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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sets
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Basic Set Concepts
    3. 1.2 Subsets
    4. 1.3 Understanding Venn Diagrams
    5. 1.4 Set Operations with Two Sets
    6. 1.5 Set Operations with Three Sets
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  3. 2 Logic
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Statements and Quantifiers
    3. 2.2 Compound Statements
    4. 2.3 Constructing Truth Tables
    5. 2.4 Truth Tables for the Conditional and Biconditional
    6. 2.5 Equivalent Statements
    7. 2.6 De Morgan’s Laws
    8. 2.7 Logical Arguments
    9. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  4. 3 Real Number Systems and Number Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Prime and Composite Numbers
    3. 3.2 The Integers
    4. 3.3 Order of Operations
    5. 3.4 Rational Numbers
    6. 3.5 Irrational Numbers
    7. 3.6 Real Numbers
    8. 3.7 Clock Arithmetic
    9. 3.8 Exponents
    10. 3.9 Scientific Notation
    11. 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences
    12. 3.11 Geometric Sequences
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  5. 4 Number Representation and Calculation
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Hindu-Arabic Positional System
    3. 4.2 Early Numeration Systems
    4. 4.3 Converting with Base Systems
    5. 4.4 Addition and Subtraction in Base Systems
    6. 4.5 Multiplication and Division in Base Systems
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  6. 5 Algebra
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Algebraic Expressions
    3. 5.2 Linear Equations in One Variable with Applications
    4. 5.3 Linear Inequalities in One Variable with Applications
    5. 5.4 Ratios and Proportions
    6. 5.5 Graphing Linear Equations and Inequalities
    7. 5.6 Quadratic Equations with Two Variables with Applications
    8. 5.7 Functions
    9. 5.8 Graphing Functions
    10. 5.9 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables
    11. 5.10 Systems of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    12. 5.11 Linear Programming
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  7. 6 Money Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Understanding Percent
    3. 6.2 Discounts, Markups, and Sales Tax
    4. 6.3 Simple Interest
    5. 6.4 Compound Interest
    6. 6.5 Making a Personal Budget
    7. 6.6 Methods of Savings
    8. 6.7 Investments
    9. 6.8 The Basics of Loans
    10. 6.9 Understanding Student Loans
    11. 6.10 Credit Cards
    12. 6.11 Buying or Leasing a Car
    13. 6.12 Renting and Homeownership
    14. 6.13 Income Tax
    15. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  8. 7 Probability
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Multiplication Rule for Counting
    3. 7.2 Permutations
    4. 7.3 Combinations
    5. 7.4 Tree Diagrams, Tables, and Outcomes
    6. 7.5 Basic Concepts of Probability
    7. 7.6 Probability with Permutations and Combinations
    8. 7.7 What Are the Odds?
    9. 7.8 The Addition Rule for Probability
    10. 7.9 Conditional Probability and the Multiplication Rule
    11. 7.10 The Binomial Distribution
    12. 7.11 Expected Value
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  9. 8 Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gathering and Organizing Data
    3. 8.2 Visualizing Data
    4. 8.3 Mean, Median and Mode
    5. 8.4 Range and Standard Deviation
    6. 8.5 Percentiles
    7. 8.6 The Normal Distribution
    8. 8.7 Applications of the Normal Distribution
    9. 8.8 Scatter Plots, Correlation, and Regression Lines
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  10. 9 Metric Measurement
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 The Metric System
    3. 9.2 Measuring Area
    4. 9.3 Measuring Volume
    5. 9.4 Measuring Weight
    6. 9.5 Measuring Temperature
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  11. 10 Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Points, Lines, and Planes
    3. 10.2 Angles
    4. 10.3 Triangles
    5. 10.4 Polygons, Perimeter, and Circumference
    6. 10.5 Tessellations
    7. 10.6 Area
    8. 10.7 Volume and Surface Area
    9. 10.8 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  12. 11 Voting and Apportionment
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Voting Methods
    3. 11.2 Fairness in Voting Methods
    4. 11.3 Standard Divisors, Standard Quotas, and the Apportionment Problem
    5. 11.4 Apportionment Methods
    6. 11.5 Fairness in Apportionment Methods
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  13. 12 Graph Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Graph Basics
    3. 12.2 Graph Structures
    4. 12.3 Comparing Graphs
    5. 12.4 Navigating Graphs
    6. 12.5 Euler Circuits
    7. 12.6 Euler Trails
    8. 12.7 Hamilton Cycles
    9. 12.8 Hamilton Paths
    10. 12.9 Traveling Salesperson Problem
    11. 12.10 Trees
    12. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  14. 13 Math and...
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Math and Art
    3. 13.2 Math and the Environment
    4. 13.3 Math and Medicine
    5. 13.4 Math and Music
    6. 13.5 Math and Sports
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  15. A | Co-Req Appendix: Integer Powers of 10
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  17. Index

Chapter Review

Algebraic Expressions

1 .
Translate from algebra to words: 2 x + 3
2 .
Translate from words to algebra: the quotient of 5 x and 7.
3 .
Translate from an English phrase to an expression: A gym charges $5.00 per class c and a $20 membership fee.
4 .
Use parentheses to make the following statement true: 2 2 ÷ + 5 4 × 3 = 5
5 .
Evaluate and simplify x 2 5 x when x = 5 .
6 .
Perform the indicated operation for the expression: ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1 ) + ( x 2 2 x + 2 ( x 2 3 x + 11 )

Linear Equations in One Variable with Applications

7 .
Solve the linear equations using a general strategy: 3 x 7 = 8
8 .
Solve the linear equations using properties of equations: ( 5 x 3 ) + 7 = 9 x 2 ( x + 7 )
9 .
It costs 30 cents for an ear of corn. Construct a linear equation and solve how much it costs to buy 23 ears of corn.
10 .
State whether the following equation has exactly one solution, no solution, or infinitely many solutions 5 x + 4 = 7 x 14
11 .
Solve the formula A = ( b 1 + b 2 ) 2 h for b 1

Linear Inequalities in One Variable with Applications

12 .
Graph the inequality x > 8 on a number line and write the interval notation.
13 .
Solve the inequality 2 x < 6 , graph the solution on the number line, and write the solution in interval notation.
14 .
Construct a linear inequality to solve the application: Daniel wants to surprise his girlfriend with a birthday party at her favorite restaurant. It will cost $42.75 per person for dinner, including tip and tax. His budget for the party is $500. What is the maximum number of people Daniel can have at the party?

Ratio and Proportions

Christer opened a bag of marbles and counted the number of each color. They found they had 9 green, 4 yellow, 13 black, 11 orange, 8 blue, and 7 red.
15 .
What is the ratio of green marbles to orange marbles?
16 .
What is the ratio of red marbles to blue marbles?
17 .
What is the ratio of sum of the marbles with an odd number of marbles to the sum of the marbles with an even number of marbles?
18 .
What is the ratio of black marbles to all marbles?
19 .
Solve: 7 21 = 21 x
20 .
Basil the cat is 17 pounds and 24 inches long from head to tail. In his new movie Claws, he is supersized to 50 pounds. How many inches long will he be? Round your answer to the nearest tenth.

Graphing Linear Equations and Inequalities

21 .
For each ordered pair, decide:
  1. Is the ordered pair a solution to the equation?
  2. Is the point on the line in the graph shown?
y = 1 3 x + 2
A:  ( 0 , 3 ) B:  ( 3 , 1 ) ; C:  ( 2 , 4 ) ; D:  ( 0 , 2 ) A line is plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 9, in increments of 1. The line passes through the points, (negative 6, 0), (0, 2), and (6, 4).
22 .
Graph y = 1 2 x + 5 by plotting points.
23 .
Determine whether each ordered pair is a solution to the inequality y > 2 x + 3.
A:  ( 0 , 0 ) B:  ( 2 , 1 ) C:  ( 1 , 5 ) D:  ( 6 , 3 ) E:  ( 1 , 0 )
24 .
Write the inequality shown by the graph with the boundary line y = 7 x 5 . A line is plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 9, in increments of 1. The line passes through the points, (negative 1, negative 10), (0, negative 5), (1, 2), and (2, 9). The region to the right of the line is shaded. Note: all values are approximate.
25 .
Graph the linear inequality: y < 1 3 x + 7 .

Quadratic Equations with Two Variables with Applications

26 .
Multiply ( 3 x 1 ) ( x + 7 ) .
27 .
Factor x 2 + 8 x 9 .
28 .
Graph and list the solutions to the quadratic equation x 2 + 11 x + 18 = 0 .
29 .
Solve x 2 + 7 x + 12 = 15 x 3 by factoring.
30 .
Solve 169 x 2 = 25 using the square root method.
31 .
Solve x 2 + 7 x + 3 = 0 using the quadratic formula.
32 .
The height in feet, h , of an object shot upwards into the air with initial velocity, v 0 , after t seconds is given by the formula h = 16 t 2 + v 0 t . A firework is shot upwards with initial velocity 130 feet per second. How many seconds will it take to reach a height of 260 feet? Round to the nearest tenth of a second.

Functions

33 .
Evaluate the function f ( x ) = x 2 3 x + 21 at the values f ( 2 ) , f ( 1 ) , f ( 0 ) , ( 1 ) , and f ( 2 ) .
34 .
Determine whether { ( 2 , 31 ) , ( 1 , 25 ) , ( 1 , 19 ) , ( 2 , 19 ) } represents a function.
35 .
Determine whether the mappings represent a function:
Mapping of two sets of values. Mapping infers the following data: 0, negative 2; 1, 1; negative 2, 4, and 3.
36 .
Determine whether 5 x 2 + 2 y 2 = 10 represent y as a function of x .
37 .
Use the vertical line test to determine if the graph represents a function.
Two functions are graphed on a coordinate plane. The horizontal axis ranges from negative 14 to 5, in increments of 1. The vertical axis ranges from negative 9 to 10, in increments of 1. The first function passes through the points, (negative 13, 7.5), (negative 10, 4.5), (negative 6, 0), (negative 10, negative 4.5), and (negative 13, negative 7.5). The second function passes through the points, (4, 9.5), (0, 5.5), (negative 5, 0), (0, negative 5.5), and (4, negative 9.5). Note: all values are approximate.
38 .
Use the set of ordered pairs to find the domain and the range.
{ ( 3 , 9 ) , ( 2 , 4 ) , ( 1 , 1 ) , ( 0 , 0 ) , ( 1 , 1 ) , ( 2 , 4 ) , ( 3 , 9 ) }
39 .
Use the graph shown to find the domain and the range.
Eight points are plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 10, in increments of 1. The points are plotted at the following coordinates: (negative 5, 0), (negative 4, 1), (negative 3, 2), (negative 2, 3), (negative 1, 4), (0, 5), (1, 6), and (2, 7).

Graphing Functions

40 .
Find the x - and y -intercepts on the graph.
A line is plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 10, in increments of 1. The line passes through the points, (0, negative 8), (4, 0), and (8, 8).
41 .
Graph y = 3 x 3 using the intercepts.
42 .
Find the slope of the line in the graph shown.
A line is plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 10, in increments of 1. The line passes through the points, (negative 8, negative 7), (0, negative 3), (6, 0), and (8, 1).
43 .
Use the slope formula to find the slope of the line between (2, 4) and (5, 7).
44 .
Identify the slope and y -intercept of 2 y = 2 3 x + 10 .
45 .
Graph the line of 2 y = 2 3 x 4 using its slope and y -intercept.
The equation P = 28 + 2.54 w models the relation between the monthly water bill payment, P , in dollars, and the number of units of water, w , used.
46 .
Find the payment for a month when 0 units of water were used.
47 .
Find the payment for a month when 15 units of water were used.
48 .
Interpret the slope and P -intercept of the equation.
49 .
Graph the equation.

System of Linear Equations in Two Variables

50 .
Determine if (0, 1) and (2, 3) are solutions to the given system of equations.
{ x 2 y = 0 3 x y = 5
51 .
Solve the system of equations by graphing.
{ y = 3 x + 1 6 x y = 2
52 .
Solve the system of equations by substitution.
{ y = 7 x + 2 3 x y = 6
53 .
Solve the systems of equations by elimination.
{ 5 x + y = 15 3 x + y = 17
54 .
Kenneth currently sells suits for company A at a salary of $22,000 plus a $10 commission for each suit sold. Company B offers him a position with a salary of $28,000 plus a $4 commission for each suit sold. How many suits would Kenneth need to sell for the options to be equal?

Systems of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

55 .
Determine whether (0, 0) and (2, 3) are solutions to the system.
{ 3 x + y > 5 2 x y 10
56 .
Determine whether (0, 0) and (6, –8) are solutions to the darkest shaded region of the graph.
Two dashed lines are plotted on a coordinate plane. The horizontal and vertical axes range from negative 10 to 10, in increments of 1. The first line passes through the points, (negative 6, 9), (0, 3), (3, 0), and (8, negative 5). The second line passes through the points, (negative 10, negative 8), (0, negative 1.5), (2.5, 0), and (9, 4.4). The two lines intersect at (2.8, 0.4). The region within the lines and to the left of the intersection point is shaded in gray. The region within the lines and to the right of the intersection point is shaded in dark blue. The region within the lines and below the intersection point is shaded in light blue. Note: all values are approximate.
57 .
Solve the systems of linear equations by graphing.
{ y < 3 x + 1 6 x y 2
Jocelyn desires to increase both her protein consumption and caloric intake. She desires to have at least 35 more grams of protein each day and no more than an additional 200 calories daily. An ounce of cheddar cheese has 7 grams of protein and 110 calories. An ounce of parmesan cheese has 11 grams of protein and 22 calories.
58 .
Write a system of inequalities to model this situation.
59 .
Graph the system.
60 .
Could she eat 1 ounce of cheddar cheese and 3 ounces of parmesan cheese?
61 .
Could she eat 2 ounces of cheddar cheese and 1 ounce of parmesan cheese?

Linear Programming

A toy maker makes two plastic toys, the Ring ( x ) and the Stick ( y ). The toy maker makes $4 per Ring and $6 per Stick. The Ring uses 3 feet of plastic, while the Stick uses 5 feet of plastic. Today the toy maker has 40 feet of plastic available. The toy maker also only makes 10 plastic toys per day. To maximize profit, how many of each toy should the toy maker make?
62 .
Find the objective function.
63 .
Write the constraints as a system of inequalities.
64 .
Graph of the system of inequalities.
65 .
Find the value of the objective function at each corner point of the graphed region.
66 .
To maximize his profit, how many of each toy should the toymaker make?
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