Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Key Terms

11.1 Voting Methods

  • majority
  • plurality
  • runoff election
  • runoff voting system
  • two-round system
  • Hare Method
  • preference ranking
  • ranked ballot
  • ranked-choice voting (RCV)
  • instant runoff voting (IRV)
  • Borda count method
  • Borda score
  • Compromise candidate
  • divisive candidate
  • pairwise comparison method
  • Condorcet voting methods
  • Condorcet candidate
  • approval voting system
  • approval voting ballot
  • spoiler

11.2 Fairness in Voting Methods

  • majority criterion
  • tyranny of the majority
  • Condorcet criterion
  • Condorcet method
  • monotonicity criterion
  • up-rank
  • down-rank
  • independence of irrelevant alternatives criterion (IIA)
  • Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem
  • cardinal voting system

11.3 Standard Divisors, Standard Quotas, and the Apportionment Problem

  • apportion
  • apportionment problem
  • proportional
  • part-to-part ratio
  • representative democracies
  • standard divisor
  • states
  • seats
  • house size
  • state population
  • total population
  • standard quota

11.4 Apportionment Methods

  • apportionment problem
  • lower quota
  • upper quota

11.5 Fairness in Apportionment Methods

  • apportionment paradox
  • Alabama paradox
  • reapportionment
  • population growth rate
  • population paradox
  • new-state paradox
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Dec 21, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.