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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Use the Language of Algebra
    3. 1.2 Integers
    4. 1.3 Fractions
    5. 1.4 Decimals
    6. 1.5 Properties of Real Numbers
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Solving Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Use a General Strategy to Solve Linear Equations
    3. 2.2 Use a Problem Solving Strategy
    4. 2.3 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    5. 2.4 Solve Mixture and Uniform Motion Applications
    6. 2.5 Solve Linear Inequalities
    7. 2.6 Solve Compound Inequalities
    8. 2.7 Solve Absolute Value Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Graphs and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Graph Linear Equations in Two Variables
    3. 3.2 Slope of a Line
    4. 3.3 Find the Equation of a Line
    5. 3.4 Graph Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    6. 3.5 Relations and Functions
    7. 3.6 Graphs of Functions
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Systems of Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Solve Systems of Linear Equations with Two Variables
    3. 4.2 Solve Applications with Systems of Equations
    4. 4.3 Solve Mixture Applications with Systems of Equations
    5. 4.4 Solve Systems of Equations with Three Variables
    6. 4.5 Solve Systems of Equations Using Matrices
    7. 4.6 Solve Systems of Equations Using Determinants
    8. 4.7 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 5.2 Properties of Exponents and Scientific Notation
    4. 5.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 5.4 Dividing Polynomials
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Factoring
    1. Introduction to Factoring
    2. 6.1 Greatest Common Factor and Factor by Grouping
    3. 6.2 Factor Trinomials
    4. 6.3 Factor Special Products
    5. 6.4 General Strategy for Factoring Polynomials
    6. 6.5 Polynomial Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Rational Expressions and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Multiply and Divide Rational Expressions
    3. 7.2 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions
    4. 7.3 Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
    5. 7.4 Solve Rational Equations
    6. 7.5 Solve Applications with Rational Equations
    7. 7.6 Solve Rational Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Roots and Radicals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Simplify Expressions with Roots
    3. 8.2 Simplify Radical Expressions
    4. 8.3 Simplify Rational Exponents
    5. 8.4 Add, Subtract, and Multiply Radical Expressions
    6. 8.5 Divide Radical Expressions
    7. 8.6 Solve Radical Equations
    8. 8.7 Use Radicals in Functions
    9. 8.8 Use the Complex Number System
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Quadratic Equations and Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Square Root Property
    3. 9.2 Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square
    4. 9.3 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula
    5. 9.4 Solve Quadratic Equations in Quadratic Form
    6. 9.5 Solve Applications of Quadratic Equations
    7. 9.6 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Properties
    8. 9.7 Graph Quadratic Functions Using Transformations
    9. 9.8 Solve Quadratic Inequalities
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Finding Composite and Inverse Functions
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Graph Exponential Functions
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Graph Logarithmic Functions
    5. 10.4 Use the Properties of Logarithms
    6. 10.5 Solve Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Conics
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles
    3. 11.2 Parabolas
    4. 11.3 Ellipses
    5. 11.4 Hyperbolas
    6. 11.5 Solve Systems of Nonlinear Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. 12 Sequences, Series and Binomial Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sequences
    3. 12.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 12.3 Geometric Sequences and Series
    5. 12.4 Binomial Theorem
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  14. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  15. Index

11.1 Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles

  • Distance Formula: The distance d between the two points (x1,y1)(x1,y1) and (x2,y2)(x2,y2) is
    d=(x2x1)2+(y2y1)2d=(x2x1)2+(y2y1)2
  • Midpoint Formula: The midpoint of the line segment whose endpoints are the two points (x1,y1)(x1,y1) and (x2,y2)(x2,y2) is
    (x1+x22,y1+y22)(x1+x22,y1+y22)

    To find the midpoint of a line segment, we find the average of the x-coordinates and the average of the y-coordinates of the endpoints.
  • Circle: A circle is all points in a plane that are a fixed distance from a fixed point in the plane. The given point is called the center, (h,k),(h,k), and the fixed distance is called the radius, r, of the circle.
  • Standard Form of the Equation a Circle: The standard form of the equation of a circle with center, (h,k),(h,k), and radius, r, is
    Figure shows circle with center at (h, k) and a radius of r. A point on the circle is labeled x, y. The formula is open parentheses x minus h close parentheses squared plus open parentheses y minus k close parentheses squared equals r squared.
  • General Form of the Equation of a Circle: The general form of the equation of a circle is
    x2+y2+ax+by+c=0x2+y2+ax+by+c=0

11.2 Parabolas

  • Parabola: A parabola is all points in a plane that are the same distance from a fixed point and a fixed line. The fixed point is called the focus, and the fixed line is called the directrix of the parabola.
    Vertical Parabolas
    General form
    y=ax2+bx+cy=ax2+bx+c
    Standard form
    y=a(xh)2+ky=a(xh)2+k
    Orientation a>0a>0 up; a<0a<0 down a>0a>0 up; a<0a<0 down
    Axis of symmetry x=b2ax=b2a x=hx=h
    Vertex Substitute x=b2ax=b2a and
    solve for y.
    (h,k)(h,k)
    y- intercept Let x=0x=0 Let x=0x=0
    x-intercepts Let y=0y=0 Let y=0y=0

    This figure shows two parabolas with axis x equals h and vertex (h, k). The one on the left opens up and a is greater than 0. The one on the right opens down. Here a is less than 0.
  • How to graph vertical parabolas (y=ax2+bx+c(y=ax2+bx+c or f(x)=a(xh)2+k)f(x)=a(xh)2+k) using properties.
    1. Step 1. Determine whether the parabola opens upward or downward.
    2. Step 2. Find the axis of symmetry.
    3. Step 3. Find the vertex.
    4. Step 4. Find the y-intercept. Find the point symmetric to the y-intercept across the axis of symmetry.
    5. Step 5. Find the x-intercepts.
    6. Step 6. Graph the parabola.

    Horizontal Parabolas
    General form
    x=ay2+by+cx=ay2+by+c
    Standard form
    x=a(yk)2+hx=a(yk)2+h
    Orientation a>0a>0 right; a<0a<0 left a>0a>0 right; a<0a<0 left
    Axis of symmetry y=b2ay=b2a y=ky=k
    Vertex Substitute y=b2ay=b2a and
    solve for x.
    (h,k)(h,k)
    y-intercepts Let x=0x=0 Let x=0x=0
    x-intercept Let y=0y=0 Let y=0y=0

    This figure shows two parabolas with axis of symmetry y equals k, and vertex (h, k). The one on the left is labeled a greater than 0 and opens to the right. The other parabola opens to the left.
  • How to graph horizontal parabolas (x=ay2+by+c(x=ay2+by+c or x=a(yk)2+h)x=a(yk)2+h) using properties.
    1. Step 1. Determine whether the parabola opens to the left or to the right.
    2. Step 2. Find the axis of symmetry.
    3. Step 3. Find the vertex.
    4. Step 4. Find the x-intercept. Find the point symmetric to the x-intercept across the axis of symmetry.
    5. Step 5. Find the y-intercepts.
    6. Step 6. Graph the parabola.

11.3 Ellipses

  • Ellipse: An ellipse is all points in a plane where the sum of the distances from two fixed points is constant. Each of the fixed points is called a focus of the ellipse.
    This figure shows two ellipses. In each, two points within the ellipse are labeled foci. A line drawn through the foci intersects the ellipse in two points. Each point is labeled a vertex. In The figure on the left, the segment connecting the vertices is called the major axis. A segment perpendicular to the major axis that passes through its midpoint and intersects the ellipse in two points is labeled minor axis. The major axis is longer than the minor axis. In The figure on the right, the segment through the foci, connecting the vertices is shorter and is labeled minor axis. Its midpoint is labeled center.
    If we draw a line through the foci intersects the ellipse in two points—each is called a vertex of the ellipse.
    The segment connecting the vertices is called the major axis.
    The midpoint of the segment is called the center of the ellipse.
    A segment perpendicular to the major axis that passes through the center and intersects the ellipse in two points is called the minor axis.
  • Standard Form of the Equation an Ellipse with Center (0,0):(0,0): The standard form of the equation of an ellipse with center (0,0),(0,0), is
    x2a2+y2b2=1x2a2+y2b2=1

    The x-intercepts are (a,0)(a,0) and (a,0).(a,0).
    The y-intercepts are (0,b)(0,b) and (0,b).(0,b).
  • How to an Ellipse with Center (0,0)(0,0)
    1. Step 1. Write the equation in standard form.
    2. Step 2. Determine whether the major axis is horizontal or vertical.
    3. Step 3. Find the endpoints of the major axis.
    4. Step 4. Find the endpoints of the minor axis
    5. Step 5. Sketch the ellipse.
  • Standard Form of the Equation an Ellipse with Center (h,k):(h,k): The standard form of the equation of an ellipse with center (h,k),(h,k), is
    (xh)2a2+(yk)2b2=1(xh)2a2+(yk)2b2=1

    When a>b,a>b, the major axis is horizontal so the distance from the center to the vertex is a.
    When b>a,b>a, the major axis is vertical so the distance from the center to the vertex is b.

11.4 Hyperbolas

  • Hyperbola: A hyperbola is all points in a plane where the difference of their distances from two fixed points is constant.
    The figure shows a double napped right circular cone sliced by a plane that is parallel to the vertical axis of the cone forming a hyperbola. The figure is labeled ‘hyperbola’.
    Each of the fixed points is called a focus of the hyperbola.
    The line through the foci, is called the transverse axis.
    The two points where the transverse axis intersects the hyperbola are each a vertex of the hyperbola.
    The midpoint of the segment joining the foci is called the center of the hyperbola.
    The line perpendicular to the transverse axis that passes through the center is called the conjugate axis.
    Each piece of the graph is called a branch of the hyperbola.
    The figure shows two graphs of a hyperbola. The first graph shows the x-axis and y-axis that both run in the negative and positive directions, but at unlabeled intervals. The center of the hyperbola is the origin. The vertices and foci are shown with points that lie on the transverse axis, which is the x-axis. The branches pass through the vertices and open left and right. The y-axis is the conjugate axis. The second graph shows the x-axis and y-axis that both run in the negative and positive directions, but at unlabeled intervals. The center of the hyperbola is the origin. The vertices and foci lie are shown with points that lie on the transverse axis, which is the y-axis. The branches pass through the vertices and open up and down. The x-axis is the conjugate axis.
    Standard Forms of the Equation a Hyperbola with Center (0,0)(0,0)
    x2a2y2b2=1x2a2y2b2=1 y2a2x2b2=1y2a2x2b2=1
    Orientation Transverse axis on the x-axis.
    Opens left and right
    Transverse axis on the y-axis.
    Opens up and down
    Vertices (a,0),(a,0), (a,0)(a,0) (0,a),(0,a), (0,a)(0,a)
    x-intercepts (a,0),(a,0), (a,0)(a,0) none
    y-intercepts none (0,a)(0,a), (0,a)(0,a)
    Rectangle Use (±a,0)(±a,0) (0,±b)(0,±b) Use (0,±a)(0,±a) (±b,0)(±b,0)
    asymptotes y=bax,y=bax, y=baxy=bax y=abx,y=abx, y=abxy=abx
  • How to graph a hyperbola centered at (0,0).(0,0).
    1. Step 1. Write the equation in standard form.
    2. Step 2. Determine whether the transverse axis is horizontal or vertical.
    3. Step 3. Find the vertices.
    4. Step 4. Sketch the rectangle centered at the origin intersecting one axis at ±a±a and the other at ±b.±b.
    5. Step 5. Sketch the asymptotes—the lines through the diagonals of the rectangle.
    6. Step 6. Draw the two branches of the hyperbola.

    Standard Forms of the Equation a Hyperbola with Center (h,k)(h,k)
    (xh)2a2(yk)2b2=1(xh)2a2(yk)2b2=1 (yk)2a2(xh)2b2=1(yk)2a2(xh)2b2=1
    Orientation Transverse axis is horizontal.
    Opens left and right
    Transverse axis is vertical.
    Opens up and down
    Center (h,k)(h,k) (h,k)(h,k)
    Vertices a units to the left and right of the center a units above and below the center
    Rectangle Use a units left/right of center
    b units above/below the center
    Use a units above/below the center
    b units left/right of center
  • How to graph a hyperbola centered at (h,k).(h,k).
    1. Step 1. Write the equation in standard form.
    2. Step 2. Determine whether the transverse axis is horizontal or vertical.
    3. Step 3. Find the center and a,b.a,b.
    4. Step 4. Sketch the rectangle centered at (h,k)(h,k) using a,b.a,b.
    5. Step 5. Sketch the asymptotes—the lines through the diagonals of the rectangle. Mark the vertices.
    6. Step 6. Draw the two branches of the hyperbola.

    Conic Characteristics of x2-x2- and y2-y2- terms Example
    Parabola Either x2x2 OR y2.y2. Only one variable is squared. x=3y22y+1x=3y22y+1
    Circle x2-x2- and y2-y2- terms have the same coefficients x2+y2=49x2+y2=49
    Ellipse x2-x2- and y2-y2- terms have the same sign, different coefficients 4x2+25y2=1004x2+25y2=100
    Hyperbola x2-x2- and y2-y2- terms have different signs, different coefficients 25y24x2=10025y24x2=100

11.5 Solve Systems of Nonlinear Equations

  • How to solve a system of nonlinear equations by graphing.
    1. Step 1. Identify the graph of each equation. Sketch the possible options for intersection.
    2. Step 2. Graph the first equation.
    3. Step 3. Graph the second equation on the same rectangular coordinate system.
    4. Step 4. Determine whether the graphs intersect.
    5. Step 5. Identify the points of intersection.
    6. Step 6. Check that each ordered pair is a solution to both original equations.
  • How to solve a system of nonlinear equations by substitution.
    1. Step 1. Identify the graph of each equation. Sketch the possible options for intersection.


    2. Step 2. Solve one of the equations for either variable.
    3. Step 3. Substitute the expression from Step 2 into the other equation.
    4. Step 4. Solve the resulting equation.
    5. Step 5. Substitute each solution in Step 4 into one of the original equations to find the other variable.
    6. Step 6. Write each solution as an ordered pair.
    7. Step 7. Check that each ordered pair is a solution to both original equations.
  • How to solve a system of equations by elimination.
    1. Step 1. Identify the graph of each equation. Sketch the possible options for intersection.
    2. Step 2. Write both equations in standard form.
    3. Step 3. Make the coefficients of one variable opposites.
      Decide which variable you will eliminate.
      Multiply one or both equations so that the coefficients of that variable are opposites.
    4. Step 4. Add the equations resulting from Step 3 to eliminate one variable.
    5. Step 5. Solve for the remaining variable.
    6. Step 6. Substitute each solution from Step 5 into one of the original equations. Then solve for the other variable.
    7. Step 7. Write each solution as an ordered pair.
    8. Step 8. Check that each ordered pair is a solution to both original equations.
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