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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Introduction to Whole Numbers
    3. 1.2 Use the Language of Algebra
    4. 1.3 Add and Subtract Integers
    5. 1.4 Multiply and Divide Integers
    6. 1.5 Visualize Fractions
    7. 1.6 Add and Subtract Fractions
    8. 1.7 Decimals
    9. 1.8 The Real Numbers
    10. 1.9 Properties of Real Numbers
    11. 1.10 Systems of Measurement
    12. Key Terms
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Solving Linear Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Solve Equations Using the Subtraction and Addition Properties of Equality
    3. 2.2 Solve Equations using the Division and Multiplication Properties of Equality
    4. 2.3 Solve Equations with Variables and Constants on Both Sides
    5. 2.4 Use a General Strategy to Solve Linear Equations
    6. 2.5 Solve Equations with Fractions or Decimals
    7. 2.6 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    8. 2.7 Solve Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Math Models
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Use a Problem-Solving Strategy
    3. 3.2 Solve Percent Applications
    4. 3.3 Solve Mixture Applications
    5. 3.4 Solve Geometry Applications: Triangles, Rectangles, and the Pythagorean Theorem
    6. 3.5 Solve Uniform Motion Applications
    7. 3.6 Solve Applications with Linear Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Use the Rectangular Coordinate System
    3. 4.2 Graph Linear Equations in Two Variables
    4. 4.3 Graph with Intercepts
    5. 4.4 Understand Slope of a Line
    6. 4.5 Use the Slope-Intercept Form of an Equation of a Line
    7. 4.6 Find the Equation of a Line
    8. 4.7 Graphs of Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Systems of Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Solve Systems of Equations by Graphing
    3. 5.2 Solving Systems of Equations by Substitution
    4. 5.3 Solve Systems of Equations by Elimination
    5. 5.4 Solve Applications with Systems of Equations
    6. 5.5 Solve Mixture Applications with Systems of Equations
    7. 5.6 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Polynomials
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 6.2 Use Multiplication Properties of Exponents
    4. 6.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 6.4 Special Products
    6. 6.5 Divide Monomials
    7. 6.6 Divide Polynomials
    8. 6.7 Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Factoring
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Greatest Common Factor and Factor by Grouping
    3. 7.2 Factor Trinomials of the Form x2+bx+c
    4. 7.3 Factor Trinomials of the Form ax2+bx+c
    5. 7.4 Factor Special Products
    6. 7.5 General Strategy for Factoring Polynomials
    7. 7.6 Quadratic Equations
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Rational Expressions and Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Simplify Rational Expressions
    3. 8.2 Multiply and Divide Rational Expressions
    4. 8.3 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions with a Common Denominator
    5. 8.4 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions with Unlike Denominators
    6. 8.5 Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
    7. 8.6 Solve Rational Equations
    8. 8.7 Solve Proportion and Similar Figure Applications
    9. 8.8 Solve Uniform Motion and Work Applications
    10. 8.9 Use Direct and Inverse Variation
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Roots and Radicals
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Simplify and Use Square Roots
    3. 9.2 Simplify Square Roots
    4. 9.3 Add and Subtract Square Roots
    5. 9.4 Multiply Square Roots
    6. 9.5 Divide Square Roots
    7. 9.6 Solve Equations with Square Roots
    8. 9.7 Higher Roots
    9. 9.8 Rational Exponents
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Quadratic Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Square Root Property
    3. 10.2 Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square
    4. 10.3 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula
    5. 10.4 Solve Applications Modeled by Quadratic Equations
    6. 10.5 Graphing Quadratic Equations in Two Variables
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
  13. Index

9.1 Simplify and Use Square Roots

  • Note that the square root of a negative number is not a real number.
  • Every positive number has two square roots, one positive and one negative. The positive square root of a positive number is the principal square root.
  • We can estimate square roots using nearby perfect squares.
  • We can approximate square roots using a calculator.
  • When we use the radical sign to take the square root of a variable expression, we should specify that x0x0 to make sure we get the principal square root.

9.2 Simplify Square Roots

  • Simplified Square Root aa is considered simplified if aa has no perfect-square factors.
  • Product Property of Square Roots If a, b are non-negative real numbers, then
    ab=a·bab=a·b
  • Simplify a Square Root Using the Product Property To simplify a square root using the Product Property:
    1. Step 1. Find the largest perfect square factor of the radicand. Rewrite the radicand as a product using the perfect square factor.
    2. Step 2. Use the product rule to rewrite the radical as the product of two radicals.
    3. Step 3. Simplify the square root of the perfect square.
  • Quotient Property of Square Roots If a, b are non-negative real numbers and b0b0, then
    ab=abab=ab



  • Simplify a Square Root Using the Quotient Property To simplify a square root using the Quotient Property:
    1. Step 1. Simplify the fraction in the radicand, if possible.
    2. Step 2. Use the Quotient Rule to rewrite the radical as the quotient of two radicals.
    3. Step 3. Simplify the radicals in the numerator and the denominator.

9.3 Add and Subtract Square Roots

  • To add or subtract like square roots, add or subtract the coefficients and keep the like square root.
  • Sometimes when we have to add or subtract square roots that do not appear to have like radicals, we find like radicals after simplifying the square roots.

9.4 Multiply Square Roots

  • Product Property of Square Roots If a, b are nonnegative real numbers, then
    ab=a·banda·b=abab=a·banda·b=ab
  • Special formulas for multiplying binomials and conjugates:
    (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2(ab)(a+b)=a2b2(ab)2=a22ab+b2(a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2(ab)(a+b)=a2b2(ab)2=a22ab+b2
  • The FOIL method can be used to multiply binomials containing radicals.

9.5 Divide Square Roots

  • Quotient Property of Square Roots
    • If a, b are non-negative real numbers and b0b0, then
      ab=abandab=abab=abandab=ab
  • Simplified Square Roots
    A square root is considered simplified if there are
    • no perfect square factors in the radicand
    • no fractions in the radicand
    • no square roots in the denominator of a fraction

9.6 Solve Equations with Square Roots

  • To Solve a Radical Equation:
    1. Step 1. Isolate the radical on one side of the equation.
    2. Step 2. Square both sides of the equation.
    3. Step 3. Solve the new equation.
    4. Step 4. Check the answer. Some solutions obtained may not work in the original equation.
  • Solving Applications with Formulas
    1. Step 1. Read the problem and make sure all the words and ideas are understood. When appropriate, draw a figure and label it with the given information.
    2. Step 2. Identify what we are looking for.
    3. Step 3. Name what we are looking for by choosing a variable to represent it.
    4. Step 4. Translate into an equation by writing the appropriate formula or model for the situation. Substitute in the given information.
    5. Step 5. Solve the equation using good algebra techniques.
    6. Step 6. Check the answer in the problem and make sure it makes sense.
    7. Step 7. Answer the question with a complete sentence.
  • Area of a Square
    This figure shows a square with two sides labeled, “s.” The figure also says, “Area, A,” “A equals s squared,” “Lenth of a side, s,” and “s equals the square root of A.”
  • Falling Objects
    • On Earth, if an object is dropped from a height of hh feet, the time in seconds it will take to reach the ground is found by using the formula t=h4t=h4.
  • Skid Marks and Speed of a Car
    • If the length of the skid marks is d feet, then the speed, s, of the car before the brakes were applied can be found by using the formula s=24ds=24d.

9.7 Higher Roots

  • Properties of
  • anan when nn is an even number and
    • a0a0, then anan is a real number
    • a<0a<0, then anan is not a real number
    • When nn is an odd number, anan is a real number for all values of a.
    • For any integer n2n2, when n is odd ann=aann=a
    • For any integer n2n2, when n is even ann=|a|ann=|a|
  • anan is considered simplified if a has no factors of mnmn.
  • Product Property of nth Roots
    abn=an·bnandan·bn=abnabn=an·bnandan·bn=abn
  • Quotient Property of nth Roots
    abn=anbnandanbn=abnabn=anbnandanbn=abn
  • To combine like radicals, simply add or subtract the coefficients while keeping the radical the same.

9.8 Rational Exponents

  • Summary of Exponent Properties
  • If a,ba,b are real numbers and m,nm,n are rational numbers, then
    • Product Property am·an=am+nam·an=am+n
    • Power Property (am)n=am·n(am)n=am·n
    • Product to a Power (ab)m=ambm(ab)m=ambm
    • Quotient Property:
      aman=amn,a0,m>naman=amn,a0,m>n
      aman=1anm,a0,n>maman=1anm,a0,n>m
    • Zero Exponent Definition a0=1a0=1, a0a0
    • Quotient to a Power Property (ab)m=ambm,b0(ab)m=ambm,b0
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