Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Intermediate Algebra 2e

3.6 Graphs of Functions

Intermediate Algebra 2e3.6 Graphs of Functions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Use the Language of Algebra
    3. 1.2 Integers
    4. 1.3 Fractions
    5. 1.4 Decimals
    6. 1.5 Properties of Real Numbers
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Solving Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Use a General Strategy to Solve Linear Equations
    3. 2.2 Use a Problem Solving Strategy
    4. 2.3 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    5. 2.4 Solve Mixture and Uniform Motion Applications
    6. 2.5 Solve Linear Inequalities
    7. 2.6 Solve Compound Inequalities
    8. 2.7 Solve Absolute Value Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Graphs and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Graph Linear Equations in Two Variables
    3. 3.2 Slope of a Line
    4. 3.3 Find the Equation of a Line
    5. 3.4 Graph Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    6. 3.5 Relations and Functions
    7. 3.6 Graphs of Functions
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Systems of Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Solve Systems of Linear Equations with Two Variables
    3. 4.2 Solve Applications with Systems of Equations
    4. 4.3 Solve Mixture Applications with Systems of Equations
    5. 4.4 Solve Systems of Equations with Three Variables
    6. 4.5 Solve Systems of Equations Using Matrices
    7. 4.6 Solve Systems of Equations Using Determinants
    8. 4.7 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 5.2 Properties of Exponents and Scientific Notation
    4. 5.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 5.4 Dividing Polynomials
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Factoring
    1. Introduction to Factoring
    2. 6.1 Greatest Common Factor and Factor by Grouping
    3. 6.2 Factor Trinomials
    4. 6.3 Factor Special Products
    5. 6.4 General Strategy for Factoring Polynomials
    6. 6.5 Polynomial Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Rational Expressions and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Multiply and Divide Rational Expressions
    3. 7.2 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions
    4. 7.3 Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
    5. 7.4 Solve Rational Equations
    6. 7.5 Solve Applications with Rational Equations
    7. 7.6 Solve Rational Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Roots and Radicals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Simplify Expressions with Roots
    3. 8.2 Simplify Radical Expressions
    4. 8.3 Simplify Rational Exponents
    5. 8.4 Add, Subtract, and Multiply Radical Expressions
    6. 8.5 Divide Radical Expressions
    7. 8.6 Solve Radical Equations
    8. 8.7 Use Radicals in Functions
    9. 8.8 Use the Complex Number System
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Quadratic Equations and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Square Root Property
    3. 9.2 Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square
    4. 9.3 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula
    5. 9.4 Solve Quadratic Equations in Quadratic Form
    6. 9.5 Solve Applications of Quadratic Equations
    7. 9.6 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Properties
    8. 9.7 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Transformations
    9. 9.8 Solve Quadratic Inequalities
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Finding Composite and Inverse Functions
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Graph Exponential Functions
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Graph Logarithmic Functions
    5. 10.4 Use the Properties of Logarithms
    6. 10.5 Solve Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Conics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles
    3. 11.2 Parabolas
    4. 11.3 Ellipses
    5. 11.4 Hyperbolas
    6. 11.5 Solve Systems of Nonlinear Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. 12 Sequences, Series and Binomial Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sequences
    3. 12.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 12.3 Geometric Sequences and Series
    5. 12.4 Binomial Theorem
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  14. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  15. Index
Be Prepared 3.16

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

Evaluate: 2323 32.32.
If you missed this problem, review Example 1.5.

Be Prepared 3.17

Evaluate: |7||7| |−3|.|−3|.
If you missed this problem, review Example 1.14.

Be Prepared 3.18

Evaluate: 44 16.16.
If you missed this problem, review Example 1.41.

Use the Vertical Line Test

In the last section we learned how to determine if a relation is a function. The relations we looked at were expressed as a set of ordered pairs, a mapping or an equation. We will now look at how to tell if a graph is that of a function.

An ordered pair (x,y)(x,y) is a solution of a linear equation, if the equation is a true statement when the x- and y-values of the ordered pair are substituted into the equation.

The graph of a linear equation is a straight line where every point on the line is a solution of the equation and every solution of this equation is a point on this line.

In Figure 3.14, we can see that, in graph of the equation y=2x3,y=2x3, for every x-value there is only one y-value, as shown in the accompanying table.

plane. The x and y-axes run from negative 10 to 10. The line goes through the points (0, negative 3), (1, negative 1), and (2, 1). The line is labeled y equals2 x minus 3. There are several vertical arrows that relate values on the x-axis to points on the line. The first arrow relates x equalsnegative 2 on the x-axis to the point (negative 2, negative 7) on the line. The second arrow relates x equalsnegative 1 on the x-axis to the point (negative 1, negative 5) on the line. The next arrow relates x equals0 on the x-axis to the point (0, negative 3) on the line. The next arrow relates x equals3 on the x-axis to the point (3, 3) on the line. The last arrow relates x equals4 on the x-axis to the point (4, 5) on the line. The table has 7 rows and 3 columns. The first row is a title row with the label y equals2 x minus 3. The second row is a header row with the headers x, y, and (x, y). The third row has the coordinates negative 2, negative 7, and (negative 2, negative 7). The fourth row has the coordinates negative 1, negative 5, and (negative 1, negative 5). The fifth row has the coordinates 0, negative 3, and (0, negative 3). The sixth row has the coordinates 3, 3, and (3, 3). The seventh row has the coordinates 4, 5, and (4, 5).
Figure 3.14

A relation is a function if every element of the domain has exactly one value in the range. So the relation defined by the equation y=2x3y=2x3 is a function.

If we look at the graph, each vertical dashed line only intersects the line at one point. This makes sense as in a function, for every x-value there is only one y-value.

If the vertical line hit the graph twice, the x-value would be mapped to two y-values, and so the graph would not represent a function.

This leads us to the vertical line test. A set of points in a rectangular coordinate system is the graph of a function if every vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point. If any vertical line intersects the graph in more than one point, the graph does not represent a function.

Vertical Line Test

A set of points in a rectangular coordinate system is the graph of a function if every vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point.

If any vertical line intersects the graph in more than one point, the graph does not represent a function.

Example 3.51

Determine whether each graph is the graph of a function.

The figure has two graphs. In graph a there is a straight line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x and y-axes run from negative 10 to 10. The line goes through the points (0, 2), (3, 0), and (6, negative 2). In graph b there is a parabola opening to the right graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x and y-axes run from negative 6 to 6. The parabola goes through the points (negative 1, 0), (0, 1), (0, negative 1), (3, 2), and (3, negative 2).
Try It 3.101

Determine whether each graph is the graph of a function.

The figure has two graphs. In graph a there is a parabola opening up graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 2 to 10. The parabola goes through the points (0, negative 1), (negative 1, 0), (1, 0), (negative 2, 3), and (2, 3). In graph b there is a circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The circle goes through the points (negative 2, 0), (2, 0), (0, negative 2), and (0, 2).
Try It 3.102

Determine whether each graph is the graph of a function.

The figure has two graphs. In graph a there is an ellipse graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The ellipse goes through the points (0, negative 3), (negative 2, 0), (2, 0), and (0, 3). In graph b there is a straight line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 12 to 12. The y-axis runs from negative 12 to 12. The line goes through the points (0, negative 2), (2, 0), and (4, 2).

Identify Graphs of Basic Functions

We used the equation y=2x3y=2x3 and its graph as we developed the vertical line test. We said that the relation defined by the equation y=2x3y=2x3 is a function.

We can write this as in function notation as f(x)=2x3.f(x)=2x3. It still means the same thing. The graph of the function is the graph of all ordered pairs (x,y)(x,y) where y=f(x).y=f(x). So we can write the ordered pairs as (x,f(x)).(x,f(x)). It looks different but the graph will be the same.

Compare the graph of y=2x3y=2x3 previously shown in Figure 3.14 with the graph of f(x)=2x3f(x)=2x3 shown in Figure 3.15. Nothing has changed but the notation.

This figure has a graph next to a table. The graph has a straight line on the x y-coordinate plane. The x and y-axes run from negative 10 to 10. The line goes through the points (0, negative 3), (1, negative 1), and (2, 1). The line is labeled f of x equals2 x minus 3. There are several vertical arrows that relate values on the x-axis to points on the line. The first arrow relates x equalsnegative 2 on the x-axis to the point (negative 2, negative 7) on the line. The second arrow relates x equalsnegative 1 on the x-axis to the point (negative 1, negative 5) on the line. The next arrow relates x equals0 on the x-axis to the point (0, negative 3) on the line. The next arrow relates x equals3 on the x-axis to the point (3, 3) on the line. The last arrow relates x equals4 on the x-axis to the point (4, 5) on the line. The table has 7 rows and 3 columns. The first row is a title row with the label f of x equals2 x minus 3. The second row is a header row with the headers x, f of x, and (x, f of x). The third row has the coordinates negative 2, negative 7, and (negative 2, negative 7). The fourth row has the coordinates negative 1, negative 5, and (negative 1, negative 5). The fifth row has the coordinates 0, negative 3, and (0, negative 3). The sixth row has the coordinates 3, 3, and (3, 3). The seventh row has the coordinates 4, 5, and (4, 5).
Figure 3.15

Graph of a Function

The graph of a function is the graph of all its ordered pairs, (x,y)(x,y) or using function notation, (x,f(x))(x,f(x)) where y=f(x).y=f(x).

fname of functionxx-coordinate of the ordered pairf(x)y-coordinate of the ordered pairfname of functionxx-coordinate of the ordered pairf(x)y-coordinate of the ordered pair

As we move forward in our study, it is helpful to be familiar with the graphs of several basic functions and be able to identify them.

Through our earlier work, we are familiar with the graphs of linear equations. The process we used to decide if y=2x3y=2x3 is a function would apply to all linear equations. All non-vertical linear equations are functions. Vertical lines are not functions as the x-value has infinitely many y-values.

We wrote linear equations in several forms, but it will be most helpful for us here to use the slope-intercept form of the linear equation. The slope-intercept form of a linear equation is y=mx+b.y=mx+b. In function notation, this linear function becomes f(x)=mx+bf(x)=mx+b where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept.

The domain is the set of all real numbers, and the range is also the set of all real numbers.

Linear Function

This figure has a graph of a straight line on the x y-coordinate plane. The line goes through the point (0, b). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsm x plus b”, “m, b: all real numbers”, “m: slope of the line”, “b: y-intercept”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: (negative infinity, infinity)”.

We will use the graphing techniques we used earlier, to graph the basic functions.

Example 3.52

Graph: f(x)=−2x4.f(x)=−2x4.

Try It 3.103

Graph: f(x)=−3x1f(x)=−3x1

Try It 3.104

Graph: f(x)=−4x5f(x)=−4x5

The next function whose graph we will look at is called the constant function and its equation is of the form f(x)=b,f(x)=b, where b is any real number. If we replace the f(x)f(x) with y, we get y=b.y=b. We recognize this as the horizontal line whose y-intercept is b. The graph of the function f(x)=b,f(x)=b, is also the horizontal line whose y-intercept is b.

Notice that for any real number we put in the function, the function value will be b. This tells us the range has only one value, b.

Constant Function

This figure has a graph of a straight horizontal line on the x y-coordinate plane. The line goes through the point (0, b). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsb”, “b: any real number”, “b: y-intercept”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: b”.

Example 3.53

Graph: f(x)=4.f(x)=4.

Try It 3.105

Graph: f(x)=−2.f(x)=−2.

Try It 3.106

Graph: f(x)=3.f(x)=3.

The identity function, f(x)=xf(x)=x is a special case of the linear function. If we write it in linear function form, f(x)=1x+0,f(x)=1x+0, we see the slope is 1 and the y-intercept is 0.

Identity Function

This figure has a graph of a straight line on the x y-coordinate plane. The line goes through the points (0, 0), (1, 1), and (2, 2). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsx”, “m: 1”, “b: 0”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: (negative infinity, infinity)”.

The next function we will look at is not a linear function. So the graph will not be a line. The only method we have to graph this function is point plotting. Because this is an unfamiliar function, we make sure to choose several positive and negative values as well as 0 for our x-values.

Example 3.54

Graph: f(x)=x2.f(x)=x2.

Try It 3.107

Graph: f(x)=x2.f(x)=x2.

Try It 3.108

f(x)=x2f(x)=x2

Looking at the result in Example 3.54, we can summarize the features of the square function. We call this graph a parabola. As we consider the domain, notice any real number can be used as an x-value. The domain is all real numbers.

The range is not all real numbers. Notice the graph consists of values of y never go below zero. This makes sense as the square of any number cannot be negative. So, the range of the square function is all non-negative real numbers.

Square Function

This figure has a graph of a parabola opening up graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The y-axis runs from negative 2 to 6. The parabola goes through the points (negative 2, 4), (negative 1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), and (2, 4). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsx squared”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: [0, infinity)”.

The next function we will look at is also not a linear function so the graph will not be a line. Again we will use point plotting, and make sure to choose several positive and negative values as well as 0 for our x-values.

Example 3.55

Graph: f(x)=x3.f(x)=x3.

Try It 3.109

Graph: f(x)=x3.f(x)=x3.

Try It 3.110

Graph: f(x)=x3.f(x)=x3.

Looking at the result in Example 3.55, we can summarize the features of the cube function. As we consider the domain, notice any real number can be used as an x-value. The domain is all real numbers.

The range is all real numbers. This makes sense as the cube of any non-zero number can be positive or negative. So, the range of the cube function is all real numbers.

Cube Function

This figure has a curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The curved line goes through the points (negative 2, negative 8), (negative 1, negative 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), and (2, 8).). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsx cubed”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: (negative infinity, infinity)”.

The next function we will look at does not square or cube the input values, but rather takes the square root of those values.

Let’s graph the function f(x)=xf(x)=x and then summarize the features of the function. Remember, we can only take the square root of non-negative real numbers, so our domain will be the non-negative real numbers.

Example 3.56

f(x)=xf(x)=x

Try It 3.111

Graph: f(x)=x.f(x)=x.

Try It 3.112

Graph: f(x)=x.f(x)=x.

Square Root Function

This figure has a curved half-line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from 0 to 8. The y-axis runs from 0 to 8. The curved half-line starts at the point (0, 0) and then goes up and to the right. The curved half line goes through the points (1, 1) and (4, 2). Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalssquare root of x”, “Domain: [0, infinity)”, and “Range: [0, infinity)”.

Our last basic function is the absolute value function, f(x)=|x|.f(x)=|x|. Keep in mind that the absolute value of a number is its distance from zero. Since we never measure distance as a negative number, we will never get a negative number in the range.

Example 3.57

Graph: f(x)=|x|.f(x)=|x|.

Try It 3.113

Graph: f(x)=|x|.f(x)=|x|.

Try It 3.114

Graph: f(x)=|x|.f(x)=|x|.

Absolute Value Function

This figure has a v-shaped line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The y-axis runs from negative 1 to 6. The v-shaped line goes through the points (negative 3, 3), (negative 2, 2), (negative 1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3). The point (0, 0) where the line changes slope is called the vertex. Next to the graph are the following: “f of x equalsabsolute value of x”, “Domain: (negative infinity, infinity)”, and “Range: [0, infinity)”.

Read Information from a Graph of a Function

In the sciences and business, data is often collected and then graphed. The graph is analyzed, information is obtained from the graph and then often predictions are made from the data.

We will start by reading the domain and range of a function from its graph.

Remember the domain is the set of all the x-values in the ordered pairs in the function. To find the domain we look at the graph and find all the values of x that have a corresponding value on the graph. Follow the value x up or down vertically. If you hit the graph of the function then x is in the domain.

Remember the range is the set of all the y-values in the ordered pairs in the function. To find the range we look at the graph and find all the values of y that have a corresponding value on the graph. Follow the value y left or right horizontally. If you hit the graph of the function then y is in the range.

Example 3.58

Use the graph of the function to find its domain and range. Write the domain and range in interval notation.

This figure has a curved line segment graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 3, negative 1), (1.5, 3), and (3, 1). The interval [negative 3, 3] is marked on the horizontal axis. The interval [negative 1, 3] is marked on the vertical axis.
Try It 3.115

Use the graph of the function to find its domain and range. Write the domain and range in interval notation.

This figure has a curved line segment graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 5, negative 4), (0, negative 3), and (1, 2). The interval [negative 5, 1] is marked on the horizontal axis. The interval [negative 4, 2] is marked on the vertical axis.
Try It 3.116

Use the graph of the function to find its domain and range. Write the domain and range in interval notation.

This figure has a curved line segment graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 4 to 5. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 4. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2, 1), (0, 3), and (4, negative 5). The interval [negative 2, 4] is marked on the horizontal axis. The interval [negative 5, 3] is marked on the vertical axis.

We are now going to read information from the graph that you may see in future math classes.

Example 3.59

Use the graph of the function to find the indicated values.

This figure has a wavy curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 times pi to 2 times pi. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 4. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2 times pi, 0), (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 1), (negative pi, 0), (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1), (0, 0), (1 divided by 2 times pi, 1), (pi, 0), (3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1), and (2 times pi, 0). The points (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 1) and (1 divided by 2 times pi, 1) are the highest points on the graph. The points (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1) and (3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1) are the lowest points on the graph. The pattern extends infinitely to the left and right.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(32π).f(32π).
Find: f(12π).f(12π).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation.

Try It 3.117

Use the graph of the function to find the indicated values.

This figure has a wavy curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 times pi to 2 times pi. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2 times pi, 0), (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 2), (negative pi, 0), (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 2), (0, 0), (1 divided by 2 times pi, 2), (pi, 0), (3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 2), and (2 times pi, 0). The points (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 2) and (1 divided by 2 times pi, 2) are the highest points on the graph. The points (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 2) and (3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 2) are the lowest points on the graph. The line extends infinitely to the left and right.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(12π).f(12π).
Find: f(32π).f(32π).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation.

Try It 3.118

Use the graph of the function to find the indicated values.

This figure has a wavy curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 times pi to 2 times pi. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2 times pi, 1), (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (negative pi, negative 1), (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (0, 1), (1 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (pi, negative 1), (3 divided by 2 times pi, 0), and (2 times pi, 1). The points (negative 2 times pi, 1), (0, 1), and (2 times pi, 1) are the highest points on the graph. The points (negative pi, negative 1) and (pi, negative 1) are the lowest points on the graph. The pattern extends infinitely to the left and right.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(π).f(π).
Find: f(π).f(π).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation.

Media Access Additional Online Resources

Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with graphs of functions.

Section 3.6 Exercises

Practice Makes Perfect

Use the Vertical Line Test

In the following exercises, determine whether each graph is the graph of a function.

337.


The figure has a circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The circle goes through the points (negative 3, 0), (3, 0), (0, negative 3), and (0, 3).



The figure has a parabola opening up graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 8. The parabola goes through the points (negative 2, 6), (1, 3), (0, 2), (1, 3), and (2, 6).
338.


The figure has an s-shaped curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The s-shaped curved line goes through the points (negative 1, 1), (0, 0), and (1, 1).



The figure has a circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The circle goes through the points (negative 4, 0), (4, 0), (0, negative 4), and (0, 4).
339.


The figure has a parabola opening right graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The parabola goes through the points (negative 2, 0), (negative 1, 1), (negative 1, negative 1), (negative 2, 2), and (2, 2).



The figure has a cube function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line goes through the points (negative 1, negative 1), (0, 0), and (1, 1).
340.


The figure has two curved lines graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line on the left goes through the points (negative 2, 0), (negative 4, 5), and (negative 4, negative 5). The curved line on the right goes through the points (2, 0), (4, 5), and (4, negative 5).



The figure has a sideways absolute value function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The line bends at the point (0, 2) and goes to the right. The line goes through the points (1, 3), (2, 4), (1, 1), and (2, 0).

Identify Graphs of Basic Functions

In the following exercises, graph each function state its domain and range. Write the domain and range in interval notation.

341.

f(x)=3x+4f(x)=3x+4

342.

f(x)=2x+5f(x)=2x+5

343.

f(x)=x2f(x)=x2

344.

f(x)=−4x3f(x)=−4x3

345.

f(x)=−2x+2f(x)=−2x+2

346.

f(x)=−3x+3f(x)=−3x+3

347.

f(x)=12x+1f(x)=12x+1

348.

f(x)=23x2f(x)=23x2

349.

f(x)=5f(x)=5

350.

f(x)=2f(x)=2

351.

f(x)=−3f(x)=−3

352.

f(x)=−1f(x)=−1

353.

f(x)=2xf(x)=2x

354.

f(x)=3xf(x)=3x

355.

f(x)=−2xf(x)=−2x

356.

f(x)=−3xf(x)=−3x

357.

f(x)=3x2f(x)=3x2

358.

f(x)=2x2f(x)=2x2

359.

f(x)=−3x2f(x)=−3x2

360.

f(x)=−2x2f(x)=−2x2

361.

f(x)=12x2f(x)=12x2

362.

f(x)=13x2f(x)=13x2

363.

f(x)=x21f(x)=x21

364.

f(x)=x2+1f(x)=x2+1

365.

f(x)=−2x3f(x)=−2x3

366.

f(x)=2x3f(x)=2x3

367.

f(x)=x3+2f(x)=x3+2

368.

f(x)=x32f(x)=x32

369.

f(x)=2xf(x)=2x

370.

f(x)=−2xf(x)=−2x

371.

f(x)=x1f(x)=x1

372.

f(x)=x+1f(x)=x+1

373.

f(x)=3|x|f(x)=3|x|

374.

f(x)=−2|x|f(x)=−2|x|

375.

f(x)=|x|+1f(x)=|x|+1

376.

f(x)=|x|1f(x)=|x|1

Read Information from a Graph of a Function

In the following exercises, use the graph of the function to find its domain and range. Write the domain and range in interval notation.

377.
The figure has a square root function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 to 8. The y-axis runs from negative 2 to 8. The half-line starts at the point (2, 0) and goes through the points (3, 1) and (6, 2).
378.
The figure has a square root function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 to 8. The y-axis runs from negative 2 to 10. The half-line starts at the point (negative 3, 0) and goes through the points (negative 2, 1) and (1, 2).
379.
The figure has an absolute value function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from 0 to 12. The vertex is at the point (0, 4). The line goes through the points (negative 2, 6) and (2, 6).
380.
The figure has an absolute value function graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 8. The vertex is at the point (0, negative 1). The line goes through the points (negative 1, 0) and (1, 0).
381.
The figure has a half-circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment starts at the point (negative 2, 0). The line goes through the point (0, 2) and ends at the point (2, 0).
382.
The figure has a half-circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 2 to 10. The curved line segment starts at the point (negative 3, 3). The line goes through the point (0, 6) and ends at the point (3, 3).

In the following exercises, use the graph of the function to find the indicated values.

383.
This figure has a wavy curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 times pi to 2 times pi. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2 times pi, 0), (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1), (negative pi, 0), (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, 1), (0, 0), (1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1), (pi, 0), (3 divided by 2 times pi, 1), and (2 times pi, 0). The points (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1) and (1 divided by 2 times pi, negative 1) are the lowest points on the graph. The points (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, 1) and (3 divided by 2 times pi, 1) are the highest points on the graph. The pattern extends infinitely to the left and right.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(12π).f(12π).
Find: f(32π).f(32π).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation.

384.
This figure has a wavy curved line graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 2 times pi to 2 times pi. The y-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The curved line segment goes through the points (negative 2 times pi, negative 1), (negative 3 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (negative pi, 1), (negative 1 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (0, negative 1), (1 divided by 2 times pi, 0), (pi, 1), (3 divided by 2 times pi, 0), and (2 times pi, negative 1). The points (negative 2 times pi, negative 1) and (2 times pi, negative 1) are the lowest points on the graph. The points (negative pi, 1) and (pi, 1) are the highest points on the graph. The pattern extends infinitely to the left and right.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(π).f(π).
Find: f(π).f(π).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation

385.
The figure has the top half of a circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 8. The curved line segment starts at the point (negative 3, 2). The line goes through the point (0, 5) and ends at the point (3, 2). The point (0, 5) is the highest point on the graph. The points (negative 3, 2) and (3, 2) are the lowest points on the graph.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find: f(−3).f(−3).
Find: f(3).f(3).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation.

386.
The figure has the top half of a circle graphed on the x y-coordinate plane. The x-axis runs from negative 6 to 6. The y-axis runs from negative 4 to 8. The curved line segment starts at the point (negative 4, 0). The line goes through the point (0, 4) and ends at the point (4, 0). The point (0, 4) is the highest point on the graph. The points (negative 4, 0) and (4, 0) are the lowest points on the graph.

Find: f(0).f(0).
Find the values for x when f(x)=0.f(x)=0.
Find the x-intercepts.
Find the y-intercepts.
Find the domain. Write it in interval notation.
Find the range. Write it in interval notation

Writing Exercises

387.

Explain in your own words how to find the domain from a graph.

388.

Explain in your own words how to find the range from a graph.

389.

Explain in your own words how to use the vertical line test.

390.

Draw a sketch of the square and cube functions. What are the similarities and differences in the graphs?

Self Check

After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

The figure shows a table with four rows and four columns. The first row is a header row and it labels each column. The first column header is “I can…”, the second is "confidently", the third is “with some help”, “no minus I don’t get it!”. Under the first column are the phrases “use the vertical line test”, “identify graphs of basic functions”, and “read information from a graph”. Under the second, third, fourth columns are blank spaces where the learner can check what level of mastery they have achieved

After reviewing this checklist, what will you do to become confident for all objectives?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/intermediate-algebra-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/intermediate-algebra-2e/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Apr 15, 2020 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.