notation
    The figure shows the letter a in a normal font with the label base and the letter m in a superscript font with the label exponent. This means we multiply the number a with itself, m times.
    This is read a to the mthmth power.
    In the expression amam, the exponent m tells us how many times we use the base a as a factor.
  • Product Property for Exponents
    If a is a real number and m and n are integers, then
    am·an=am+nam·an=am+n

    To multiply with like bases, add the exponents.
  • Quotient Property for Exponents
    If aa is a real number, a0,a0, and m and n are integers, then
    aman=amn,m>nandaman=1anm,n>maman=amn,m>nandaman=1anm,n>m
  • Zero Exponent
    • If a is a non-zero number, then a0=1.a0=1.
    • If a is a non-zero number, then a to the power of zero equals 1.
    • Any non-zero number raised to the zero power is 1.
  • Negative Exponent
    • If n is an integer and a0,a0, then an=1anan=1an or 1an=an.1an=an.
  • Quotient to a Negative Exponent Property
    If a,ba,b are real numbers, a0,b0a0,b0 and nn is an integer, then
    (ab)n=(ba)n(ab)n=(ba)n
  • Power Property for Exponents
    If aa is a real number and m,nm,n are integers, then
    (am)n=am·n(am)n=am·n

    To raise a power to a power, multiply the exponents.
  • Product to a Power Property for Exponents
    If a and b are real numbers and m is a whole number, then
    (ab)m=ambm(ab)m=ambm

    To raise a product to a power, raise each factor to that power.
  • Quotient to a Power Property for Exponents
    If aa and are real numbers, b0,b0, and mm is an integer, then
    (ab)m=ambm(ab)m=ambm

    To raise a fraction to a power, raise the numerator and denominator to that power.
  • Summary of Exponent Properties
    If a and b are real numbers, and m and n are integers, then

    Property Description
    Product Property am·an=am+nam·an=am+n
    Power Property (am)n=am·n(am)n=am·n
    Product to a Power (ab)n=ambm(ab)n=ambm
    Quotient Property aman=amn,a0aman=amn,a0
    Zero Exponent Property a0=1,a0a0=1,a0
    Quotient to a Power Property: (ab)m=ambm,b0(ab)m=ambm,b0
    Properties of Negative Exponents an=1anan=1an and 1an=an1an=an
    Quotient to a Negative Exponent (ab)n=(ba)n(ab)n=(ba)n
  • Scientific Notation
    A number is expressed in scientific notation when it is of the form
    a×10nwhere1a<10andnis an integer.a×10nwhere1a<10andnis an integer.
  • How to convert a decimal to scientific notation.
    1. Step 1. Move the decimal point so that the first factor is greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10.
    2. Step 2. Count the number of decimal places, n,n, that the decimal point was moved.
    3. Step 3. Write the number as a product with a power of 10. If the original number is.
      • greater than 1, the power of 10 will be 10n.10n.
      • between 0 and 1, the power of 10 will be 10n.10n.
    4. Step 4. Check.
  • How to convert scientific notation to decimal form.
    1. Step 1. Determine the exponent, n,n, on the factor 10.
    2. Step 2. Move the decimal nn places, adding zeros if needed.
      • If the exponent is positive, move the decimal point nn places to the right.
      • If the exponent is negative, move the decimal point |n||n| places to the left.
    3. Step 3. Check.

5.3 Multiply Polynomials

  • How to use the FOIL method to multiply two binomials.
    The figure shows how to use the FOIL method to multiply two binomials. The example is the quantity a plus b in parentheses times the quantity c plus d in parentheses. The numbers a and c are labeled first and the numbers b and d are labeled last. The numbers b and c are labeled inner and the numbers a and d are labeled outer. A note on the side of the expression tells you to Say it as you multiply! FOIL First Outer Inner Last. The directions are then given in numbered steps. Step 1. Multiply the First terms. Step 2. Multiply the Outer terms. Step 3. Multiply the Inner terms. Step 4. Multiply the Last Terms. Step 5. Combine like terms when possible.
  • Multiplying Two Binomials: To multiply binomials, use the:
    • Distributive Property
    • FOIL Method
  • Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial: To multiply a trinomial by a binomial, use the:
    • Distributive Property
    • Vertical Method
  • Binomial Squares Pattern
    If a and b are real numbers, The figure shows the result of squaring two binomials. The first example is a plus b squared equals a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared. The equation is written out again with each part labeled. The quantity a plus b squared is labeled binomial squared. The terms a squared is labeled first term squared. The term 2 a b is labeled 2 times product of terms. The term b squared is labeled last term squared. The second example is a minus b squared equals a squared minus 2 a b plus b squared. The equation is written out again with each part labeled. The quantity a minus b squared is labeled binomial squared. The terms a squared is labeled first term squared. The term negative 2 a b is labeled 2 times product of terms. The term b squared is labeled last term squared.
  • Product of Conjugates Pattern
    If a,ba,b are real numbers
    The figure shows the result of multiplying a binomial with its conjugate. The formula is a plus b times a minus b equals a squared minus b squared. The equation is written out again with labels. The product a plus b times a minus b is labeled conjugates. The result a squared minus b squared is labeled difference of squares.
    The product is called a difference of squares.
    To multiply conjugates, square the first term, square the last term, write it as a difference of squares.
  • Comparing the Special Product Patterns
    Binomial Squares Product of Conjugates
    (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2(a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2 (ab)2=a22ab+b2(ab)2=a22ab+b2
    (ab)(a+b)=a2b2(ab)(a+b)=a2b2
    •  Squaring a binomial •  Multiplying conjugates
    •  Product is a trinomial •  Product is a binomial.
    •  Inner and outer terms with FOIL are the same. •  Inner and outer terms with FOIL are opposites.
    •  Middle term is double the product of the terms •  There is no middle term.
  • Multiplication of Polynomial Functions:
    • For functions f(x)f(x) and g(x),g(x),
      (f·g)(x)=f(x)·g(x)(f·g)(x)=f(x)·g(x)

5.4 Dividing Polynomials

  • Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial
    • To divide a polynomial by a monomial, divide each term of the polynomial by the monomial.
  • Division of Polynomial Functions
    • For functions f(x)f(x) and g(x),g(x), where g(x)0,g(x)0,
      (fg)(x)=f(x)g(x)(fg)(x)=f(x)g(x)
  • Remainder Theorem
    • If the polynomial function f(x)f(x) is divided by xc,xc, then the remainder is f(c).f(c).
  • Factor Theorem: For any polynomial function f(x),f(x),
    • if xcxc is a factor of f(x),f(x), then f(c)=0f(c)=0
    • if f(c)=0,f(c)=0, then xcxc is a factor of f(x)f(x)
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